Skip to main content

A Review of the Literature on the Social and Economic Determinants of Parental Time

Abstract

Parental time has been identified as a key determinant in the healthy development of a child. The literature on this topic has rapidly increased in recent years and has revealed large variations in the amount of time that parents devote to their children, including variations over time and across social and economic subgroups of the population. This paper synthesizes research devoted to parental time to provide a more succinct understanding of its significance and its variations. Beginning with the measurement issues associated with parental time research and the theoretical foundations, the paper goes on to document the social and economic determinants of parental time. It concludes with a discussion of the theoretical implications of the findings and suggestions for future research.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Notes

  1. There has been much discussion in the literature about this rationality assumption; however this debate is beyond the scope of this paper. Interested readers are referred to Folbre (1994) for a discussion of the criticism of this assumption. In addition, other authors have also criticized the unitary assumption, i.e. the assumption that there is only one unique set of preferences per household; for example preferences regarding time allocation made by the household as a single unit (Bergstrom 1997).

References

  • Abroms, L., & Goldscheider, F. (2002). More work for mother: How spouses, cohabiting partners and relatives affect the hours mothers work. Journal of Family and Economic Issues, 23, 147–166.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ahmeduzzaman, M., & Roopnarine, J. L. (1992). Sociodemographic factors, functioning style, social support, and fathers’ involvement with preschoolers in African -American families. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 54, 699–707.

    Google Scholar 

  • Aldous, J., Mulligan, G. M., & Bjarnason, T. (1998). Fathering over time: What makes the difference? Journal of Marriage & Family, 60, 809–820.

    Google Scholar 

  • Allen, S., & Hawkins, A. J. (1999). Maternal gate-keeping: Mothers’ beliefs and behaviors that inhibit greater father involvement in family work. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 61, 199–212.

    Google Scholar 

  • Aman-Back, S., & Bjorkqvist, K. (2004). Parents’ assessments of how much time they spend with their children at different ages. Psychological Reports, 94, 1025–1030.

    Google Scholar 

  • Barnett, R. C., & Baruch, G. K. (1987). Determinants of fathers’ participation in family work. Journal of Marriage & the Family, 49, 29.

    Google Scholar 

  • Barnett, R. C., & Baruch, G. K. (1988). Correlates of fathers’ participation in family work. In P. Bronstein & C. Pape Cowan (Eds.), Fatherhood today: Men’s changing role in the family (pp. 67–78). New York: John Wiley & Sons.

    Google Scholar 

  • Barnett, R. C., Brennan, R. T., & Marshall, N. L. (1994). Gender and the relationship between parent role quality and psychological distress. Journal of Family Issues, 15, 229–252.

    Google Scholar 

  • Baruch, G. K., & Barnett, R. C. (1981). Fathers’ participation in the care of their preschool children. Sex Roles, 7, 1043–1054.

    Google Scholar 

  • Baruch, G. K., & Barnett, R. C. (1986). Fathers’ participation in family work and children’s sex-role attitudes. Child Development, 57, 1210–1223.

    Google Scholar 

  • Baydar, N., Greek, A., & Gritz, M. R. (1999). Young mothers’ time spent at work and time spent caring for children. Journal of Family and Economic Issues, 20, 61–84.

    Google Scholar 

  • Becker, G. S. (1991). A treatise on the family. Harvard: Harvard University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Beitel, A. H., & Parke, R. D. (1998). Paternal involvement in infancy: The role of maternal and paternal attitudes. Journal of Family Psychology, 12, 268–288.

    Google Scholar 

  • Belsky, J. (1991). Parental and nonparental child care and children’s socioemotional development: A decade in review. In A. Booth (Ed.), Contemporary families: Looking forward, looking back (pp. 122–140). Minneapolis: National Council on Family Relations.

    Google Scholar 

  • Belsky, J., & Eggebeen, D. (1991). Early and extensive maternal employment and young children’s socioeconomic development: Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 53, 1083–1098.

