Skip to main content

Advertisement

Log in

Factors that Determine the Use of Flexible Work Arrangement Practices in Spain

  • Original Paper
  • Published:
Journal of Family and Economic Issues Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

Despite the great significance attributed in recent years to flexible work arrangement practices the factors that determine their use are not clear. Drawing on data from a representative sample of workers in Spain, this article shed light on how personal, work, and firm characteristics explain the use of flexible work arrangement practices. Despite general similarity in terms of flexible work arrangement practices strategy, employee characteristics provide the most comprehensive account of the use of part-time work. People with more family responsibilities are those that use more this practice. However, work characteristics enable the most complete profile-description of workers using flexible work arrangement practices. Work characteristics, such as position or high-performance work practices, determine the use of timetable flexibility, timetable set by self, work from home and days off.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  • Anderson, S. E., Coffey, B. S., & Byerly, R. T. (2002). Formal organizational initiatives and informal workplace practices: Links to work–family conflict and job-related outcomes. Journal of Management, 28(6), 787–810. doi:10.1177/014920630202800605.

    Google Scholar 

  • Appelbaum, E., Bailey, T., Berg, P., & Kalleberg, A. (2000). Manufacturing advantage: Why high-performance work systems pay off?. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Arthur, M. (2003). Share price reactions to work–family initiatives: An institutional perspective. Academy of Management Journal, 46(4), 497–505. doi:10.2307/30040641.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Batt, R., & Valcour, P. M. (2003). Human resources practices as predictors of work–family outcomes and employee turnover. Industrial Relations, 42(2), 189–220. doi:10.1111/1468-232X.00287.

    Google Scholar 

  • Beauregard, T. A., & Henry, L. C. (2009). Making the link between work-life balance practices and organizational performance. Human Resource Management Review, 19(1), 9–22. doi:10.1016/j.hrmr.2008.09.001.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bloom, N., Kretschmer, T., & Van Reene, J. V. (2011). Are family–friendly workplace practices a valuable firm resource? Strategic Management Journal, 32(4), 343–367. doi:10.1002/smj.879.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bosch, G., & Wagner, A. (2003). Service societies in Europe and reasons for service employment growth. Kølner Zeitschrift fur Soziologie and Sozialpsychologie, 55(3), 475–499.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Brough, P., Holt, J., Bauld, R., Biggs, A., & Ryan, C. (2008). The ability of work-life balance policies to influence key social/organisational issues. Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources, 46(3), 261–274. doi:10.1177/1038411108095758.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Budd, J. W., & Mumford, K. A. (2004). Trade unions and family–friendly policies in Britain. Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 57(2), 204–222.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Budd, J. W., & Mumford, K. A. (2006). Family–friendly work practices in Britain: Availability and perceived accessibility. Human Resource Management, 45(1), 23–42. doi:10.1002/hrm.20091.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Burud, S., & Tumolo, M. (2004). Leveraging the new human capital: Adaptive strategies, results achieved and stories of transformation. Mountain View, CA: Davies-Black Publishing.

    Google Scholar 

  • Carrasquer, P., Masssó, M., & Artiles, M. A. (2005). Discurso y prácticas sobre la conciliación de la vida laboral y familiar en la negociación colectiva. Revista Universitaria de Ciencias del Trabajo, 6, 265–286.

    Google Scholar 

  • Chinchilla, N., Poelmans, S., & León, C. (2003). Políticas de conciliación trabajo-familia en 150 empresas españolas. Documento de Investigación no 498, IESE Business School, Barcelona.

  • Clark, S. C. (2000). Work/family border theory: A new theory of work/family balance. Human Relations, 53(6), 747–770. doi:10.1177/0018726700536001.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • De la Rica, S., & Ferrero, M. D. (2003). The effects of fertility on labour force participation: The Spanish evidence. Spanish Economic Review, 5, 153–172. doi:10.1007/s101080300059.

