Collective teacher efficacy (CTE) beliefs serve to encourage certain behaviours and constrain others. Bandura (Educ Psychol 28(2):117–148, 1993) was the first to generate interest in this area by demonstrating that the effect of perceived CTE on student achievement was stronger than the link between socio-economic status and student achievement. The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of the productive patterns of behaviour and other consequences resulting from educators’ shared sense of efficacy. Studies showed that CTE was associated with a number of productive behaviours including implementation of school improvement strategies, increased teacher leadership, communication of high expectations, and a strong focus on academic pursuits. In addition, CTE was associated with other positive factors including greater job satisfaction, commitment to students and the teaching profession, and positive attitudes toward teaching students with special education needs and professional development. Collective efficacy was negatively related to performance goal orientations and positively related to students’ emotional engagement. Finally, there were a number of studies that established the relationship between CTE and individual teacher efficacy. It is important to acknowledge that the relationship between CTE and other variables included in the studies contained within this review are most likely bidirectional. Policy makers, system and school leaders, and staff developers’ efforts toward successful education reforms might be better served by strategically and intentionally considering how to foster collective efficacy throughout the conceptualization, design, delivery, and assessment of change initiatives. Suggestions for future research and limitations including potential measurement problems of included studies are shared.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Adams, C., & Forsyth, P. (2006). Proximate sources of collective teacher efficacy. Journal of Educational Administration, 44(6), 625–642.
Ahuja, R. (2007). Towards an understanding of excellence in urban pedagogy: A portrait of a high school. The Qualitative Report, 12(1), 1–19.
Archambault, I., Janosz, M., & Chouinard, R. (2012). Teachers beliefs as predictors of adolescents’ cognitive engagement and achievement in mathematics. The Journal of Educational Research, 105(5), 319–328.
Avanzia, L., Schuhb, S., Fraccarolia, F., & Van Dick, R. (2015). Why does organizational identification relate to reduced employee burnout? The mediating influence of social support and collective efficacy. Work & Stress, 29(1), 1–10.
Bandura, A. (1977). Selfefficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioural change. Psychological Review, 84(2), 191–215.
Bandura, A. (1993). Perceived self-efficacy in cognitive development and functioning. Educational Psychologist, 28(2), 117–148.
Bandura, A. (1997). Self efficacy: the exercise of control. New York: W.H. Freeman and Company.
Boberg, J., & Bourgeois, S. (2016). The effects of integrated transformational leadership on achievement. Journal of Educational Administration, 54(3), 357–374.
Brophy, J. E. (1983). Research on the self-fulfilling prophecy and teacher expectations. Journal of Educational Psychology, 75(5), 631–661.
Brophy, J. E., & Good, T. L. (1970). Teachers’ communication of differential expectations for children’s classroom performance. Journal of Educational Psychology, 61(5), 365–374.
Calik, T., Sezgin, F., Kavgaci, H., & Kilinc, A. (2012). Examination of relationships between instructional leadership of school principals and self-efficacy of teachers and collective teacher efficacy. Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice, 12(4), 2498–2504.
Cantrell, S., & Callaway, P. (2008). High and low implementers of content literacy instruction: Portraits of teacher efficacy. Teaching and Teacher Education, 24(7), 1739–1750.
Caprara, G., Barbaranelli, C., Borgogni, L., Petitta, L., & Rubinacci, A. (2003a). Teachers’, school staff’s and parents’ efficacy beliefs as determinants of attitudes toward school. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 18(1), 15–31.
Caprara, G., Barbaranelli, C., Borgogni, L., & Steca, P. (2003b). Efficacy beliefs as determinants of teachers’ job satisfaction. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95(4), 821–832.
Chong, W., Klassen, R., Huan, V., Wong, I., & Kates, A. (2010). The relationships among school types, teacher efficacy beliefs, and academic climate: Perspective from Asian middle schools. The Journal of Educational Research, 103(3), 183–190.
Ciani, K., Summers, J., & Easter, M. (2008). A ‘‘top-down’’ analysis of high school teacher motivation. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 33(4), 533–560.
Cybulski, T., Hoy, W., & Sweetland, S. (2005). The roles of collective efficacy of teachers and fiscal efficiency in student achievement. Journal of Educational Administration, 43(5), 439–461.
Derrington, M., & Angelle, P. (2013). Teacher leadership and collective efficacy: Connections and links. International Journal of Teacher Leadership, 4(1), 1–13.
Eells, R. (2011). Meta-analysis of the relationship between collective efficacy and student achievement. Dissertation. Loyola University of Chicago.