    Google Scholar 

  • Belsky, J., & Volling, B. L. (1987). Mothering, fathering, and marital interaction in the family triad during infancy: Exploring family system’s process. In P. W. Berman & F. A. Pederson (Eds.), Men’s transitions to parenthood: Longitudinal studies of early family experiences (pp. 37–64). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bergstrom, T. (1997). A survey of theories of the family. In M. Rosenzweig & O. Stark (Eds.), Handbook of population economics (pp. 21–74). New York: North Holland.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bianchi, S. M. (2000). Maternal employment and time with children: Dramatic change or surprising continuity? Demography, 37, 401–414.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bianchi, S. M., Cohen, P. N., Raley, S., & Nomaguchi, K. (2004). Inequality in parental investment in child-rearing: Expenditures, time and health”. In K. M. Neckerman (Ed.), Social inequality (pp. 189–219). New York: Russell Sage.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bianchi, S. M., Milkie, M. A., Sayer, L. C., & Robinson, J. P. (2000). Is anyone doing the housework? Trends in the gender division of household labor. Social Forces, 79, 191–234.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bianchi, S. M., & Robinson, J. (1997). What did you do today? Children’s use of time, family composition, and the acquisition of social capital. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 59, 332–344.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bittman, M. (1999). Parenthood without penalty: Time use and public policy in Australia and Finland. Feminist Economics, 5(3), 27–42.

    Google Scholar 

  • Blair, S. L., & Lichter, D. T. (1991). Measuring the division of household labor. Journal of Family Issues, 12, 91–113.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bonney, J. F., Kelley, M. L., & Levant, R. F. (1999). A model of fathers’ behavioral involvement in childcare in dual-earner families. Journal of Family Psychology, 13, 401–415.

    Google Scholar 

  • Brayfield, A. (1995). Juggling jobs and kids: The impact of work schedules on fathers’ caring for children. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 57, 321–332.

    Google Scholar 

  • Brody, G., Pellegrini, A., & Sigel, L. (1986). Marital quality and mother–child and father–child interactions with school-aged children. Developmental Psychology, 22, 291–296.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bryant, K. (1992). Human capital, time use, and other family behavior. Journal of Family and Economic Issues, 13, 395–405.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bryant, W. K., & Zick, C. D. (1996). Are we investing less in the next generation? Historical trends in time spent caring for children. Journal of Family and Economic Issues, 17, 365–392.

    Google Scholar 

  • Budig, M. J., & Folbre, N. (2004). Activity, proximity, or responsibility? Measuring parental childcare time. In N. Folbre & M. Bittman (Eds.), Family time: The social organization of care (pp. 51–68). New York: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bulcroft, R. A., Cyr Carmody, D., & Bulcroft, K. A. (1996). Patterns of parental independence giving to adolescents: Variations by race, age, and gender of child. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 58, 866–883.

    Google Scholar 

  • Chalasani, S. (2007). The changing relationship between parents’ education and their time with children. Electronic International Journal for Time Use Research, 4, 93–117.

    Google Scholar 

  • Comer, D. R., & Stites-Doe, S. (2006). Antecedents and consequences of faculty women’s academic-parental role balancing. Journal of Family and Economic Issues, 27, 495–512.

    Google Scholar 

  • Connelly, R. & Kimmel, J. (2007). The role of nonstandard work hours in maternal caregiving for young children. IZA, Discussion Paper 3093.

  • Cooksey, E. C., & Fondell, M. M. (1996). Spending time with his kids: Effects of family structure on fathers’ and children’s lives. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 58, 693–707.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cowan, C., & Cowan, P. A. (1987). Man’s involvement in parenthood: Identifying the antecedents and understanding the barriers. In P. W. Berman & F. A. Pederson (Eds.), Men’s transitions to parenthood: Longitudinal studies of early family experiences (pp. 145–174). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

    Google Scholar 

  • Craig, L. (2006a). Does father care mean fathers share? A comparison of how mothers and fathers in intact families spend time with children. Gender and Society, 20, 259–281.

    Google Scholar 

  • Craig, L. (2006b). Parental education, time in paid work and time with children: An Australian time-diary analysis. The British Journal of Sociology, 57, 553–575.

    Google Scholar 

  • Craig, L. (2007). How employed mothers in Australia find time for both market work and childcare. Journal of Family and Economic Issues, 28, 69–87.

    Google Scholar 

  • Daly, K. J. (1996). Spending time with the kids: Meanings of family time for fathers. Family Relations, 45, 466–476.

    Google Scholar 

  • Darling-Fisher, C. S., & Tiedje, L. B. (1990). The Impact of maternal employment characteristics on fathers’ participation in childcare. Family Relations, 39, 20–26.

    Google Scholar 

  • Delgado, E., & Canabal, M. (2006). Factors associated with negative spillover from job to home among Latinos in the United States. Journal of Family and Economic Issues, 27, 92–112.

