Displaced morphology in German verb clusters: an argument for post-syntactic morphology

Abstract

In this paper I will provide a new argument for post-syntactic morphology. The empirical evidence comes from so-called displaced morphology in German verb clusters, where the non-finite verb form selected by a given governor does not appear on the immediately dependent verb but rather on the linearly last verb of the selector’s complement. The placement of the morphology thus partly depends on linear notions and not exclusively on hierarchical relations. I will provide an analysis within Distributed Morphology (Halle and Marantz in The view from Building 20. Essays in linguistics in honour of Sylvain Bromberger, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, pp 111–176, 1993), where exponents for non-finite morphology are inserted into separate functional heads which are linearized after their VP-complements. At a late stage of the PF-derivation, the exponents are associated with their verbal hosts by means of Local Dislocation, an operation that applies under adjacency (Embick and Noyer in Linguist Inq 32(4):555–595, 2001). As a consequence, the non-finite morphology always comes last in the selector’s complement. Displacement arises once the immediately dependent verb is not the last verbal element in the complement of its selector; this is generally the case in strictly ascending orders, while in the strictly descending 321 order the morphology is faithfully realized. The placement operation is thus always the same, displacement only emerges as a side effect of certain cluster orders. Further evidence for a post-syntactic approach to the placement of non-finite morphology and against a pre-syntactic perspective comes from the absence of semantic effects under displacement, the emergence of non-finite verb forms specified for more than one non-finite category under multiple displacement and the distribution of default forms.

References

  1. Abeillé, Anne, Olivier Bonami, Danièle Godard, and Jesse Tseng. 2006. The syntax of French à and de: an HPSG analysis. In Syntax and semantics of prepositions, ed. Patrick Saint-Dizier, 147–162. Dordrecht: Springer.

    Google Scholar 

  2. Abels, Klaus. 2016. The fundamental left-right asymmetry in the Germanic verb cluster. The Journal of Comparative Germanic Linguistics 19 (3): 179–220.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Adger, David. 2003. Core syntax. A minimalist approach. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  4. Arregi, Karlos, and Andrew Nevins. 2012. Morphotactics. Basque auxiliaries and the structure of spellout. Dordrecht: Springer.

  5. Bader, Markus, and Tanja Schmid. 2009. Verb clusters in Colloquial German. The Journal of Comparative Germanic Linguistics 12 (3): 175–228.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Bader, Thomas. 1995. Missing and misplaced z’ in Bernese Swiss German. In Topics in Swiss German syntax, ed. Zvi Penner, 19–28. Bern: Peter Lang.

    Google Scholar 

  7. Barbiers, Sjef. 2005. Word order variation in three verb clusters and the division of labor between generative linguistics and sociolinguistics. In Syntax and variation. Reconciling the biological and the social, ed. Leonie Cornips, and Karen P. Corrigan, 233–264. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

  8. Barbiers, Sjef, Johan van der Auwera, Hans Bennis, Eefje Boef, Gunther de Vogelaer, and Margreet van der Ham. 2008. Syntactic atlas of the Dutch dialects, vol. 2. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  9. Barss, Andrew. 1986. Chains and anaphoric dependencies. Doctoral dissertation, MIT.

  10. Bech, Gunnar. 1963. Grammatische Gesetze im Widerspruch. Lingua 12 (3): 291–299.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Bech, Gunnar. 1983. Studien über das deutsche verbum infinitum. Tübingen: Niemeyer.

    Google Scholar 

  12. Behaghel, Otto. 1923–1932. Deutsche syntax. Eine geschichtliche Darstellung. Heidelberg: Carl Winter.

  13. Bickel, Balthasar, Goma Banjade, Martin Gaenszle, Elena Lieven, Netra Paudyal, Ichchha P. Rai, Manoj Rai, Novel K. Rai, and Sabine Stoll. 2007. Free prefix ordering in Chintang. Language 83 (1): 43–73.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Bölsing, Friedrich. 2011. Niederdeutsche Sprachlehre: Plattdeutsch im Kirchspiel Lindhorst, Schaumburg-Lippe. Hildesheim: Olms.

    Google Scholar 

  15. Bruening, Benjamin. 2017. Consolidated morphology. A non-distributed, purely syntactic theory of morphology. Ms. University of Delaware.

  16. Chomsky, Noam. 1995. The minimalist program. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

    Google Scholar 

  17. Comrie, Bernard, and Uli Frauenfelder. 1992. The verbal complex in Gurinerdeutsch. Linguistics 30 (6): 1031.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Cooper, Kathrin E. 1995. Topics in Zurich German syntax. Groningen: Germanistisch Instituut.