Garberoglio, C., Gobble, M., & Cawthon, S. (2012). A national perspective on teachers’ efficacy beliefs in Deaf education. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 17(3), 367–383.
Gibbs, S., & Powell, B. (2011). Teacher efficacy and pupil behaviour: The structure of teachers’ individual and collective beliefs and their relationship with numbers of pupils excluded from school. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 82(4), 564–584.
Goddard, R. (2001). Collective efficacy: A neglected construct in the study of schools and student achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 93(3), 467–476.
Goddard, R. (2002). A theoretical and empirical analysis of the measurement of collective efficacy: The development of a short form. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 62(1), 97–111.
Goddard, R., & Goddard, Y. (2001). A multilevel analysis of the relationship between teacher and collective efficacy in urban schools. Teaching and Teacher Education, 17(7), 807–818.
Goddard, R., Goddard, Y., Kim, E., & Miller, R. (2015). A theoretical and empirical analysis of the roles of instructional leadership, teacher collaboration, and collective beliefs in support of student learning. American Journal of Education, 121(4), 501–530.
Goddard, R., Hoy, W., & Woolfolk Hoy, A. (2000). Collective teacher efficacy: Its meaning, measure, and impact on student achievement. American Educational Research Journal, 37(2), 479–507.
Goddard, R., Hoy, W., & Woolfolk Hoy, A. (2004a). Collective efficacy beliefs: Theoretical developments, empirical evidence, and future directions. American Educational Research Association, 33(3), 3–13.
Goddard, R., LoGerfo, L., & Hoy, W. (2004b). High school accountability: The role of perceived collective efficacy. Educational Policy, 18(3), 403–425.
Hargreaves, A., & Fullan, M. (2012). Professional capital: Transforming teaching in every school. New York, NY: Teachers’ College Press.
Hattie, J. (2012). Visible learning for teachers: Maximizing impact on learning. Oxon: Routledge.
Hattie, J. (2016). Third annual visible learning conference (subtitled Mindframes and Maximizers), Washington, DC, July 11, 2016.
Haworth, P., McGee, A., & MacIntyre, L. (2015). Building a whole school approach and teacher efficacy with English language learners. Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice, 21(2), 164–177.
Hoy, W., Sweetland, S., & Smith, P. (2002). Toward an organizational model of achievement in high schools: The significance of collective efficacy. Educational Administration Quarterly, 38(1), 77–93.
Jung, E., Brown, E., & Karp, K. (2014). Role of teacher characteristics and school resources in early mathematics learning. Learning Environments Research, 17(2), 209–228.
Kirby, M., & DiPaola, M. (2011). Academic optimism and community engagement in urban schools. Journal of Educational Administration, 49(5), 542–562.
Klassen, R. (2010). Teacher stress: The mediating role of collective efficacy beliefs. The Journal of Educational Research, 103(5), 342–350.
Klassen, R., Chong, W., Huan, V., Wong, I., Kates, A., & Hannok, W. (2008). Motivation beliefs of secondary school teachers in Canada and Singapore: A mixed methods study. Teacher and Teacher Education, 24(7), 1919–1934.
Klassen, R., Tze, V., Betts, S., & Gordon, K. (2011). Teacher efficacy research 1998–2009: Signs of progress or unfulfilled promise? Educational Psychology Review, 23(1), 21–43.
Klassen, R., Usher, E., & Bong, M. (2010). Teachers’ collective efficacy, job satisfaction, and job stress in cross-cultural context. The Journal of Experimental Education, 78(4), 464–486.
Kurz, T. B., & Knight, S. (2003). An exploration of the relationship among teacher efficacy, collective teacher efficacy, and goal consensus. Learning Environments Research, 7(2), 111–128.
Lee, J., Zhang, Z., & Yin, H. (2011). A multilevel analysis of the impact of a professional learning community, faculty trust in colleagues and collective efficacy on teacher commitment to students. Teaching and Teacher Education, 27(5), 820–830.
Lim, S., & Eo, S. (2014). The mediating roles of collective teacher efficacy in the relations of teachers’ perceptions of school organizational climate to their burnout. Teaching and Teacher Education, 44, 138–147.
Lyons, W., Thompson, A., & Timmons, V. (2016). We are inclusive. We are a team. Let’s just do it: Commitment, collective efficacy, and agency in four inclusive schools. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 20(8), 889–907.
Moolenaar, A., Sleegers, P., & Daly, A. (2012). Teaming up: Linking collaboration networks, collective efficacy, and student achievement. Teaching and Teacher Education, 28(2), 251–262.
Parks, M., Solmon, M., & Lee, A. (2007). Understanding classroom teachers’ perceptions of integrating physical activity: A collective efficacy perspective. Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 21(3), 316–328.