    Google Scholar 

  • De Laat, J., & Sevilla-Sanz, A. (2011). The fertility and women’s labor force participation puzzle in OECD Countries: The role of men’s home production. Feminist Economics, 17, 87–119. doi:10.1080/13545701.2011.573484.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • De Luis Carnicer, M. P., Martinez Sanchez, A., Pére Pérez, M., & Vela Jiménez, M. J. (2002). La flexibilidad de la empresa y la conciliación de la vida laboral y familiar. Boletín económico de ICE, 2741, 37–52.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dew, J. (2008). Themes and trends of Journal of Family and Economic Issues: A review of twenty years (1988–2007). Journal of Family and Economic Issues, 29, 496–540. doi:10.1007/s10834-008-9118-7.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dex, S., & Smith, C. (2002). The nature pattern of family friendly employment policies in Britain. United Kingdom: The Policy Press and Joseph Rowntree Foundation.

    Google Scholar 

  • DiMaggio, P. J., & Powell, W. W. (1983). The iron cage revisited: Institutional isomorphism and collective rationality in organizational fields. American Sociological Review, 48(2), 147–160. doi:10.1016/S0742-3322(00)17011-1.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Escot, L., Fernández-Cornejo, J. A., Lafuente, C., & Poza, C. (2012). Willingness of Spanish men to take maternity leave. Do firms` strategies for reconciliation impinge on this? Sex Roles, 67, 29–42. doi:10.1007/s11199-012-0142-6.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Eurofound. (2006). Fourth European working conditions survey. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.

    Google Scholar 

  • Evans, J. (2001). Firms’ contribution to the reconciliation between work and family life. OECD Labor Market and Social Policy Occasional Papers no 48. doi: 10.1787/344836028454.

  • Ezra, M., & Deckman, M. (1996). Balancing work and family responsibilities: Flextime and child care in the federal government. Public Administration Review, 56, 174–179. doi:10.2307/977205.

  • Fernández-Kranz, D., & Rodríguez-Planas, N. (2011). Unintended effects of a family–friendly law in a segmented labor market. IZA Discussion Paper, No. 5709. Retrieved from http://www.iza.org/en/webcontent/publications/papers/viewAbstract?dp_id=5709.

  • Ferrer, A., & Gagné, L. (2006). The use of family friendly workplace practices in Canada. IRPP Working Paper Series, No. 2006-02, Institute for Research on Public Policy. Retrieved from http://archive.irpp.org/wp/archive/wp2006-02.pdf.

  • Frye, N. K., & Breaugh, J. A. (2004). Family-friendly policies, supervisor support, work–family conflict, and satisfaction: A test of a conceptual model. Journal of Business and Psychology, 19, 197–220. doi:10.1007/s10869-004-0548-4.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • García-Román, J. (2011). Consecuencias en el tiempo familiar del auge de las parejas de doble ingreso. Un análisis a partir de la Encuesta de Empleo del Tiempo, 2009–2010. Papers de Demografía, 370, 1–26.

  • Glass, J. L., & Finley, A. (2002). Coverage and effectiveness of family-responsive workplace policies. Human Resource Management Review, 12(3), 313–337. doi:10.1016/S1053-4822(02)00063-3.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Golden, L. (2001). Flexible work schedules: what are we trading off to get them?Monthly Labor Review, 124(3), 50–67. Retrieved from http://www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2001/03/art3full.pdf.

  • Goñi-Legaz, S., Ollo-López, A., & Bayo-Moriones, A. (2010). The division of household labor in Spanish dual earner couples: Testing three theories. Sex Roles, 63(7–8), 515–529. doi:10.1007/s11199-010-9840-0.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Goodstein, J. D. (1994). Institutional pressures and strategic responsiveness: Employer involvement in work-family issues. Academy of Management Journal, 37(2), 350–382. doi:10.2307/256833.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Greenhaus, J., & Parasuraman, S. (1999). Research on work, family and gender: Current status and future directions. In G. Powell (Ed.), Handbook of gender and work (pp. 391–412). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Haddock, S. A., Zimmerman, T. S., & Lyness, K. P. (2006). Practices of dual-earner couples successfully balancing work and family. Journal of Family and Economic Issues, 27(2), 207–234. doi:10.1007/s10834-006-9014-y.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hank, K., & Jürges, H. (2007). Gender and the division of household labor in older couples. Journal of Family and Economic Issues, 28, 399–421. doi:10.1177/0192513X06296427.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Heywood, J., Siebert, W.S., & Wei, X. (2011). Estimating the use of agency workers: can family-friendly practices reduce their use? Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society, 50(3), 535–564. doi:10.1111/j.1468-232X.2011.00645.x.

