Journal of Educational Change

, Volume 18, Issue 1, pp 21–48

Where the two shall meet: Exploring the relationship between teacher professional culture and student learning culture

Article

Abstract

This study focuses on the understudied connection between teachers’ and students’ perceptions of school culture. Utilizing a longitudinal sample of approximately 130,000 students and 9000 teachers in 225 New York City traditional public schools, we investigate how professional culture among teachers intersects with students’ collective emotional engagement—that is, the extent students together view the school environment as trusting and respectful, both between teachers and students and among students (i.e., student learning culture). We find that when the teachers report a strong collaborative culture, believe they have adequate materials, and feel physically safe, students report a stronger and more positive learning culture. Our results thus fill a gap in prior research on school change that has looked at either teacher or student perceptions of school culture but not the two together. Here, because our results demonstrate such a positive relationship between the collective views of teachers and the collective views of students regarding the environment in which these groups work, they suggest new avenues for research to examine how such subcultures within a school may, together, act as critical and interdependent levers for school change.

Keywords

School culture Organizational culture Student engagement 

References

  1. Abelmann, C., Elmore, R. F., Even, J., Kenyon, S., & Marshall, J. (1999). When accountability knocks, will anyone answer?. Philadelphia: Consortium for Policy Research in Education, Graduate School of Education, University of Pennsylvania.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Allensworth, E., Ponisciak, S., & Mazzeo, C. (2009). The schools teachers leave: Teacher mobility in Chicago Public Schools. Chicago: Consortium on Chicago School Research, University of Chicago.Google Scholar
  3. Allison, P. D. (1999). Comparing logit and probit coefficients across groups. Sociological Methods & Research, 28(2), 186–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Applebee, A. N., Langer, J. A., Nystrand, M., & Gamoran, A. (2003). Discussion-based approaches to developing understanding: Classroom instruction and student performance in middle and high school English. American Educational Research Journal, 40(3), 685–730.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Au, W. (2011). Teaching under the new Taylorism: High-stakes testing and the standardization of the 21st century curriculum. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 43(1), 25–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Balfanz, R., & Legters, N. (2005). The graduation gap: Using promoting power to examine the number and characteristics of high schools with high and low graduation rates in the nation and each state. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University, Center for Social Organization of Schools.Google Scholar
  7. Bandura, A. (1995). Exercise of personal and collective efficacy in changing societies. Self-efficacy in changing societies, 15, 334.Google Scholar
  8. Baruch, Y., & Holtom, B. C. (2008). Survey response rate levels and trends in organizational research. Human Relations, 61(8), 1139–1160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Battistich, V., Solomon, D., Watson, M., & Schaps, E. (1997). Caring school communities. Educational psychologist, 32(3), 137–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Boisnier, A., & Chatman, J. A. (2003). The role of subcultures in agile organizations. In R. Peterson & E. Mannix (Eds.), Leading and managing people in dynamic organizations (pp. 87–112). Mahwah, NJ: Earlbaum.Google Scholar
  11. Bradshaw, C. P., Mitchell, M. M., & Leaf, P. J. (2010). Examining the effects of schoolwide positive behavioral interventions and supports on student outcomes results from a randomized controlled effectiveness trial in elementary schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 12(3), 133–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bronfenbrenner, U. (1977). Toward an experimental ecology of human development. American Psychologist, 32(7), 513.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bryk, A., & Schneider, B. (2002). Trust in schools: A core resource for improvement. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  14. Bryk, A. S., & Schneider, B. (2003). Trust in schools: A core resource for school reform. Educational leadership, 60(6), 40–45.Google Scholar