Paxon, C., Leis, M., & Kaufman, S. (2014). Collective efficacy and adult community: Teacher and principal perceptions after 2 years of implementing leading together in schools. In: SREE conference, Washington, DC. September.
Ramos, M., Silva, S., Pontes, F., Fernandez, A., & Nina, K. (2014). Collective teacher efficacy beliefs: A critical review of the literature. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 4(7), 179–188.
Rauf, P., Aluwi, A., & Noor, N. (2012). The effect of school culture on the management of professional development in secondary schools in Malaysia. The Malaysian Online Journal of Educational Science, 2(3), 41–51.
Rosenthal, R., & Babad, E. (1985). Pygamlion in the gymnasium. Educational Leadership, 43(1), 36–39.
Rosenthal, R., & Jacobson, L. (1968). Pygmalion in the classroom: Teacher expectation and pupils’ intellectual development. Holt, Rinehart & Winston, New York, NY.
Ross, J., Hogaboam-Gray, A., & Gray, P. (2004). Prior student achievement, collaborative school processes, and collective teacher efficacy. Leadership and Policy in Schools, 3(3), 163–188.
Roth, J., & Solmon, M. (2002). Increasing elementary school children's physical activity levels: Selfefficacy as a framework to investigate the role of classroom teachers. Paper presented at the meeting of the American Alliance for Heath, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance. San Diego, CA.
Rubie-Davis, C., Hattie, J., & Hamilton, R. (2006). Expecting the best for students: Teacher expectations and academic outcomes. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 76(3), 429–444.
Sandoval, J., Challoo, L., & Kupczynski, L. (2011). The relationship between teachers’ collective efficacy and student achievement at economically disadvantaged middle school campsus. I-managers Journal of Educational Psychology, 5(1), 9–23.
Schwarzer, R., & Jerusalem, M. (1999). Generalized self-efficacy scale. In J. Weinman, S. Wright, & M. Johnson (Eds.), Measures in health psychology. Casual and Control Beliefs (pp. 35–37). Windsor: NFER-Nelson.
Skaalvik, E., & Skaalvik, S. (2007). Dimensions of teacher self-efficacy and relations with strain factors, perceived collective teacher efficacy, and teacher burnout. Journal of Educational Psychology, 99(3), 611–625.
Sorlie, M., & Ogden, T. (2007). Immediate impacts of PALS: A school-wide multi-level programme targeting behaviour problems in elementary school. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 51(5), 471–492.
Tellez, K., & Manthey, G. (2015). Teachers’ perceptions of effective school-wide programs and strategies for English language learners. Learning Environments Research: An International Journal, 18(1), 111–127.
Tiplic, D., Brandmo, C., & Elstad, E. (2015). Antecedents of Norwegian beginning teachers’ turnover intentions. Cambridge journal of education, 45(4), 451–474.
Tschannen-Moran, M. (2001). The effects of a state-wide conflict management initiative in schools. American Secondary Education, 29(3), 2–32.
Tschannen-Moran, M., & Barr, M. (2004). Fostering student learning: The relationship of collective teacher efficacy and student achievement. Leadership and Policy in Schools, 3(3), 189–209.
Urton, K., Wilbert, J., & Hennemann, T. (2014). Attitudes towards inclusion and self-efficacy of principals and teachers. Learning Disabilities: A Contemporary Journal, 12(2), 151–168.
Viel-Ruma, K., Houchins, D., Jolivette, K., & Benson, G. (2010). Efficacy beliefs of special educators: The relationships among collective efficacy, teacher self-efficacy, and job satisfaction. Teacher Education and Special Education, 33(3), 225–233.
Ware, H., & Kitsantas, A. (2007). Teacher and collective efficacy beliefs as predictors of professional commitment. The Journal of Educational Research, 100(5), 303–310.
Wilcox, K., Angelis, J., Baker, L., & Lawson, H. (2014). The value of people, place and possibilities: A multiple case study of rural high school completion. Journal of Research in Rural Education, 29(9), 1–18.
Young, A. (1997). I think, therefore I’m motivated. Learning & Individual Differences, 9(3), 249–284.
Jenni Donohoo on contract with the Council of Ontario Directors of Education.
About this article
Cite this article
Donohoo, J. Collective teacher efficacy research: Productive patterns of behaviour and other positive consequences. J Educ Change 19, 323–345 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10833-018-9319-2
- Collective teacher efficacy
- Student achievement
- Teacher efficacy
- Teacher leadership
- Student misbehaviour
- Job satisfaction
- Goal orientations
- Teacher commitment
- Graduation rates
- Special education
- Professional learning