    Google Scholar 

  19. De Vos, Mark. 2003. Past participles in Afrikaans dialects and Dutch. In Proceedings of the 22nd West Coast conference on formal linguistics, ed. Gina Garding, and Mimu Tsujimura, 519–532. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla.

  20. Demske-Neumann, Ulrike. 1994. Modales Passiv und tough movement. Zur strukturellen Kausalität eines syntaktischen Wandels im Deutschen und Englischen. Tübingen: Niemeyer.

  21. Den Dikken, Marcel, and Eric Hoekstra. 1997. Parasitic participles. Linguistics 35 (6): 1057–1090.

  22. Donaldson, Bruce C. 1993. A grammar of Afrikaans. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

    Google Scholar 

  23. Ebert, Robert Peter, Oskar Reichmann, Hans-Joachim Solms, and Klaus-Peter Wegera. 1993. Frühneuhochdeutsche Grammatik. Tübingen: Niemeyer.

    Google Scholar 

  24. Embick, David. 2007. Linearization and local dislocation: Derivational mechanics and interactions. Linguistic Analysis 33 (3–4): 303–336.

    Google Scholar 

  25. Embick, David. 2015. The morpheme. A theoretical introduction. Boston/Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton.

  26. Embick, David, and Rolf Noyer. 2001. Movement operations after syntax. Linguistic Inquiry 32 (4): 555–595.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Grimm, Jacob. 1837. Deutsche Grammatik. Vierter Theil. Göttingen: Dieterichsche Buchhandlung.

  28. Haegeman, Liliane. 1998. V-positions and the middle field in West Flemish. Syntax 1 (3): 259–299.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Haegeman, Liliane, and Henk van Riemsdijk. 1986. Verb projection raising, scope, and the typology of rules affecting verbs. Linguistic Inquiry 17 (3): 417–466.

    Google Scholar 

  30. Haider, Hubert. 2010. The syntax of German. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  31. Haider, Hubert. 2011. Grammatische Illusionen–lokal wohlgeformt–global deviant. Zeitschrift für Sprachwissenschaft 30 (2): 223–257.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Halle, Morris, and Alec Marantz. 1993. Distributed morphology and the pieces of inflection. In The view from Building 20. Essays in linguistics in honour of Sylvain Bromberger, ed. Ken Hale, and Samuel Jay Keyser, 111–176. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

  33. Harizanov, Boris, and Vera Gribanova. 2014. Inward-sensitive contextual allomorphy and its conditioning factors. In Proceedings of the 43rd annual meeting of the North East Linguistic Society, vol. 1, ed. Hsin-Lun Huang, Ethan Poole, and Amanda Rysling, 155–166. Amherst, MA: GLSA.

  34. Heilmann, Axel. 1999. Die VP im Schwäbischen, Doctoral dissertation. University of Stuttgart.

  35. Hinterhölzl, Roland. 2009. The IPP-effect, phrasal affixes and repair strategies in the syntax-morphology interface. Linguistische Berichte 2009 (218): 191–215.

    Google Scholar 

  36. Hinterhölzl, Roland. 2018. Implications of displaced affixes for the analysis of non-finite morphology and the headedness of the VP in German. In Syntax aus Saarbrücker Sicht 2. Beiträge der SaRDiS-Tagung zur Dialektsyntax, ed. Augustin Speyer, and Philipp Rauth, 69–88. Stuttgart: Steiner.

  37. Hodler, Werner. 1969. Berndeutsche syntax. Bern: Francke Verlag.

    Google Scholar 

  38. Hoeksema, Jack. 1993. Tegenwoordig-deelwoordgroepen I: Een merkwaardig randgeval. Tabu 23 (3): 171–174.

    Google Scholar 

  39. Hoeksema, Jack. 1995. Nevenschikking onder te. Tabu 25 (3): 156–157.

    Google Scholar 

  40. Höhle, Tilman N. 2006. Observing non-finite verbs: some 3V phenomena in German-Dutch. In Form, structure, and grammar. A festschrift presented to Günther Grewendorf on occasion of his 60th birthday, ed. Patrick Brandt, and Eric Fuß, 55–77. Berlin: Akademie Verlag.

  41. Jäger, Agnes. 2018. On the history of the IPP construction in German. In Clause structure and word order in the history of German, ed. Agnes Jäger, Gisella Ferraresi, and Helmut Weiß, 302–323. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  42. Kramer, Ruth. 2010. The Amharic definite marker and the syntax-morphology interface. Syntax 13 (3): 196–240.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  43. Lötscher, Andreas. 1978. Zur Verbstellung im Zürichdeutschen und in anderen Varianten des Deutschen. Zeitschrift für Dialektologie und Linguistik 45: 1–29.