  15. Bryk, A. S., Sebring, P. B., Allensworth, E., Easton, J. Q., & Luppescu, S. (2010). Organizing schools for improvement: Lessons from Chicago. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  16. Bunderson, J. S., & Boumgarden, P. (2010). Structure and learning in self-managed teams: Why “bureaucratic” teams can be better learners. Organization Science, 21(3), 609–624.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bush, T., & Glover, D. (2014). School leadership models: What do we know? School Leadership & Management, 34(5), 553–571.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Caprara, G. V., Barbaranelli, C., Steca, P., & Malone, P. S. (2006). Teachers’ self-efficacy beliefs as determinants of job satisfaction and students’ academic achievement: A study at the school level. Journal of School Psychology, 44(6), 473–490.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Chay, K. Y., & Powell, J. L. (2001). Semiparametric censored regression models. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 15, 29–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Collie, R. J., Shapka, J. D., & Perry, N. E. (2012). School climate and social-emotional learning: Predicting teacher stress, job satisfaction, and teaching efficacy. Journal of Educational Psychology, 104(4), 1189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cosner, S. (2009). Building organizational capacity through trust. Educational Administration Quarterly, 45(2), 248–291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Cosner, S., & Jones, M. F. (2016). Leading school-wide improvement in low-performing schools facing conditions of accountability: Key actions and considerations. Journal of Educational Administration, 54(1), 41–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Datnow, A., Park, V., & Kennedy-Lewis, B. (2013). Affordances and constraints in the context of teacher collaboration for the purpose of data use. Journal of Educational Administration, 51(3), 341–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Day, C., & Gu, Q. (2007). Variations in the conditions for teachers’ professional learning and development: Sustaining commitment and effectiveness over a career. Oxford Review of Education, 33(4), 423–443.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Dimmock, C. (2012). School-based management and school effectiveness. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  26. Donaldson, M., Johnson, S. M., Kirkpatrick, C. L., Marinell, W. H., Steele, J. L., & Szczesiul, S. A. (2008). Angling for access, bartering for change: How second stage teachers experience differentiated roles in schools. Teachers College Record, 110(5), 1088–1114.Google Scholar
  27. Dworkin, A. G., & Tobe, P. F. (2014). The effects of standards based school accountability on teacher burnout and trust relationships: A longitudinal analysis. In  D. Van Maele, P. B. Forsyth & M. Van Houtte (Eds.), Trust and school life: The role of trust for learning, teaching, leading, and bridging (pp. 121–143). Dordrecht, NL: Springer.Google Scholar
  28. Edmondson, A. C. (1999). Psychological safety and learning behavior in work teams. Administrative Science Quarterly, 44(2), 350–383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Edmondson, A. C. (2003). Speaking up in the operating room: How team leaders promote learning in interdisciplinary action teams. Journal of Management Studies, 40(6), 1419–1452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Edmondson, A. C., Bohmer, R. M., & Pisano, G. P. (2001). Disrupted routines: Team learning and new technology implementation in hospitals. Administrative Science Quarterly, 46(4), 685–716.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Edmondson, A. C., Higgins, M., Singer, S., & Weiner, J. (2016). Understanding psychological safety in health care and education organizations: A comparative perspective. Research in Human Development, 13(1), 65–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Elmore, R. F. (2005). Accountable leadership. The Educational Forum, 69(2), 134–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Elmore, R. F. (2007). School reform from the inside out: Policy, practice, and performance. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Press.Google Scholar
  34. Fletcher, J. K., & Kaufer, K. (2003). Shared leadership: Paradox and possibility. In C. J. Pearce & C. Conger (Eds.), Shared leadership: Reframing the how and whys of leadership (pp. 21–47). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Franklin, S. B., Gibson, D. J., Robertson, P. A., Pohlmann, J. T., & Fralish, J. S. (1995). Parallel analysis: A method for determining significant principal components. Journal of Vegetation Science, 6(1), 99–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Fredricks, J. A., Blumenfeld, P. C., & Paris, A. H. (2004). School engagement: Potential of the concept, state of the evidence. Review of educational research, 74(1), 59–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Fullan, M. (2006). The future of educational change: System thinkers in action. Journal of Educational Change, 7(3), 113–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Fullan, M. (2007). Achieving large-scale reform. Dordrecht: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Furrer, C., & Skinner, E. (2003). Sense of relatedness as a factor in children’s academic engagement and performance. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95(1), 148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Gitomer, D., Bell, C., Qi, Y., McCaffrey, D., Hamre, B. K., & Pianta, R. C. (2014). The instructional challenge in improving teaching quality: Lessons from a classroom observation protocol. Teachers College Record, 116(6), 1–32.Google Scholar