    Google Scholar 

  • DeLuccie, M. F. (1995). Mothers as gatekeepers: A model of maternal mediators of father involvement. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 152, 225–238.

    Google Scholar 

  • Demo, D. H., & Cox, M. J. (2000). Families with young children: A review of research in the 1990s. Journal of Marriage & the Family, 62, 876–895.

    Google Scholar 

  • DeStefano, L., & Colasanto, D. (1990, February). Unlike 1975, today most Americans think men have it better. The Gallup Poll Monthly, 25–36.

  • Deutsch, F. M., Lussier, J. B., & Servis, L. J. (1993). Husbands at home: Predictors of paternal participation in child care and housework. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 1154–1166.

    Google Scholar 

  • Douthitt, R. A., Zick, C. D., & McCullough, J. (1990). The role of economic and demographic factors in explaining time use of single and married mothers. Journal of Family and Economic Issues, 11, 23–51.

    Google Scholar 

  • Drago, R. (2001). Time on the job and time with their kids: Cultures of teaching and parenthood in the US. Feminist Economics, 7, 1–31.

    Google Scholar 

  • Elder, G. H. J., Conger, R. D., Foster, M. E., & Ardelt, M. (1992). Families under economic pressure. Journal of Family Issues, 13, 5–37.

    Google Scholar 

  • Elliott, M. (2003). Work and family role strain among university employees. Journal of Family and Economic Issues, 24, 157–181.

    Google Scholar 

  • Eriksen, J. A., Yancy, W. L., & Eriksen, E. P. (1979). The division of family roles. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 41, 301–303.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fedick, C. B., Pacholok, S., & Gauthier, A. H. (2005). Methodological issues in the estimation of parental time: Analysis of measures in a Canadian time-use survey. Electronic International Journal of Time Use Research, 2, 67–87.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fenstermaker, S. (1996). The dynamics of time use: Context and meaning. Journal of Family and Economic Issues, 17, 231–243.

    Google Scholar 

  • Finley, N. J. (1989). Theories of family labor as applied to gender differences in caregiving for elderly parents. Journal of Marriage & Family, 51, 79–86.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fisher, K., McCulloch, A., & Gershuny, J. (1999). British fathers and children: A Report for channel 4 dispatches, Retrieved October 8, 2005, from Institute for Social and Economic Research Website: http://www.iser.essex.ac.uk/press/doc/2000-12-15.pdf

  • Folbre, N. (1994). Who pays for the kids? Gender and the structures of constraint. New York: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Folbre, N., & Yoon, J. (2007). What is childcare? Lessons from time-use surveys of major English-speaking countries. Review of Economics of the Household, 5, 223–248.

    Google Scholar 

  • Folbre, N., Yoon, J., Finnoff, K., & Sidle Fuligni, A. (2005). By what measure? Family time devoted to children in the United States. Demography, 42, 373–390.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fuller, B., & Holloway, S. D. (1996). Family selection of child care centers: The Influence of household support, ethnicity, and parental practices. Child Development, 67, 3320–3337.

    Google Scholar 

  • Furstenberg, F. F., Jr., & Winquist Nord, C. (1985). Parenting apart: Patterns of childrearing after marital disruption. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 47, 893–904.

    Google Scholar 

  • Galinsky, E. (2000). Ask the children. New York: Quill.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gauthier, A. H., Smeeding, T. M., & Furstenberg, F. F., Jr. (2004). Are parents investing less time in children? Trends in selected industrialized countries. Population & Development Review, 30, 647–671.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gerson, K. (1993). No man’s land: Men’s changing commitments to family and work. New York: Basic Books.

    Google Scholar 

  • Goff Timmer, S., Eccles, J., & O’Brien, K. (1985). How children use time. In F. T. Juster &. F. P. Stafford (Ed.), Time, goods, and well-being (pp. 353–382). Ann Arbor, MI: Institute for Social Research.

  • Golden, L. (2008). Limited access: Disparities in flexible work schedules and work-at-home. Journal of Family and Economic Issues, 29, 86–109.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gornick, J. C., & Meyers, M. K. (2003). Families that work: Policies for reconciling parenthood and employment. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

    Google Scholar 

  • Grossman, F. K., Pollack, W. S., & Golding, E. (1988). Fathers and children: Predicting the quality and quantity of fathering. Developmental Psychology, 24, 82–91.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gunter, B. G., & Gunter, N. C. (1991). Inequities in household labor. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 6, 559–572.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gustavus Philliber, S., & Graham, E. H. (1981). The impact of age of mother on mother–child interaction patterns. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 43, 109–115.