    Google Scholar 

  44. Merkes, Peter Wilhelm. 1895. Der neuhochdeutsche Infinitiv als Teil einer umschriebenen Zeitform: Historisch-grammatische Betrachtungen, Doctoral Dissertation. University of Göttingen.

  45. Meurers, Walt Detmar. 2000. Lexical generalizations in the syntax of German non-finite constructions, Doctoral Dissertation. Universität Tübingen.

  46. Miller, Philip H. 1992. Clitics and constituents in phrase structure grammar. New York: Garland.

    Google Scholar 

  47. Müller, Gereon. 2010. Movement from verb-second clauses revisited. In Language and logos. A Festschrift for Peter Staudacher, ed. Thomas Hanneforth, and Gisbert Fanselow, 97–128. Berlin: Akademieverlag.

  48. Müller, Stefan. 2003. Solving the bracketing paradox: An analysis of the morphology of German particle verbs. Journal of Linguistics 39 (2): 275–325.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  49. Pots, Cora. 2017a. Displaced morphology in Dutch: Variation in non-finite verb clusters. Paper presented at ConSOLE XXV—Leipzig, January 6, 2017.

  50. Pots, Cora. 2017b. Te-raising is clitic climbing. In Linguistics in the Netherlands 2017, ed. Sander Lestrade, and Bert Le Bruyn, 127–141. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

    Google Scholar 

  51. Reis, Marga. 1979. Ansätze zu einer realistischen Grammatik. In Befund und Bedeutung. Zum Verhältnis von Empirie und Interpretation in Sprach- und Literaturwissenschaft, ed. Klaus Grubmüller, Ernst Hellgardt, Heinrich Jellissen, and Marga Reis, 1–21. Tübingen: Niemeyer.

  52. Sabel, Joachim. 2000. Das Verbstellungsproblem im Deutschen: Synchronie und Diachronie. Deutsche Sprache 28: 74–99.

    Google Scholar 

  53. Salzmann, Martin. 2011. Resolving the movement paradox in verb projection raising. In Empirical issues in syntax and semantics, vol. 8, ed. Olivier Bonami, and Patricia Cabredo Hofherr, 453–485. Paris: CNRS.

  54. Salzmann, Martin. 2013a. New arguments for verb cluster formation at PF and a right-branching VP. Evidence from verb doubling and cluster penetrability. Linguistic Variation 13 (1): 81–132.

  55. Salzmann, Martin. 2013b. Rule ordering in verb cluster formation: On the extraposition paradox and the placement of the ininitival particle te/zu. In Rule interaction in grammar. Vol 90 of Linguistische Arbeitsberichte, ed. Fabian Heck, and Anke Assmann, 65–121. Leipzig: University of Leipzig.

  56. Salzmann, Martin. 2016. Displaced morphology in German-Evidence for post-syntactic morphology. In Replicative processes in grammar Vol. 93 of Linguistische Arbeitsberichte (LAB), ed. Katja Barnickel, Matías Guzmán-Naranjo, Johannes Hein, Sampson Korsah, Andrew Murphy, Ludger Paschen, Zorica Puškar, and Joanna Zaleska, 401–446. Leipzig: Leipzig University.

  57. Salzmann, Martin. 2019. On the limits of variation in Continental West-Germanic verb clusters. Evidence from VP-stranding, extraposition and displaced morphology for the existence of clusters with 213 order. Journal of Comparative Germanic Linguistics 22 (1): 55–108. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10828-019-09104-x.

  58. Schallert, Oliver. 2019a. A note on misplaced or wrongly attached zu ‘to’ in German. Journal of Germanic Linguistics (To appear).

  59. Schallert, Oliver. 2019b. Portrait of the clitic as a young affix: Infinitivisches zu im Niemandsland zwischen Morphologie und Syntax. In Syntax aus Saarbrücker Sicht 3. Beiträge der SaRDiS-Tagung zur Dialektsyntax, ed. Augustin Speyer, and Julia Hertel. Stuttgart: Steiner.

  60. Schmeller, Johann Andreas. 1821. Die Mundarten Bayerns grammatisch dargestellt. München: Karl Thienemann.

    Google Scholar 

  61. Schmid, Tanja. 2005. Infinitival syntax. Infinitivus pro participio as a repair strategy. Amsterdam: Benjamins.

  62. Schmid, Tanja, and Ralf Vogel. 2004. Dialectal variation in German 3-verb clusters: A surface-oriented optimality theoretic account. The Journal of Comparative Germanic Linguistics 7 (3): 235–274.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  63. Seiler, Guido. 2002. Prepositional dative marking in Upper German: A case of syntactic microvariation. In Syntactic microvariation, ed. Sjef Barbiers, Leonie Cornips, and Susanne Van-derKleij, 243–279. Amsterdam: Meertens Institut.

