Gender, Nonstandard Work Schedules, and Marital Quality
- 614 Downloads
Relatively few studies have focused on the effects of working late and rotating shifts on marital dynamics. This study addressed the limitations of prior studies by sampling from a sector of the economy (i.e., grocery and drug store workers) where shift work and rotating schedules were common, and by controlling for numerous accompanying disruptive effects of shift work on marital quality. Results show that working late shifts reduces marital quality among men, whereas among women, job-family spillover explained away marital quality effects of working rotating schedules. These results suggest that more than men, women remain largely responsible for family life irrespective of work schedules, yet further research on how family lives are affected by work schedules is needed.
KeywordsGender Marital quality Nonstandard work schedules Shift work
This research was supported by grants to the first author from the National Science Foundation (SES-0615706) and the Charles Phelps Taft Research Center at the University of Cincinnati. We thank Rashawn Ray for his comments on an earlier version of this paper.
- Carsuso, C. C., Hitchcock, E. M., Dick, R. B., Russo, J. M., & Schmit, J. M. (2004). Overtime and extended work shifts: Recent findings on illnesses, injuries, and health behaviors. Cincinnati, OH: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health.Google Scholar
- DeMaris, A. (2000). Till discord do us part: the role of physical and verbal conflict in union disruption. Journal of Marriage and Family, 62, 683–692. http://www.jstor.org.proxy.libraries.uc.edu/stable/1566789.Google Scholar
- Deutsch, F. (1999). Halving it all: How equally shared parenting works. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
- Gornick, J. C., & Meyers, M. K. (2003). Families that work: Policies for reconciling parenthood and employment. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
- Greenstein, T. N. (1995). Gender ideology, marital disruption, and the employment of married women. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 57, 31–42. http://www.jstor.org.proxy.libraries.uc.edu/stable/353814.Google Scholar
- Grosswald, B. (2003). Shift work and negative work-to-family spillover. Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare, 30, 31–56.Google Scholar
- Grosswald, B. (2004). The effects of shift work on family satisfaction. Families in Society, 85, 413–423.Google Scholar
- Hochschild, A. R. (1997). The time bind: When work becomes home and home becomes work. New York: Metropolitan.Google Scholar
- Jacobs, J. A., & Gerson, K. (2004). The time divide: Work, family, and gender inequality. Cambridge, MA.: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
- Kalleberg, A. L. (2009). Precarious work, insecure workers: Employment relations in transition. American Sociological Review 74:1–22. http://www.jstor.org.proxy.libraries.uc.edu/stable/27736045.Google Scholar
- Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K., Fisher, L. D., Ogrocki, P., Stout, J. C., Speicher, C. E., & Glaser, R. (1987). Marital quality, marital disruption, and immune function. Psychosomatic Medicine, 49, 13–34.Google Scholar
- Maume, D. J., Sebastian, R. A., & Bardo, A. R. (2009). Gender differences in sleep disruption among retail food workers. American Sociological Review, 74, 989–1007. http://www.jstor.org.proxy.libraries.uc.edu/stable/27801504.
- McMenamin, T. M. (2007). A time to work: Recent trends in shift work and flexible schedules. Monthly Labor Review, 130, 3–15. http://search.proquest.com.proxy.libraries.uc.edu/docview/235645198?accountid=2909.
- Mills, M., & Tăht, K. (2010). Nonstandard work schedules and partnership quality: Quantitative and qualitative findings. Journal of Marriage and Family, 72, 860–875. http://search.proquest.com.proxy.libraries.uc.edu/docview/744221216?accountid=2909.
- Mott, P. L., Mann, F. C., McLoughlin, Q., & Warwick, D. P. (1965). Shift work: The social, psychological and physical consequences. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.Google Scholar
- Neckelmann, D., Mykletun, A., & Dahl, A. A. (2007). Chronic insomnia as a risk factor for developing anxiety and depression. Sleep, 30, 873–880.Google Scholar
- Presser, H. B. (2000). Nonstandard work schedules and marital instability. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 62, 93–110 http://www.jstor.org.proxy.libraries.uc.edu/stable/1566690.
- Presser, H. B. (2003). Working in a 24/7 economy: Challenges for American families. New York: Russell Sage.Google Scholar
- Risman, B. (1998). Gender vertigo. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
- Rogers, S. J., & Amato, P. R. (1997). Is marital quality declining? the evidence from two generations. Social Forces, 75, 1089–1100.Google Scholar
- Staines, G. L., & Pleck, J. H. (1983). The impact of work schedules on the family. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, Institute for Social Research.Google Scholar
- Tausig, M., & Fenwick, R. (2001). Unbinding time: Alternate work schedules and work-life balance. Journal of Family and Economic Issues, 22, 101–119. http://search.proquest.com.proxy.libraries.uc.edu/docview/197979087?accountid=2909.
- Townsend, N. W. (2002). The package deal: Marriage, work, and fatherhood in Men’s Lives. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
- White, L., & Keith, B. (1990). The effect of shift work on the quality and stability of marital relations. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 52, 453–62. http://www.jstor.org.proxy.libraries.uc.edu/stable/353039.
- Wickrama, K. A. S., Lorenz, F. O., Conger, R. D., & Elder, G. H. (1997). Marital quality and physical illness: A latent growth curve analysis. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 59, 143–55. http://www.jstor.org.proxy.libraries.uc.edu/stable/353668.Google Scholar
- Wight, V. R., Raley, S. B., & Bianchi, S. M. (2008). Time for children, one’s spouse, and oneself among parents who work nonstandard hours. Social Forces, 87, 243–72. http://www.jstor.org.proxy.libraries.uc.edu/stable/20430856.