This research tests predictions regarding potential disparities among the employed by personal characteristics in the ability to vary the starting and ending times of their workday and engage in work from home. Women and African-Americans possess less access to flexible work schedules, even when controlling for most job characteristics. Married men have more access, but only if they are parents, and mothers only if they have pre-school-age children. Workers with part-time or long hours gain far greater access. Work-at-home is more common among women, the married and parents-thus, relatively more reflective of family demands. The results suggest where public and organizational policies could be focused to spread flexible work arrangements more toward those who both most value it and lack it.
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May 2001 CPS Supplement on Work Schedules and Work at Home
Full sample characteristics and key variable descriptions
|Characteristics (weighted)||Mean (or %)||Standard deviation||Variable description|
|Child 0–5||8.9||0.28||Age of youngest child in the household is under 6|
|Child 6–17||29.4||0.46||Age of youngest child in the household is under 18|
|Usually part-time||16.2||0.37||Job is usually fewer than 35 hours per week|
|Work hours 40/week||49.0||0.50||Usual number of hours per week on main job|
|Day shift||82.0||0.38||Usually work between 6 a.m. and 6 p.m. schedule on major some other schedule? 1. A daytime schedule (anytime between 6 a.m. and 6 p.m.)|
|Evening shift||6.5||0.25||Usually work anytime between 2 p.m. and midnight|
|Night shift||2.9||0.17||Usually work anytime between 9 p.m. and 8 a.m.|
|Other shifta||7.8||0.27||Usually work rotating, split or irregular shift|
|Occupation||Sole or principal job of wage/salary worker|
|Industry||Sole or principal industry of wage/salary worker|
|Flexible schedule||28.6||Yes, allowed to vary time you begin and end work?|
|Work at home||19.1a||0.39||As part of job, do any of your work at home? Arrangement with your employer to be paid for the work that you do at home, or were you just taking work home from the job?|
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Golden, L. Limited Access: Disparities in Flexible Work Schedules and Work-at-home. J Fam Econ Iss 29, 86–109 (2008). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10834-007-9090-7
- Flexible hours
- Work-life balance
- Working hours