    Google Scholar 

  • Haas, L. (1999). Families and work. In M. B. Sussman, S. K. Steinmetz, & G. W. Peterson (Eds.), Handbook of marriage and the family (pp. 571–612). New York: Plenum Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hallberg, D., & Klevmarken, A. (2003). Time for children: A study of parent’s time allocation. Journal of Population Economics, 16, 205–226.

    Google Scholar 

  • Harris, K., & Morgan, S. (1991). Fathers, sons, and daughters: Differential paternal involvement in parenting. Journal of Marriage & Family, 53, 531–544.

    Google Scholar 

  • Harvey, A. (1996). The measurement of household time allocation: Data needs, analytical approaches, and standardization. Journal of Family and Economic Issues, 17, 261–280.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hertz, R. (1997). A typology of approaches to childcare. Journal of Family Issues, 18, 355–385.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hertz, R., & Ferguson, F. I. T. (1996). Childcare choice and constraints in the United States: Social class, race and influence of family views. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 27, 249–280.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hill, J., Märtinson, V. K., Ferris, M., & Zenger Baker, R. (2004). Beyond the mommy track: The influence of new-concept part-time work for professional women on work and family. Journal of Family and Economic Issues, 25, 121–136.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hill, R. C., & Stafford, F. P. (1985). Parental care of children: Time diary estimates of quantity, predictability, and variety. In F. T. Juster & F. P. Stafford (Eds.), Time, goods, and well-being (pp. 415–437). Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

  • Hiller, D. V. (1984). Power dependence and division of family work. Sex Roles, 10, 1003–1019.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hofferth, S. (2001). Women’s employment and care of children in the United States. In T. Van, L. der Lippe, & Van. Dijk (Eds.), Women’s employment in a comparative perspective (pp. 151–174). New York: Aldine de Gruyter.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hofferth, S. (2003). Race/ethnic differences in father involvement in two-parent families. Journal of Family Issues, 24, 185–216.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hook, J. (2006). Care in context: Men’s unpaid work in 20 countries, 1965–2003. American Sociological Review, 71, 639–660.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hunts, H., & Avery, R. (1998). Relatives as child care givers: After hours support for nontraditional workers. Journal of Family and Economic Issues, 19, 315–342.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ishii-Kuntz, M. (1994). Paternal involvement and perception toward fathers’ roles: A comparison between Japan and the United States. Journal of Family Issues, 15, 30–48.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ishii-Kuntz, M., & Coltrane, S. (1992). Predicting the sharing of household labor. Sociological Perspectives, 35, 629–647.

    Google Scholar 

  • Joesch, J. M. (1998). Where are the children? Extent and determinants of preschoolers’ childcare time. Journal of Family and Economic Issues, 19, 75–99.

    Google Scholar 

  • Juster, F. T., & Stafford, F. P. (1991). The allocation of time: Empirical findings, behavioral models and problems of measurement. Journal of Economic Literature, 29, 471–522.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kalenkoski, C. M., & Foster, G. (2008). The quality of time spent with children in Australian households. Review of Economics of the Household, 6, 243–266.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kalenkoski, C. M., Ribar, D. C., & Stratton, L. S. (2007). The effect of family structure on parents’ childcare time in the United States and the United Kingdom. Review of Economics of the Household, 5, 353–384.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kitterød, R. H. (2002). Mothers’ housework and childcare: Growing similarities or stable inequalities? Acta Sociologica, 45, 127–149.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kitterød, R. H., & Pettersen, S. V. (2006). Making up for mothers’ employed working hours? Housework and childcare among Norwegian fathers. Work, Employment and Society, 30, 473–392.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lamb, M. E. (1987). Introduction: The emergent American father. In M. E. Lamb (Ed.), The father’s role: Cross-cultural perspectives (pp. 3–25). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lamb, M. E., Hwang, C. P., Broberg, A., Bookstein, F. L., Hult, G., & Frodi, M. (1988). The determinants of paternal involvement in primiparous Swedish families. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 11, 433–449.

    Google Scholar 

  • LaRossa, R. (1988). Fatherhood and social change. Family Relations, 37, 451–457.

    Google Scholar 

  • LaRossa, R., Jaret, C., Gadgil, M., & Wynn, R. (2000). The changing culture of fatherhood in comic-strip families: A six-decade analysis. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 62, 375–387.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lehrer, E. L., & Kawasaki, S. (1985). Child care arrangements and fertility: An analysis of two-earner households. Demography, 22, 499–513.

