Journal of Educational Change

, Volume 18, Issue 4, pp 413–438 | Cite as

Educational reform hyperwaves: Reconceptualizing Cuban’s theories of change

  • Izhak BerkovichEmail author


The present work builds on Cuban’s (Educ Res 19(1):3–13, 1990) seminal work on reform waves. The research explores reform waves in Israeli educational policies since 2000s. The historical case study analysis focuses on conservative and liberal–progressive reforms in education, and reveals that these reforms took place as reoccurring alternating cycles, connected with political and institutional pressures that promote reform waves. The paper argues, however, that it is necessary to further develop Cuban’s theory because it does not provide an explanation for the temporal frequency of reform waves. The paper suggests betwixt and between situations as factors pushing reform waves into hyperdrive. The paper ends with a discussion of the implications of reform hyperwaves.


Betwixt and between Educational policy Hyperwaves Institutionalism Israel Reforms 


  1. Amenta, E. (2009). Making the most of an historical case study: Configuration, sequence, casing, and the US old-age pension movement. In D. Byrne & C. C. Ragin (Eds.), The Sage handbook of case-based methods (pp. 351–366). Beverley Hills: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Avigur-Eshel, A. (2014). The ideological foundations of neoliberalism’s political stability: An Israeli case study. Journal of Political Ideologies, 19(2), 164–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Avitan Cohen, S. (2016). Bennett’s reform: Principals will chose shows in Sal Tarbut. NRG (in Hebrew). Retrieved from
  4. Avgar, I., Berkovich, I., Shalev-Vigiser, Y. (2012). Building trust in the education system: Perceptions of teachers and principals. Jerusalem: The Van Leer Jerusalem Institute (in Hebrew).Google Scholar
  5. Ball, S. J., Maguire, M., & Braun, A. (2012). How schools do policy: Policy enactments in secondary schools. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  6. Balmas, M. (2014). When fake news becomes real combined exposure to multiple news sources and political attitudes of inefficacy, alienation, and cynicism. Communication Research, 41(3), 430–454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Barnea, S., Driisfitz, S., & Koenig, O. (2013). Governments stability—working paper. Jerusalem: The Israel Democracy Institute. (in Hebrew).Google Scholar
  8. Baudrillard, J. (1981). Simulacres et simulation. Paris: Edition Galilee.Google Scholar
  9. Ben-Porat, G., & Feniger, Y. (2012). It takes two for a culture war. Social Science Quarterly, 93(3), 838–857.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Berkovich, I. (2011). No we won’t! Teachers’ resistance to educational reform. Journal of Educational Administration, 49(5), 563–578.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Berkovich, I. (2014). Neo-liberal governance and the ‘new professionalism’ of Israeli principals. Comparative Education Review, 58(3), 428–456.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Berliner, D. C., & Biddle, B. J. (1995). The manufactured crisis: Myths, fraud, and the attack on America’s public schools. Redding, MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  13. Berliner, D. C., & Glass, G. V. (Eds.). (2014). 50 myths and lies that threaten America’s public schools: The real crisis in education. New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  14. Blass, N. (2014). Trends in the development of the education system. Jerusalem: Taub Center. (in Hebrew).Google Scholar
  15. Büthe, T. (2002). Taking temporality seriously: Modeling history and the use of narratives as evidence. American Political Science Review, 96(03), 481–493.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. B.Z., I. (2014). Not educational. The 7 Eye (in Hebrew). Retrieved from
  17. Calder, K. E. (1988). Japanese foreign economic policy formation: Explaining the “reactive state”. World Politics, 40(4), 517–541.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. CBS. (2015). Israel in numbers 2015. Jerusalem: CBS. (in Hebrew).Google Scholar
  19. Channel 10 News. (2014). Substitute teacher: Summary of the office of Minister of Education Shay Piron. Channel 10 News (in Hebrew). Retrieved from
  20. Cheong, P. H., Edwards, R., Goulbourne, H., & Solomos, J. (2007). Immigration, social cohesion and social capital: A critical review. Critical Social Policy, 27(1), 24–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. CIA. (2012). Distribution of family income—GINI index. CIA World-Factbook. Retrieved from
  22. Coburn, C. E. (2003). Rethinking scale: Moving beyond numbers to deep and lasting change. Educational Researcher, 32(6), 3–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Coburn, C. E. (2005). The role of nonsystem actors in the relationship between policy and practice: The case of reading instruction in California. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 27(1), 23–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Cohen, D. K. (1995). What is the system in systemic reform? Educational Researcher, 29(4), 11–31.Google Scholar