  • Hill, E.J., Erickson, J.J, Fellows, K.J., Martinengo, G., & Allen, S.M. (2012). Work and family over the life course: Do older workers differ? Journal of Family and Economic Issues, Online first. doi: 10.1007/s10834-012-9346-8.

  • Hyman, J., & Summers, J. (2004). Lacking balance? Work-life employment practices in the modern economy. Personal Review, 33(4), 418–429. doi:10.1108/00483480410539498.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • ILO (2004). Making work arrangement more family–friendly. Information sheet No. WF-5 mayo 2004, International Labour Organization.

  • INE. (2011). Nivel de estudios de la población adulta (de 25 a 64 años). https://www.mecd.gob.es/dctm/ievaluacion/indicadores/2007/c42007.pdf?documentId=0901e72b8011b5d4.

  • Inglehart, R. (1997). Modernization and postmodernization—Cultural, economic and political change in 43 societies. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Inglehart, R., & Norris, P. (2003). Rising TideGender equality and cultural change around the world. NewYork, NY: Cambridge University Press.

  • Ingram, P., & Simons, T. (1995). Institutional and resource dependence determinants of responsiveness to work–family issues. Academy of Management Journal, 38(5), 1466–1487. doi:10.2307/256866.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Instituto de la Mujer (2005). Conciliación de la vida familiar y la vida laboral: Situación actual, necesidades y demandas. Madrid, España: Rumagraf, S.A.

  • Jokinen, K., & Kuronen, M. (2011). Research on families and family policies in Europe—Major trends. In U. Uhlendorff, M. Rupp & M. Euteneuer (Eds.),Wellbeing of families in Europe. Challenges for research and policy (pp. 13–118). Brussels: Family Platform.

  • Jones, W. M., & McKenna, J. (2002). Women and work—home conflict: A dual paradigm approach. Health Education, 102, 1–15. doi:10.1108/09654280210444128.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kawaguchi, A. (2007). Work-life balance measures and gender division of labor. In A. Masson & M. Yamaguchi (Eds.), Population change, labor markets and sustainable growth: Towards a New Economic Paradigm (Contributions to Economic Analysis, Volume 281) (pp. 189–209). Elsevier Press.

  • Kjeldstad, R., & Nymoen, E. (2012). Part-time work and gender: Worker versus job explanations. International Labour Review, 151(1–2), 85–107. doi:10.1111/j.1564-913X.2012.00136.x.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Knudsen, K., & Waerness, K. (2009). Shared o separate? Money management and changing noms of gender equality among Norwegian couples. Commnunity, Work and Family, 12, 39–55. doi:10.1080/13668800802009406.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Konrad, A., & Mangel, R. (2000). The impact of work-life programs on firm productivity. Strategic Management Journal, 21(12), 1225–1237. doi:10.1002/1097-0266(200012)21:12<1225:AID-SMJ135>3.0.CO;2-3.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lapierre, L. M., & Allen, T. D. (2006). Work-supportive family, family-supportive supervision, use of organizational benefits and problem-focused coping: Implications for work–family conflict and employee well-being. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 11(2), 169–181. doi:10.1037/1076-8998.11.2.169.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • McMillan, H. S., Morris, M. L., & Atchley, E. K. (2011). Constructs of the work/life interface: A synthesis of the literature and introduction of the concept of work/life harmony. Human Resources Development Review, 10, 6–25. doi:10.1177/1534484310384958.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Meyer, J. W., & Rowen, B. (1977). Institutional organizations: Formal structure as myth and ceremony. American Journal of Sociology, 83(2), 340–363.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Moreno, A. (2005). Empleo de la mujer y familia en los regímenes de bienestar del sur de Europa en perspectiva comparada. Permanencia del modelo de varón sustentador. Revista Española de Investigaciones Sociológicas, 112, 131–163.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ollo-López, A., Bayo-Moriones, A., & Larraza-Kintana, M. (2010). The relationship between new work practices and employee effort. Journal of Industrial Relations, 52(2), 219–235. doi:10.1177/0022185609359446.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Osterman, P. (1995). Work/family programs and the employment relationship. Administrative Science Quarterly, 40(4), 681–700. doi:10.2307/2393758.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pichler, F. (2009). Determinants of work-life balance: Shortcomings in the contemporary measurement of WLB in large-scale surveys. Social Indicators Research, 92(3), 449–469. doi:10.1007/s11205-008-9297-5.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Plantenga, J., & Remery, Ch. (2010). Flexible working time arrangements and gender equality. A Comparative review of 30 European countries. Luxembourg: Publication Office of the European Union.