    Google Scholar 

  • Marsiglio, W. (1991). Paternal engagement activities with minor children. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 53, 973–986.

    Google Scholar 

  • Marsiglio, W., Amato, P., Day, R. D., & Lamb, M. E. (2000). Scholarship on fatherhood in the 1990s and beyond. Journal of Marriage & the Family, 62, 1173–1191.

    Google Scholar 

  • McBride, B. A. (1990). The effects of a parent education/play group program on father involvement in child rearing. Family Relations, 39, 250–256.

    Google Scholar 

  • McBride, B. A., & Mills, G. (1993). A comparison of mother and father involvement with their preschool age children. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 8, 457–477.

    Google Scholar 

  • McFarlane, S., Beaujot, R., & Haddad, T. (2000). Time constraints and relative resources as determinants of the sexual division of domestic work. Canadian Journal of Sociology, 25, 61–82.

    Google Scholar 

  • McLoyd, V. C. (1990). The impact of economic hardship on Black families and children: Psychological distress, parenting, and socioemotional development. Child Development, 61, 311–347.

    Google Scholar 

  • Menaghan, E., & Parcel, T. (1991). Determining children’s home environments: The impact of maternal characteristics and current occupational and family conditions. Journal of Marriage & Family, 53, 417–431.

    Google Scholar 

  • Milkie, M. A., Mattingly, M. J., Nomaguchi, K. M., Bianchi, S. M., & Robinson, J. P. (2004). The time squeeze: Parental statuses and feelings about time with children. Journal of Marriage & the Family, 66, 739–761.

    Google Scholar 

  • Miller, P., & Mulvey, C. (2000). Women’s time allocation to child care: Determinants and consequences. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers Ltd.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mullan Harris, K., & Marmer, J. K. (1996). Poverty, paternal involvement and adolescent well-being. Journal of Family Issues, 17, 614–640.

    Google Scholar 

  • Nock, S. L., & Kingston, P. W. (1988). Time with children: The impact of couples’ work-time commitments. Social Forces, 67, 59–85.

    Google Scholar 

  • Noonan, M., Estes, S. B., & Glass, J. (2007). Do workplace flexibility policies influence time spent in domestic labor? Journal of Family Issues, 28, 263–288.

    Google Scholar 

  • Paille, B. (1994). Estimating the volume of unpaid activities in Canada, 1992: An evaluation of data from the General Social Survey. Ottawa: Statistics Canada.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pleck, J. H. (1979). Men’s family work: Three perspectives and some new data. Family Coordinator, 28, 481.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pleck, J. H. (1997). Paternal involvement: Levels, sources, and consequences. In M. E. Lamb (Ed.), The role of the father in child development (pp. 66–103). New York: John Wiley & Sons Inc.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pleck, J. H., Lamb, M. E., & Levine, J. A. (1986). Epilog: Facilitating future change in men’s family roles. In R. A. Lewis & M. B. Sussman (Eds.), Men’s changing roles in the family (pp. 11–16). New York: Haworth Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Presser, H. B. (1988). Shift work and child care among young dual-earner American parents. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 50, 133–148.

    Google Scholar 

  • Radin, N. (1994). Primary-caregiving fathers in intact families. In A. Eskeles Gottfried & A. W. Gottfried (Eds.), Redefining families: Implications for children’s development (pp. 55–97). New York: Plenum Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rapoport, B., & Le Bourdais, C. (2008). Parental time and working schedules. Journal of Population Economics, 21, 903–932.

    Google Scholar 

  • Renk, K., Roberts, R., Roddenberry, A., Luick, M., Hillhouse, S., Meehan, C., et al. (2003). Mothers, fathers, gender role, and time parents spend with their children. Sex Roles, 48(7/8), 305–315.

    Google Scholar 

  • Robinson, J. P. (1989). Caring for kids. American Demographics, 11, 52–54.

    Google Scholar 

  • Robinson, J. P. (1991). Trends in free time: A cross-national comparative analysis for seven industrial countries 1961–1985. In W. O’Conghaile & E. Kohler (Eds.), The changing use of time (pp. 123–151). Dublin: European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions.

    Google Scholar 

  • Robinson, J. P. (1996). Time, housework, and the rest of life. Journal of Family and Economic Issues, 17, 213–229.