  25. Collinson, V., & Fedoruk Cook, T. (2001). “I don’t have enough time”—Teachers’ interpretations of time as a key to learning and school change. Journal of Educational Administration, 39(3), 266–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Cowen, R. (2006). Acting comparatively upon the educational world: Puzzles and possibilities. Oxford Review of Education, 32(5), 561–573.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Creswell, J. W., & Miller, D. L. (2000). Determining validity in qualitative inquiry. Theory into Practice, 39(3), 124–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Cuban, L. (1990). Reforming again, again, and again. Educational Researcher, 19(1), 3–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Cunha, M. P., & Tsoukas, H. (2015). Reforming the state: Understanding the vicious circles of reform. European Management Journal, 33(4), 225–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Dattel, L. (2013). Professions that require memorization will disappear; yesterday’s skills are irrelevant. The Marker (in Hebrew). Retrieved from
  31. Del Sarto, R. (2006). Region-building, European Union normative power, and contested identities: The case of Israel. In E. Adler, B. Crawford, F. Bicchi, & R. Del Sarto (Eds.), Convergence of civilizations: Constructing a Mediterranean region. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar
  32. DiMaggio, P. J., & Powell, W. (1983). “The iron cage revisited” institutional isomorphism and collective rationality in organizational fields. American Sociological Review, 48, 147–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Director-General’s Circular 2003/1(a), 3.1-22, Primary school core curriculum in the state of Israel. Ministry of Education, September 1, 2003 (in Hebrew).
  34. Easterly, W., Ritzen, J., & Woolcock, M. (2006). Social cohesion, institutions, and growth. Economics and Politics, 18(2), 103–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Eisenhardt, K. M. (1989). Building theories from case study research. Academy of Management Review, 14(4), 532–550.Google Scholar
  36. Eisner, E. (1992). Educational reform and the ecology of schooling. The Teachers College Record, 93(4), 610–627.Google Scholar
  37. Eisner, E. W. (2000). Those who ignore the past…: 12 ‘easy’ lessons for the next millennium. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 32(2), 343–357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Elmore, R. F. (1995). Structural reform and educational practice. Educational Researcher, 29(4), 23–26.Google Scholar
  39. Feniger, Y., & Lefstein, A. (2014). How not to reason with PISA data: An ironic investigation. Journal of Education Policy, 29(6), 845–855.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Feniger, Y., Livneh, I., & Yogev, A. (2012). Globalisation and the politics of international tests: The case of Israel. Comparative Education, 48(3), 323–335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Fox, C. J., & Miller, H. T. (2005). All Monica all the time: Crowding out the public discourse. Administrative Theory & Praxis, 27(3), 486–497.Google Scholar
  42. Fukuyama, F. (2014). Political order and political decay: From the industrial revolution to the globalization of democracy. New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  43. Fullan, M. (1992). Successful school improvement: The implementation perspective and beyond. Maidenherd: McGraw-Hill Education.Google Scholar
  44. Fullan, M. (2000). The return of large-scale reform. Journal of Educational Change, 1(1), 5–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Gaziel, H. H. (2010). Why educational reforms fail: The emergence and failure of an educational reform: A case study from Israel. In J. Zajda (Ed.), Globalisation, ideology and education policy reforms (pp. 49–62). Dordrecht: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. George, L. K. (2014). Taking time seriously: A call to action in mental health research. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 55(3), 251–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Gittell, M. (1968). Urban school reform in the 1970’s. Education and Urban Society, 1(1), 9–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Golafshani, N. (2003). Understanding reliability and validity in qualitative research. The Qualitative Report, 8(4), 597–606.Google Scholar
  49. Gordon, C. (1989). Mutual perceptions of religious and secular Jews in Israel. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 33(4), 632–651.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Greilsammer, I., & Weiler, J. (Eds.). (1988). Europe and Israel: Troubled neighbours (Vol. 9). Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  51. Guba, E. G. (1984). The effect of definitions of policy on the nature and outcomes of policy analysis. Educational Leadership, 42(2), 63–70.Google Scholar
  52. Hai, S. (2013). Meitzav exams have been canceled: “They harmed schools”. YNET (in Hebrew). Retrieved from,7340,L-4416826,00.html.