    Google Scholar 

  64. Sperschneider, Heinz. 1959. Studien zur Syntax der Mundarten im östlichen Thüringer Wald. Marburg: N. G. Elwert Verlag.

    Google Scholar 

  65. Steil, Claudia. 1989. Untersuchungen zum Verbalkomplex im Schwäbischen, MA Thesis. University of Tübingen.

  66. Steube, Anita. 1995. Flexibler Umgang mit funktionalen Kategorien: Unterstützung aus einer Mundartgrammatik. In Chronologische, areale und situative Varietäten des Deutschen in der Sprachhistographie. Festschrift für Rudolf Große, ed. Gotthard Lerchner, Marianne Schröder, and Ulla Fix, 421–434. Frankfurt: Peter Lang.

  67. Stiebels, Barbara, and Dieter Wunderlich. 1994. Morphology feeds syntax: The case of particle verbs. Linguistics 32 (6): 913–968.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  68. Stump, Gregory T. 2001. Inflectional morphology: A theory of paradigm structure. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  69. Vogel, Ralf. 2009. Skandal im Verbkomplex. Betrachtungen zur scheinbar inkorrekten Morphologie in infiniten Verbkomplexen des Deutschen. Zeitschrift für Sprachwissenschaft 28 (2): 307–346.

  70. Weber, Albert. 1987. Zürichdeutsche Grammatik: ein Wegweiser zur guten Mundart. Zürich: Schweizer Spiegel Verlag.

    Google Scholar 

  71. Weise, Oskar. 1900. Syntax der Altenburger Mundart. Leipzig: Breitkopf u. Härtel.

    Google Scholar 

  72. Wiklund, Anna-Lena. 2001. Dressing up for vocabulary insertion: The parasitic supine. Natural Language & Linguistic Theory 19 (1): 199–228.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  73. Williams, Edwin. 2004. The structure of clusters. In Verb clusters: A study of Hungarian, German, and Dutch, ed. Katalin É. Kiss, and Henk van Riemsdijk, 173–201. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

  74. Wurmbrand, Susi. 2004a. Syntactic vs. post-syntactic movement. In Proceedings of the 2003 annual conference of the Canadian Linguistic Association, eds. Sophie Burelle and Stanca Somesfalean, 284–295. Montreal: Université du Québec à Montréal

  75. Wurmbrand, Susi. 2004b. Two types of restructuring—lexical vs. functional. Lingua 114 (8): 991–1014.

  76. Wurmbrand, Susi. 2004c. West Germanic verb clusters: The empirical domain. In Verb clusters: A study of Hungarian, German, and Dutch, ed. Katalin É Kiss, and Henk van Riemsdijk, 43–85. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

  77. Wurmbrand, Susi. 2007. How complex are complex predicates? Syntax 10 (3): 243–288.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  78. Wurmbrand, Susi. 2012. Parasitic participles in Germanic: Evidence for the theory of verb clusters. Taal en Tongval: Tijdschrift voor Taalvariatie 64 (1): 129–156.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  79. Wurmbrand, Susi. 2013. Scandalous orders in German verb clusters: A corpus view. Paper presented at the 19th Germanic Linguistics Annual Conference, Buffalo.

  80. Wurmbrand, Susi. 2014. Tense and aspect in English infinitives. Linguistic Inquiry 45 (3): 403–447.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  81. Wurmbrand, Susi. 2017. Verb clusters, verb raising, and restructuring. In The Blackwell companion to syntax, 2nd ed, ed. Martin Everaert, and Henk van Riemsdijk. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.

    Google Scholar 

  82. Zwart, Jan-Wouter. 1993. Dutch syntax. A minimalist approach, Ph.D. dissertation. University of Groningen.

  83. Zwart, Jan-Wouter. 2007. Some notes on the origin and distribution of the IPP-effect. Groninger Arbeiten zur Germanistischen Linguistik 45: 77–99.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Martin Salzmann.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Salzmann, M. Displaced morphology in German verb clusters: an argument for post-syntactic morphology. J Comp German Linguistics 22, 1–53 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10828-019-09103-y

Download citation

Keywords

  • Verb clusters
  • Post-syntactic morphology
  • Distributed Morphology
  • Morphological selection
  • Displaced morphology
  • IPP-effect
  • Participles
  • Infinitives
  • Local Dislocation
  • Adjacency
  • Haplology
  • Lowering
  • Cyclicity
  • West-Germanic
  • German dialects
  • Swiss German