Mental Health Disorders and Their Relationship with Work-Family Conflict in Upper Egypt
- 34 Downloads
Data for mental health disorders and its relation to work and family issues in Egypt are scarce. We conducted this cross-sectional study among 1021 participants aged 18–59 years from Minia, Upper Egypt to measure the prevalence of mental health disorders and their associations with work-family conflict. Mental disorders were assessed by the Mini International Neuropsychiatry Interview (MINI-Plus) diagnostic interview and work-family conflict was assessed by the National Study of Midlife Development in the US. Work-to-family conflict (WFC) was associated with a 5.2% increase in the probability of mental health disorders; the multivariable-adjusted OR (95% CI) in subjects with high versus low WFC was 2.26 (1.18–4.34). On the other hand, there was a 2.0% increase in the probability of mental health disorders with high family-to-work conflict (FWC); OR (95% CI) was 1.37 (0.78–2.41). One point increment in the total score of work-family conflict was associated with a 3.4% increased probability for having a mental health disorder. The highest probabilities for having mental disorders were found among participants whose jobs require a lot of travel away from home (3.4%) or take much energy (3.5%) and among those whose family activities stop them from getting the amount of sleep needed to do their jobs (3.4%).
KeywordsWork-family conflict Mental health disorders Egypt
The author would extend thanks to the fourth grade medical students in Minia University who have helped in data collection.
No specific funds were received for this work.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The author declares that he has no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in this study were in accordance with the Helsinki declaration and was approved by Minia University research ethics committee.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
- Barmola, K.C. (2013). Family environment, mental health and academic performance of adolescents. International Journal of Scientific Research, 2277–8179, 531–533. https://doi.org/10.15373/22778179/dec2013/169
- Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics (CAPMAS) (2017). Annual statistical book of 2017. http://www.t-series.capmas.gov.eg/pdf/book_year/YearBook_1910.pdf
- Chandola, T., Martikainen, P., Bartley, M., Lahelma, E., Marmot, M., Michikazu, S., et al. (2004). Does conflict between home and work explain the effect of multiple roles on mental health? A comparative study of Finland, Japan, and the UK. International Journal of Epidemiology, 33, 884–893. https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyh155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Eshak, E. S., Iso, H., Honjo, K., Noda, A., Sawada, N., Tsugane, S., et al. (2017). Changes in the living arrangement and risk of stroke in Japan; does it matter who lives in the household? Who among the family matters? PLoS ONE, 12(4), e0173860. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0173860.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Frone, M. R., Russell, M., & Cooper, L. (1997). Relation of work-to-family conflict to health outcomes: A four-year longitudinal study of employed parents. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 70, 325–335. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8325.1997.tb00652.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ghanem, M. (1999, March). Development and validation of the Arabic version of the mini international neuropsychiatry interview (MINI). Paper presented at the Annual International Conference of the Egyptian Psychiatric Association, Cairo, pp.24–26.Google Scholar
- Ghanem, M. (2004). Psychiatric services and activities in the ministry of health and population. Journal of the Egyptian Psychiatric Association, 23(2), 16–9. Retrieved from http://new.ejpsy.eg.net/aboutus.asp
- Ghanem, M., Gadallah, M., Meky, F.A., Mourad, S., El-Kholy, G. (2009). National survey of prevalence of mental disorders in Egypt: preliminary survey. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, 15(1), 65–75. http://www.who.int/iris/handle/10665/117609
- Grzywacz, J. G., & Marks, N. F. (2000). Reconceptualizing the work-family interface: an ecological perspective on the correlates of positive and negative spillover between work and family. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 5, 111–126. https://doi.org/10.1037//I076-89184.108.40.206I.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hammer, L. B., Cullen, J. C., Neal, M. B., Sinclair, R. R., & Shafiro, M. V. (2005). The longitudinal effects of work-family conflict and positive spillover on depressive symptoms among dual-earner couples. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 10, 138–154. https://doi.org/10.1037/1076-89220.127.116.11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Huang, Y. H., Hammer, L. B., Neal, M. B., et al. (2004). The relationship between work-to-family conflict and family-to-work conflict: A longitudinal study. Journal of Family and Economic Issues, 25, 79. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:JEEI.0000016724.76936.a1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Okasha, A., Karam, E., Okasha, T. (2012). Mental health services in the Arab world. World Psychiatry, 11(1),52–4. https://www.jstor.org/stable/41858461
- Panatik, S. A. B., Badri, S. K. Z., Rajab, A., AbdulRahman, H., & Shah, I. M. (2011). The impact of work family conflict on psychological well-being among school teachers in Malaysia. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 29, 1500–1507. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.11.390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ricz, J. (2019). New developmental experiments in two emerging economies: Lessons from Brazil and Egypt. In T. Gerőcs & M. Szanyi (Eds.), Market liberalism and economic patriotism in the capitalist world-system., International Political Economy Series Cham: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
- Sheehan, D.V., Lecrubier, Y., Sheehan, K.H., Amorim, P., Janavs, J., Weiller, E., et al. (1998). The mini international neuropsychiatry interview (MINI): The development and validation of a structured diagnostic psychiatric interview for DSM-IV and ICD-10. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 59 Suppl 20, 22–33; quiz 34-57. Retrieved from https://www.psychiatrist.com/jcp/Pages/home.aspx
- Shimazu, A., Kubota, K., Bakker, A., Demerouti, E., Shimada, K., & Kawakami, N. (2013). Work-to-family conflict and family-to-work conflict among Japanese dual-earner couples with preschool children: A spillover-crossover perspective. Journal of Occupational Health, 55(4), 234–243. https://doi.org/10.1539/joh.12-0252-oa.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Steel, Z., Marnane, C., Iranpour, C., Chey, T., Jackson, J. W., Patel, V., et al. (2014). The global prevalence of common mental disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis 1980–2013. International Journal of Epidemiology, 43(2), 476–493. https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyu038.CrossRefGoogle Scholar