  53. Hancock, D. R., & Algozzine, B. (2016). Doing case study research: A practical guide for beginning researchers (3rd ed.). New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  54. Henig, J. R., & Stone, C. N. (2008). Rethinking school reform: The distractions of dogma and the potential for a new politics of progressive pragmatism. American Journal of Education, 114(3), 191–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Hess, F. M. (2010). The same thing over and over. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  56. Higgott, R. A., & Nossal, K. R. (1997). The international politics of liminality: Relocating Australia in the Asia Pacific. Australian Journal of Political Science, 32(2), 169–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Howlett, M. (1998). Predictable and unpredictable policy windows: Institutional and exogenous correlates of Canadian federal agenda-setting. Canadian Journal of Political Science, 31(03), 495–524.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Howlett, M. (2009). Process sequencing policy dynamics: Beyond homeostasis and path dependency. Journal of Public Policy, 29(03), 241–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Hynek, N. (2013). Coping with US and EU’s challenges? Strategic confusion in the Czech foreign and security policy. Communist and Post-Communist Studies, 46(3), 373–385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Ichilov, O. (2009). The retreat from public education: Global and Israeli perspectives. Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  61. Israeli Parliament. (2007). Democratic education. Jerusalem: Israeli Parliament. (in Hebrew).Google Scholar
  62. Jones, T. M. (2009). Framing the framework: Discourses in Australia’s national values education policy. Educational Research for Policy and Practice, 8(1), 35–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Kashti, O. (2015). Ministry of Education rewrites the civics: more Jewish, less democracy. Haaretz (in Hebrew). Retrieved from
  64. Kasthi, O. (2009). Andreas Schleicher, the man known as “the world education minister:” Israel’s education system suffers from a severe inequality. Haaretz (in Hebrew). Retrieved form:
  65. Kasthi, O. & Scope, Y. (2014). The Ministry of Education establishes a new PR department and refuses to specify what cost and why it is needed. Haaretz (in Hebrew). Retrieved from
  66. Katz, M. B. (1968). The irony of early school reform: Educational innovation in mid-nineteenth century Massachusetts. New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  67. Kimmerling, B. (2001). The end of Ashkenazi hegemony. Jerusalem: Keter. (in Hebrew).Google Scholar
  68. Kingdon, J. W. (2010). Agendas, alternatives, and public policies (2nd ed.). Chicago: Pearson.Google Scholar
  69. Kolack, S. M., & Kolack, S. (1968). Can Israel surmount its internal problems? Society, 5(4), 40–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Kovac, V., Rafajac, B., & Buchberger, I. (2014). Croatian teacher competencies related to the creation and implementation of education policy. CEPS Journal: Center for Educational Policy Studies Journal, 4(4), 51.Google Scholar
  71. Lazar, Y. (2007). On the steps of the reform. Itonut Kibbutzit (in Hebrew). Retrieved from
  72. Lincoln, Y. S., & Guba, E. G. (1985). Naturalistic inquiry (Vol. 75). Beverley Hills: Sage.Google Scholar
  73. Mälksoo, M. (2012). The challenge of liminality for international relations theory. Review of International Studies, 38(02), 481–494.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Markman, N., & Yonah, Y. (2010). Nationality, multiculturalism and core curriculum in Israel: Between inclusion and exclusion. Alpayim, 34, 65–81. (in Hebrew).Google Scholar
  75. Mathias, Y., & Sabar, N. (2004). Reforms in curriculum planning and the creation of Israeli identity. Megamot, 46, 84–108. (in Hebrew).Google Scholar
  76. Matland, R. E. (1995). Synthesizing the implementation literature: The ambiguity-conflict model of policy implementation. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 5(2), 145–174.Google Scholar
  77. McConnell, A. (2010). Policy success, policy failure and grey areas in-between. Journal of Public Policy, 30(03), 345–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Medding, P. Y. (2010). Mapai in Israel: Political organisation and government in a new society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  79. Mehta, J. (2015). The allure of order: High hopes, dashed expectations, and the troubled quest to remake American schooling. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  80. Merriam, S. B. (1988). Case study research in education: A qualitative approach. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  81. Merriam, S. B. (1998). Qualitative research and case study applications in education. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.Google Scholar
  82. Meyer, H. D., & Rowan, B. (2006). Institutional analysis and the study of education. In H. D. Meyer & B. Rowan (Eds.), The new institutionalism in education (pp. 1–14). New York: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  83. Ministry of Education. (2005). The national education plan (the Dovrat Report) (Summary). Jerusalem: Ministry of Education.
