# Fault Models for Quantum Mechanical Switching Networks

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## Abstract

In classical test and verification one develops a test set separating a correct circuit from a circuit containing any considered fault. Classical faults are modelled at the logical level by fault models that act on classical states. The stuck fault model, thought of as a lead connected to a power rail or to a ground, is most typically considered. A classical test set complete for the stuck fault model propagates both binary basis states, 0 and 1, through all nodes in a network and is known to detect many physical faults. A classical test set complete for the stuck fault model allows all circuit nodes to be completely tested and verifies the function of many gates. It is natural to ask if one may adapt any of the known classical methods to test quantum circuits. Of course, classical fault models do not capture all the logical failures found in quantum circuits. The first obstacle faced when using methods from classical test is developing a set of realistic quantum-logical fault models (a question which we address, but will likely remain largely open until the advent of the first quantum computer). Developing fault models to abstract the test problem away from the device level motivated our study. Several results are established. First, we describe typical modes of failure present in the physical design of quantum circuits. From this we develop fault models for quantum binary quantum circuits that enable testing at the logical level. The application of these fault models is shown by adapting the classical test set generation technique known as constructing a fault table to generate quantum test sets. A test set developed using this method will detect each of the considered faults.

## Keywords

Testing Fault modeling Diagnostics Error-checking Reversible computers Quantum computers Formal test and verification## Notes

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