    Google Scholar 

  • Robinson, J. P. (2002). The time-diary method: Structure and uses. In W. Pentland, A. Harvey, M. Powell Lawton, & A. McColl (Eds.), Time use research in the social sciences (47–90). New York: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

    Google Scholar 

  • Robinson, J. P., & Bostrom, A. (1994). The overestimated workweek? What time diary measures suggest. Monthly Labor Review, 117, 11–23.

    Google Scholar 

  • Robinson, J. P., & Godbey, G. (1997). Time for life: The surprising ways Americans use their time. University Park: The Pennsylvania State University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rowland, B., Nickols, S., & Dodder, R. (1986). Parents’ time allocation: A comparison of households headed by one and two parents. Home Economics Research Journal, 15, 105–114.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sandberg, J. F., & Hofferth, S. L. (2001). Changes in children’s time with parents: United States, 1981–1997. Demography, 38, 423–436.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sanik, M. M. (1990). Parents’ time use: A 1967–1986 comparison. Lifestyles, 11, 299–316.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sanik, M. M., & Mauldin, T. (1986). Single versus two parent families: A comparison of mothers’ time. Family Relations, 35, 53–56.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sayer, L. C., Bianchi, S. M., & Robinson, J. P. (2004a). Are parents investing less in children? Trends in mothers’ and fathers’ time with children. American Journal of Sociology, 110, 1–43.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sayer, L. C., Gauthier, A. H., & Furstenberg, F. F. (2004b). Educational differences in parents’ time with children: Cross-national variations. Journal of Marriage & the Family, 66, 1152–1169.

    Google Scholar 

  • Silver, C. (2000). Being there: The time dual-earner couples spend with their children. Canadian Social Trends, 57, 26–30.

    Google Scholar 

  • Smith, A. J., & Williams, D. R. (2007). Father-friendly legislation and paternal time across Western Europe. Journal of Comparative Policy Analysis: Research and Practice, 9, 175–192.

    Google Scholar 

  • Smith, K. E., Bass, L. E., & Fields, J. M. (1998, April). Child well-being. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (PAA), Chicago, IL.

  • Snarey, J. (1993). How fathers care for the next generation. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Tausig, M., & Fenwick, R. (2001). Unbinding time: Alternate work schedules and work-life balance. Journal of Family and Economic Issues, 22, 101–119.

    Google Scholar 

  • Thomson, E., Hanson, T. L., & McLanahan, S. S. (1994). Family structure and child well-being: economic resources vs. parental behaviors. Social Forces, 73, 221–242.

    Google Scholar 

  • Thomson, E., McLanahan, S. S., & Curtin, R. B. (1992). Family structure, gender, and parental socialization. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 54, 368–378.

    Google Scholar 

  • Volling, B., & Belsky, J. (1991). Multiple determinants of father involvement during infancy in dual-earner and single-earner families. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 53, 461–474.

    Google Scholar 

  • Yeung, J. W., Duncan, G. J., & Hill, M. S. (2000). Putting fathers back in the picture: Parental activities and children’s adult outcomes. Marriage and Family Review, 29, 97–113.

    Google Scholar 

  • Yeung, W. J., & Stafford, F. (2005, August). Days of the week: Distribution of parental childcare time. Paper presented at the American Sociological Association 2005 Annual Meeting, Philadelphia.

  • Zajonc, R. B., & Markus, G. B. (1975). Birth order and intellectual development. Psychological Review, 82, 74–88.

    Google Scholar 

  • Zick, C. D., & Bryant, W. K. (1996). A new look at parents’ time spent in child care: Primary and secondary time use. Social Science Research, 25, 260–280.

    Google Scholar 

  • Zick, C. D., Bryant, K., & Osterbacka, E. (2001). Mothers’ employment, parental involvement, and the implications for intermediate child outcomes. Social Science Research, 30, 25–49.

    Google Scholar 

  • Zuzanek, J. (2001). Parenting time: Enough or too little? ISUMA—Canadian Journal of Policy Research, 2, 125–133.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

This paper was supported by a grant from the Canadian Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council. The paper was revised while the second author was a fellow at the Netherlands Institute for Advanced Study in the Humanities and Social Sciences.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Berenice Monna.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Monna, B., Gauthier, A.H. A Review of the Literature on the Social and Economic Determinants of Parental Time. J Fam Econ Iss 29, 634–653 (2008). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10834-008-9121-z

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10834-008-9121-z

Keywords

  • Child care
  • Family policy
  • Parenting
  • Time use