  41. Goldhaber, D., Choi, H. J., & Cramer, L. (2007). A descriptive analysis of the distribution of NBPTS-certified teachers in North Carolina. Economics of Education Review, 26(2), 160–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Gonida, E. N., Voulala, K., & Kiosseoglou, G. (2009). Students’ achievement goal orientations and their behavioral and emotional engagement: Co-examining the role of perceived school goal structures and parent goals during adolescence. Learning and Individual differences, 19(1), 53–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Gregory, A., & Cornell, D. (2009). “Tolerating” adolescent needs: Moving beyond zero tolerance policies in high school. Theory Into Practice, 48(2), 106–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Grobler, B. (2013). The school principal as instructional leader: A structural equation model. Education as Change, 17(1), 177–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hackman, J. R. (2002). Leading teams: Setting the stage for great performances. Cambridge: Harvard Business Press.Google Scholar
  46. Hallinger, P. (2011). Leadership for learning: Lessons from 40 years of empirical research. Journal of Educational Administration, 49(2), 125–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hargreaves, A., & Shirley, D. (2009). The persistence of presentism. The Teachers College Record, 111(11), 2505–2534.Google Scholar
  48. Harris, S. G. (1994). Organizational culture and individual sensemaking: A schema-based perspective. Organization Science, 5(3), 309–321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Harris, A., Adams, D., Jones, M. S., & Muniandy, V. (2015). System effectiveness and improvement: The importance of theory and context. School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 26(1), 1–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Harris, A., Day, C., Hopkins, D., Hadfield, M., Hargreaves, A., & Chapman, C. (2013). Effective leadership for school improvement. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  51. Harris, A., & Jones, M. (2010). Professional learning communities and system improvement. Improving Schools, 13, 172–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Hemelt, S. W. (2011). Performance effects of failure to make adequate yearly progress (AYP): Evidence from a regression discontinuity framework. Economics of Education Review, 30(4), 702–723.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Higgins, M., Ishimaru, A., Holcombe, R., & Fowler, A. (2012a). Examining organizational learning in schools: The role of psychological safety, experimentation, and leadership that reinforces learning. Journal of Educational Change, 13(1), 67–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Higgins, M. C., Weiner, J., & Young, L. (2012b). Implementation teams: A new lever for organizational change. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 33(3), 366–388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Honoré, B. E. (1993). Orthogonality conditions for Tobit models with fixed effects and lagged dependent variables. Journal of Econometrics, 59(1), 35–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Hord, S., & Sommers, W. (2008). Leading professional learning communities: Voices from research and practice. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.Google Scholar
  57. Horn, J. G., & Miron, G. (1999). Evaluation of the Michigan public school academy initiative. Evaluation Center. Kalamazoo: Western Michigan University.Google Scholar
  58. Hoy, W. K., Tarter, C. J., & Kottkamp, R. B. (1991). Open schools, healthy schools: Measuring organizational climate. Thousand Oaks: Corwin Press.Google Scholar
  59. Imants, J., Wubbels, T., & Vermunt, J. D. (2013). Teachers’ enactments of workplace conditions and their beliefs and attitudes toward reform. Vocations and Learning, 6(3), 323–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Jia, Y., Way, N., Ling, G., Yoshikawa, H., Chen, X., Hughes, D., et al. (2009). The influence of student perceptions of school climate on socioemotional and academic adjustment: A comparison of Chinese and American adolescents. Child Development, 80(5), 1514–1530.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Johnson, M. K., Crosnoe, R., & Elder, G. H., Jr. (2001). Students’ attachment and academic engagement: The role of race and ethnicity. Sociology of Education, 74, 318–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Johnson, S. M., Kraft, M. A., & Papay, J. P. (2012). How context matters in high-need schools: The effects of teachers’ working conditions on their professional satisfaction and their students’ achievement. Teachers College Record, 114(10), 1–39.Google Scholar
  63. Kaiser, H. F. (1960). The application of electronic computers to factor analysis. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 20(1), 141–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Kelleher, M. (2014). New York City’s children first: Lessons in school reform. Washington: Center for American Progress.Google Scholar
  65. Klem, A. M., & Connell, J. P. (2004). Relationships matter: Linking teacher support to student engagement and achievement. Journal of School Health, 74(7), 262–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Knapp, M. S., & Feldman, S. B. (2012). Managing the intersection of internal and external accountability: Challenge for urban school leadership in the United States. Journal of Educational Administration, 50(5), 666–694.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Kochanek, J. R. (2005). Building trust for better schools: Research-based practices. Thousand Oaks: Corwin Press.Google Scholar