  84. Ministry of Education. (2011). Book of work plans to the year 2011. Jerusalem: Ministry of Education (in Hebrew).
  85. Ministry of Education. (2014). “Israel Ola Kita” the national program of meaningful learning. Jerusalem: Ministry of Education (in Hebrew).
  86. Ministry of Education. (2015). Strengthening math studies (in Hebrew). Retrieved from
  87. Ministry of Finance. (2006). Israel: Ready for the OECD. Jerusalem: Ministry of Finance. (in Hebrew).Google Scholar
  88. Moore, P., & Worth, O. (2009). Globalization and the ‘new’ semi-peripheries. Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave.Google Scholar
  89. Morrow, S. L. (2005). Quality and trustworthiness in qualitative research in counseling psychology. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 52(2), 250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Nesher, T. (2012). When the IDF educates schools. Haaretz (in Hebrew). Retrieved from
  91. Nesher, T. & Levinson, H. (2012). The pedagogical program behind the expansion of the tours in Hebron, “the mountain as a legacy of the nation”. Haaretz (in Hebrew). Retrieved from
  92. Nir, A. E., & Inbar, D. (2003). School principals in the Israeli educational system: From headteachers to professional leaders. In Selecting and developing heads of schools: Twenty-three European perspectives (pp. 137–148).Google Scholar
  93. Nir, A. E., & Sharma Kafle, B. (2013). The effect of political stability on public education quality. International Journal of Educational Management, 27(2), 110–126.Google Scholar
  94. Nóvoa, A., & Yariv-Mashal, T. (2003). Comparative research in education: A mode of governance or a historical journey? Comparative Education, 39(4), 423–438.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. OECD. (2012). Accession of Israel to the OECD. Review of international investment policies. Paris: OECD.Google Scholar
  96. Odem, Y. (2015). Education Ministry’s goal: Doubling the 5 units of math students. Channel 2 News (in Hebrew). Retrieved from
  97. Patton, M. Q. (2002). Qualitative research and evaluation methods (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  98. Payne, C. M. (2008). So much reform, so little change: The persistence of failure in urban schools. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Press.Google Scholar
  99. Pedagogical Secretariat at the Ministry of Education. (2009). Systematic implementation of thinking-related education policy in Israel (2006–2009) In: Ministry of Education Teaching students to think. Jerusalem: Ministry of Education (in Hebrew).
  100. Phillips, D., & Ochs, K. (2003). Processes of policy borrowing in education: Some explanatory and analytical devices. Comparative Education, 39(4), 451–461.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Pinson, H. (2007). At the boundaries of citizenship: Palestinian Israeli citizens and the civic education curriculum. Oxford Review of Education, 33(3), 331–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Radaelli, C. M. (2000). Policy transfer in the European Union: Institutional isomorphism as a source of legitimacy. Governance, 13(1), 25–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Rahat, G., & Sheafer, T. (2007). The personalization (s) of politics: Israel, 1949–2003. Political Communication, 24(1), 65–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Ravhon, O., & Malach, G. (2009). Demographic trends in Israel. Jerusalem: Metzilah. (in Hebrew).Google Scholar
  105. Resh, N., & Dar, Y. (2012). The rise and fall of school integration in Israel: Research and policy analysis. British Educational Research Journal, 38(6), 929–951.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Rittel, H. W., & Webber, M. M. (1973). Dilemmas in a general theory of planning. Policy Sciences, 4(2), 155–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Rizvi, F., & Lingard, B. (2010). Globalizing education policy. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  108. Sarason, S. B. (1996). Revisiting ‘the culture of school and the problem of change’. New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  109. Schechter, C., & Shaked, H. (2017). Leaving fingerprints: principals’ considerations while implementing education reforms. Journal of Educational Administration, 55(3), 242–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Schleicher, A. (2011). The case for 21st century learning. OECD Observer, 282, 42–43.Google Scholar
  111. Seawright, J., & Gerring, J. (2008). Case selection techniques in case study research: A menu of qualitative and quantitative options. Political Research Quarterly, 61(2), 294–308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Sellar, S., & Lingard, B. (2013). The OECD and global governance in education. Journal of Education Policy, 28(5), 710–725.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Sellar, S., & Lingard, B. (2014). The OECD and the expansion of PISA: New global modes of governance in education. British Educational Research Journal, 40(6), 917–936.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Shaked, H., & Schechter, C. (2017). School principals as mediating agents in education reforms. School Leadership & Management, 37(1–2), 19–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Smith, K. E. (2005). The outsiders: The European neighbourhood policy. International Affairs, 81(4), 757–773.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Smooha, S. (1978). Israel: Pluralism and conflict. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  117. Stake, R. (2005). Qualitative case studies. In N. K. Denzin & Y. S. Lincoln (Eds.), The Sage handbook of qualitative research (3rd ed., pp. 433–466). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  118. State Comptroller. (2008). Annual audit report 58b. Jerusalem: State Comptroller. (in Hebrew).Google Scholar
  119. State of Israel. (2008). Collective wage agreement “Ofek Hadash”—The Israeli Government and the Israel Teachers Union (in Hebrew). 444482E325FF/156876/fullNewOfekagreement1.pdf.