  • Ramsay, H., Scholarios, D., & Harley, B. (2000). Employees and high performance work systems: Testing inside the black box. British Journal of Industrial Relations, 38(4), 501–531. doi:10.1111/1467-8543.00178.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Roehling, P. V., Roehling, M. V., & Moen, P. (2001). The relationship between work-life policies and practices and employee loyalty: A life course perspective. Journal of Family and Economic Issues, 22(2), 141–170. doi:10.1023/A:1016630229628.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rogier, S. A., & Padgett, M. Y. (2004). The impact of utilizing a flexible work schedule on the perceived career advancement potential of women. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 15, 89–106. doi:10.1002/hrdq.1089.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Secret, M. (2000). Identifying the family, job and workplace characteristics of employees who use work-family benefits. Family Relations, 49(2), 217–225. doi:10.1111/j.1741-3729.2000.00217.x.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Swody, C. A., & Powel, G. M. (2007). Determinants of employee participation in organizations’ family–friendly programs: A multi-level approach. Journal of Business Psychology, 22, 111–122. doi:10.1007/s10869-007-9057-6.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tausig, M., & Fenwick, R. (2001). Unbinding time: Alternate work schedules and work-life balance. Journal of Family and Economic Issues, 22(2), 101–119. doi:10.1023/A:1016626028720.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Voicu, M., Voicu, B., & Strapcova, K. (2009). Housework and gender inequality in European countries. European Sociological Review, 25(3), 365–377. doi:10.1093/esr/jcn054.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Warren, T., Fox, E., & Pascall, G. (2009). Innovative social policies: Implications for work-life balance among low-waged women in England. Gender, Work and Organization, 16(1), 126–150. doi:10.1111/j.1468-0432.2008.00433.x.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • White, M., Hill, S., McGovern, P., Mills, C., & Smeaton, D. (2003). High performance management practices, working hours and work life balance. British Journal of Industrial Relations, 41(2), 175–195. doi:10.1111/1467-8543.00268.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wiesman, S., Boeije, H., Van Doorne-Huiskes, A., & Den Dulk, L. (2008). Not worth mentioning: The implicit and explicit nature of decision-making about the division of paid and domestic work. Community, Work & Family, 11(4), 341–363. doi:10.1080/13668800802361781.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wood, S., & Albanese, M. T. (1999). Can we speak of a High Commitment Management on the shop floor? Journal of Management Studies, 32(2), 215–247. doi:10.1111/j.1467-6486.1995.tb00341.x.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wood, S. J., Menezes, L. M., & Lasaosa, A. (2003). Family–friendly management in Great Britain: Testing various perspectives. Industrial Relations, 42(2), 221–249. doi:10.1111/1468-232X.00288.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

This research was supported by the Spanish Ministry of SEC2007-67737-C03-02/ECON awarded to Salomé Goñi Legaz and ECO2010-213-93-C04-03 awarded to Andrea Ollo López. The authors acknowledge the helpful comments of the editor-in-chief of Journal of Family and Economic Issues, Elizabeth M. Dolan, and of the two anonymous reviewers.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Andrea Ollo-López.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Goñi-Legaz, S., Ollo-López, A. Factors that Determine the Use of Flexible Work Arrangement Practices in Spain. J Fam Econ Iss 36, 463–476 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10834-014-9408-1

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10834-014-9408-1

Keywords

Navigation