  68. Kraft, M. A., & Papay, J. P. (2014). Can professional environments in schools promote teacher development? Explaining heterogeneity in returns to teaching experience. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 36(4), 476–500.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Le Fevre, D. M. (2014). Barriers to implementing pedagogical change: The role of teachers’ perceptions of risk. Teaching and Teacher Education, 38, 56–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Leimeister, J. M. (2010). Collective intelligence. Business & Information Systems Engineering, 2(4), 245–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Liden, R., Wayne, S., Liao, C., & Meuser, J. (2013). Servant leadership and serving culture: Influence on individual and unit performance. Academy of Management Journal, 57(5), 1434–1452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Lieberman, A., & Mace, D. (2008). Teacher learning: The key to educational reform. Journal of Teacher Education, 59(30), 226–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Little, J. W. (1990). The persistence of privacy: Autonomy and initiative in teachers’ professional lives. The Teacher’s College Record, 91(4), 510–536.Google Scholar
  74. Little, J. W. (2012). Professional community and professional development in the learning-centered school (pp. 22–46). Teacher learning that matters: International perspectives.Google Scholar
  75. Lortie, D. C. (1975). Schoolteacher: A sociological study. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  76. Meyer, J. W., & Rowan, B. (1977). Institutionalized organizations: Formal structure as myth and ceremony. American Journal of Sociology, 83(2), 340–363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Morrow, S. L., McGonagle, A. K., Dove-Steinkamp, M. L., Walker, C. T., Jr., Marmet, M., & Barnes-Farrell, J. L. (2010). Relationships between psychological safety climate facets and safety behavior in the rail industry: A dominance analysis. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 42(5), 1460–1467.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. O’Day, J. (2002). Complexity, accountability, and school improvement. Harvard Educational Review, 72(3), 293–329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. O’Reilly, C. A., & Pfeffer, J. (2000). Hidden value: How great companies achieve extraordinary results with ordinary people. Cambridge: Harvard Business Press.Google Scholar
  80. Orthner, D. K., Jones-Sanpei, H., Akos, P., & Rose, R. A. (2013). Improving middle school student engagement through career-relevant instruction in the core curriculum. The Journal of Educational Research, 106(1), 27–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Osterman, K. F. (2000). Students’ need for belonging in the school community. Review of Educational Research, 70(3), 323–367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Preston, C., Goldring, E., Berends, M., & Cannata, M. (2012). School innovation in district context: Comparing traditional public schools and charter schools. Economics of Education Review, 31(2), 318–330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Roethlisberger, F. J. (1939). Management and the worker. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  84. Ronfeldt, M., Loeb, S., & Wyckoff, J. (2013). How teacher turnover harms student achievement. American Educational Research Journal, 50(1), 4–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Sackmann, S. A. (1992). Culture and subcultures: An analysis of organizational knowledge. Administrative Science Quarterly, 37(1), 140–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Sahlberg, P. (2010). Rethinking accountability in a knowledge society. Journal of Educational Change, 11(1), 45–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Sass, T. R., Hannaway, J., Xu, Z., Figlio, D. N., & Feng, L. (2012). Value added of teachers in high-poverty schools and lower poverty schools. Journal of Urban Economics, 72(2), 104–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Schein, E. H. (1985). Defining organizational culture. Classics of organization theory, 3, 490–502.Google Scholar
  89. Schein, E. H. (1993). On dialogue, culture, and organizational learning. Organizational Dynamics, 22(2), 40–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Schein, E. H. (1996). Culture: The missing concept in organization studies. Administrative Science Quarterly, 41, 229–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Schein, E. H. (2010). Organizational culture and leadership (Vol. 2). Hoboken: Wiley.Google Scholar
  92. Schein, E. H., & Bennis, W. G. (1965). Personal and organizational change through group methods: The laboratory approach. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  93. Schwartz, A. E., Stiefel, L., & Chalico, L. (2009). The multiple dimensions of student mobility and implications for academic performance: Evidence from New York City elementary and middle school students. A condition report for the New York education finance research consortium. Prepared for the Education Finance Research Consortium, New York.Google Scholar