  120. State of Israel. (2011). Collective wage agreement “Oz Letmura”—The Union of Secondary Schools Teachers and the Union of Local Authorities in Israel (in Hebrew).
  121. Steiner-Khamsi, G. (2014). Cross-national policy borrowing: Understanding reception and translation. Asia Pacific Journal of Education, 34(2), 153–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Takayama, K. (2007). A nation at risk crosses the Pacific: Transnational borrowing of the US crisis discourse in the debate on education reform in Japan. Comparative Education Review, 51(4), 423–446.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Tamir, Y. (2014). Andreas Schleicher. Hed Hachinuch, 88(6), 38–39. (in Hebrew).Google Scholar
  124. Tellis, W. M. (1997). Application of a case study methodology. The Qualitative Report, 3(3), 1–19.Google Scholar
  125. Turner, V. W. (1969). The ritual process. Structure and anti-structure. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books.Google Scholar
  126. Vigoda-Gadot, E., & Mizrahi, S. (2014). Israeli public sector performance 2014. Haifa: Haifa University (in Hebrew). Retrieved from
  127. Vincent, C., Neal, S., & Iqbal, H. (2016). Children’s friendships in diverse primary schools: Teachers and the processes of policy enactment. Journal of Education Policy, 31(4), 482–494.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Viteritti, A. (2009). A Cinderella or a princess? The Italian school between practices and reforms. Italian Journal of Sociology of Education, 1(3), 10–32.Google Scholar
  129. Walla!News. (2001). Starting next year: Its compulsory to hang an Israeli flag in schools. Walla!News (in Hebrew). Retrieved from
  130. Walla!News. (2006). Tamir presented a plan to expand the civics matriculation. Walla!News (in Hebrew). Retrieved from
  131. Walla!News. (2015). Bennett has banned the activities of “Breaking the Silence” in schools. Walla!News. Retrieved from
  132. Wan, M. (2001). Japan between Asia and the West: Economic power and strategic balance. New York: ME Sharpe.Google Scholar
  133. Welmond, M. (2002). Globalization viewed from the periphery: The dynamics of teacher identity in the Republic of Benin. Comparative Education Review, 46(1), 37–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Wolf, C. (1987). Market and non-market failures: Comparison and assessment. Journal of Public Policy, 7(01), 43–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Woodward, R. (2009). The organisation for economic Co-operation and development (OECD). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  136. World Bank. (2013). Middle East and North Africa economic developments and prospects: Investing inturbulent times. Washington, DC: World Bank.Google Scholar
  137. Yasutomo, D. (1995). The new multilateralism in Japan’s foreign policy. New York: St Martin’s Press.Google Scholar
  138. Yin, R. K. (1981). The case study crisis: Some answers. Administrative Science Quarterly, 26(1), 58–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Yin, R. K. (1994). Case study research. Design and methods. Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  140. Yonah, Y., & Shenhav, Y. (2005). What is multiculturalism? On the politics of identity in Israel. Tel-Aviv: Bavel (in Hebrew).Google Scholar
  141. Yonah, Y., Dahan, Y., & Markovich, D. (2008). Neo-liberal reforms in Israel’s education system: The dialectics of the state. International studies in sociology of education, 18(3–4), 199–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Zelikovich, M. & Greenberg, H. (2004). Livnat, do not let the officers into schools. YNET (in Hebrew). Retrieved from,7340,L-3019894,00.html.
  143. Zemer, E. (2009). Who profited from “Ofek Hadesh”. NRG (in Hebrew). Retrieved from
  144. Zielonka, J. (2006). Europe as empire: The nature of the enlarged European Union. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Zohar, A. (2013). Challenges in wide scale implementation efforts to foster higher order thinking (HOT) in science education across a whole school system. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 10, 233–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Education and PsychologyThe Open University of IsraelRaananaIsrael

Personalised recommendations