  94. Shipps, D., & White, M. (2009). A new politics of the principalship? Accountability-driven change in New York City. Peabody Journal of Education, 84(3), 350–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Siegel, A. E., & Siegel, S. (1957). Reference groups, membership groups, and attitude change. The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 55(3), 360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Sigelman, L., & Zeng, L. (1999). Analyzing censored and sample-selected data with Tobit and Heckit models. Political Analysis, 8(2), 167–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Simon, N. S., & Johnson, S. M. (2015). Teacher turnover in high-poverty schools: What we know and can do. Teachers College Record, 117(3), 1–36.Google Scholar
  98. Spillane, J. P., Parise, L. M., & Sherer, J. Z. (2011). Organizational routines as coupling mechanisms policy, school administration, and the technical core. American Educational Research Journal, 48(3), 586–619.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Spillane, J. P., & Thompson, C. L. (1997). Reconstructing conceptions of local capacity: The local education agency’s capacity for ambitious instructional reform. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 19(2), 185–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Stuit, D. A. (2010). Are bad schools immortal? The scarcity of turnaround and shutdowns in both charter and district sectors. Washington, DC: Thomas B. Fordham Institute.Google Scholar
  101. Thapa, A., Cohen, J., Guffey, S., & Higgins-D’Alessandro, A. (2013). A review of school climate research. Review of Educational Research, 83(3), 357–385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Triandis, H. C., & Vassiliou, V. (1972). Interpersonal influence and employee selection in two cultures. Journal of Applied Psychology, 56(2), 140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Trice, H. M., & Beyer, J. M. (1993). The cultures of work organizations. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  104. Tschannen-Moran, M. (2014). Trust matters: Leadership for successful schools. Hoboken: Wiley.Google Scholar
  105. Tschannen-Moran, M., & Hoy, A. W. (2001). Teacher efficacy: Capturing an elusive construct. Teaching and Teacher Education, 17(7), 783–805.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Turner, J. C., Christensen, A., Kackar-Cam, H. Z., Trucano, M., & Fulmer, S. M. (2014). Enhancing students’ engagement report of a 3-year intervention with middle school teachers. American Educational Research Journal, 51(6), 1195–1226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Twisk, J., & Rijmen, F. (2009). Longitudinal tobit regression: A new approach to analyze outcome variables with floor or ceiling effects. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 62(9), 953–958.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Van Maanen, J. (1979). The self, the situation, and the rules of interpersonal relations. In W. Bennis, J. Van Maanen, E. H. Schein & F. I. Steele (Eds.), Essays in interpersonal dynamics (pp. 43–101) Homewood, IL: Dorsey Press.Google Scholar
  109. Wahlstrom, K. L., & Louis, K. S. (2008). How teachers experience principal leadership: The roles of professional community, trust, efficacy, and shared responsibility. Educational administration quarterly, 44(4), 458–495.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Wahlstrom, K., Louis, K. S., Leithwood, K., & Anderson, S. (2010). Investigating the links to improved student learning. Minneapolis: Center for Applied Research and Educational Improvement.Google Scholar
  111. Wang, M. T., & Eccles, J. S. (2012). Adolescent behavioral, emotional, and cognitive engagement trajectories in school and their differential relations to educational success. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 22(1), 31–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Wang, M. T., & Holcombe, R. (2010). Adolescents’ perceptions of school environment, engagement, and academic achievement in middle school. American Educational Research Journal, 47(3), 633–662.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Wanless, S. B. (2016). Bringing psychological safety to the field of human development: An introduction. Research in Human Development, 13(1), 1–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Weick, K. E. (1995). Sensemaking in organizations (Vol. 3). Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  115. Weiner, J. (2011). Finding common ground: Teacher leaders and principals speak out about teacher leadership. Journal of School Leadership, 21(1), 7–41.Google Scholar
  116. Weiner, J. M. (2014). Disabling conditions: Investigating instructional leadership teams in action. Journal of Educational Change, 15(3), 253–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Wells, C. M., & Feun, L. (2012). Educational change and professional learning communities: A study of two districts. Journal of Educational Change, 14, 233–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Wigfield, A., & Guthrie, J. T. (2000). Engagement and motivation in reading. Handbook of Reading Research, 3, 403–422.Google Scholar
  119. Woolley, A. W., Chabris, C. F., Pentland, A., Hashmi, N., & Malone, T. W. (2010). Evidence for a collective intelligence factor in the performance of human groups. Science, 330(6004), 686–688.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. York-Barr, J., & Duke, K. (2004). What do we know about teacher leadership? Findings from two decades of scholarship. Review of Educational Research, 74(3), 255–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Neag School of EducationUniversity of ConnecticutStorrsUSA
  2. 2.Harvard Graduate School of EducationCambridgeUSA

Personalised recommendations