Ainsworth, M., & Ainsworth, L. (1958). Measuring security and personal adjustment. Toronto, Ontario: University of Toronto Press.
Alarid, L. F., & Vega, O. L. (2010). Identity construction, self perceptions, and criminal behavior of incarcerated women. Deviant Behavior, 31(8), 704–728.
Allen, J. P., Marsh, P., McFarland, C., McElhaney, K. B., Land, D. J., Jodl, K. M., & Peck, S. (2002). Attachment and autonomy as predictors of the development of social skills and delinquency during midadolescence. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 70(1), 56–66.
Alonso-Stuyck, P., Zacarés, J. J., & Ferreres, A. (2018). Emotional separation, autonomy in decision-making, and psychosocial adjustment in adolescence: a proposed typology. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 27(2), 1373–1383.
Alvira-Hammond, M., Longmore, M. A., Manning, W. D., & Giordano, P. C. (2014). Gainful activity and intimate partner aggression in emerging adulthood. Emerging Adulthood, 2(2), 116–127.
Arditti, J. A., & Savla, J. (2015). Parental incarceration and child trauma symptoms in single caregiver homes. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 24(3), 551–561.
Arditti, J. A., Smock, S. A., & Parkman, T. S. (2005). “It’s been hard to be a father”: a qualitative exploration of incarcerated fatherhood. Fathering: A Journal of Theory, Research, and Practice about Men as Fathers, 3(3), 267–288.
Arnett, J. J. (2000). Emerging adulthood: a theory of development from the late teens through the twenties. American Psychologist, 55(5), 469–480.
Asencio, E. K., & Burke, P. J. (2011). Does incarceration change the criminal identity? A synthesis of labeling and identity theory perspectives on identity change. Sociological Perspectives, 54(2), 163–182.
Besemer, S., Van der Geest, V., Murray, J., Bijleveld, C. C., & Farrington, D. P. (2011). The relationship between parental imprisonment and offspring offending in England and the Netherlands. British Journal of Criminology, 51(2), 413–437.
Beyers, W., Goossens, L., Van Calster, B., & Duriez, B. (2005). An alternative substantive factor structure for the emotional autonomy scale. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 21(3), 147–155.
Blos, P. (1979). The adolescent passage: Developmental issues. New York, NY: International Universities Press.
Bocknek, E. L., Sanderson, J., & Britner, P. A. (2009). Ambiguous loss and posttraumatic stress in school-age children of prisoners. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 18(3), 323–333.
Boduszek, D., Dhingra, K., & Debowska, A. (2016). The integrated psychosocial model of criminal social identity (IPM-CSI). Deviant Behavior, 37(9), 1023–1031.
Boudin, K., & Zeller-Berkman, S. (2010). Children of promise. In Y. R. Harris, J. A. Graham & G. J. Oliver Carpenter (Eds), Children of incarcerated parents: Theoretical, developmental, and clinical issues (pp. 73–101). New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company.
Brownfield, D., & Thompson, K. (2008). Correlates of delinquent identity: testing interactionist, labeling, and control theory. International Journal of Criminal Justice Sciences, 3(1), 44–53.
Burgess-Proctor, A., Huebner, B. M., & Durso, J. M. (2016). Comparing the effects of maternal and paternal incarceration on adult daughters’ and sons’ criminal justice system involvement: a gendered pathways analysis. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 43(8), 1034–1055.
Carson, E. A., & Anderson, E. (2016). Prisoners in 2015 (Bureau of Justice Statistics Bulletin). https://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/p15.pdf.
Crank, B. R. (2018). Accepting deviant identities: the impact of self-labeling on intentions to desist from crime. Journal of Crime and Justice, 41(2), 155–172.
Dallaire, D. H., Ciccone, A., & Wilson, L. C. (2010). Teachers’ experiences with and expectations of children with incarcerated parents. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 31(4), 281–290.
Dallaire, D. H., Zeman, J. L., & Thrash, T. M. (2015). Children’s experiences of maternal incarceration-specific risks: predictions to psychological maladaptation. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 44(1), 109–122.
Dwairy, M., & Achoui, M. (2010). Adolescents-family connectedness: a first cross-cultural research on parenting and psychological adjustment of children. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 19(1), 8–15.
Dyer, W. J. (2005). Prison, fathers, and identity: a theory of how incarceration affects men’s paternal identity. Fathering: A Journal of Theory, Research, and Practice about Men as Fathers, 3(3), 201–219.
Ebersole, D. S., Miller-Day, M., & Raup-Krieger, J. (2014). Do actions speak louder than words? Adolescent interpretations of parental substance use. Journal of Family Communication, 14(4), 328–351.
Elliott, D. S., & Ageton, S. S. (1980). Reconciling race and class differences in self-reported and official estimates of delinquency. American Sociological Review, 45(1), 95–110.
Erikson, E. H. (1968). Identity: Youth and crisis. 7th en New York, NY: WW Norton & Company.
Forster, M., Davis, L., Shlafer, R., & Unger, J. B. (2019). Household incarceration and salient emerging adult role transitions: findings from an urban sample of Hispanic youth. Emerging Adulthood, 7(1), 3–11.
Foster, H., & Hagan, J. (2015). Punishment regimes and the multilevel effects of parental incarceration: intergenerational, intersectional, and interinstitutional models of social inequality and systemic exclusion. Annual Review of Sociology, 41(1), 135–158.
Frank, S. J., Pirsch, L. A., & Wright, V. C. (1990). Late adolescents’ perceptions of their relationships with their parents: relationships among deidealization, autonomy, relatedness, and insecurity and implications for adolescent adjustment and ego identity status. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 19(6), 571–588.
Gecas, V. (1982). The self-concept. Annual Review of Sociology, 8(1), 1–33.
Gecas, V., & Burke, P. J. (1995). Self and identity. In K. S. Cook, G. A. Fine & J. S. House (Eds), Sociological perspectives on social psychology (pp. 41–67). Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
Geller, A., Cooper, C. E., Garfinkel, I., Schwartz-Soicher, O., & Mincy, R. B. (2012). Beyond absenteeism: Father incarceration and child development. Demography, 49(1), 49–76.
Geuzaine, C., Debry, M., & Liesens, V. (2000). Separation from parents in late adolescence: the same for boys and girls? Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 29(1), 79–91.
Giordano, P. C. (2010). Legacies of crime: A follow-up of the children of highly delinquent girls and boys. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
Giordano, P. C., & Copp, J. E. (2015). “Packages” of risk: Implications for determining the effect of maternal incarceration on child wellbeing. Criminology & Public Policy, 14(1), 157–168.
Giordano, P. C., Longmore, M. A., Manning, W. D., & Northcutt, M. J. (2009). Adolescent identities and sexual behavior: An examination of Anderson’s player hypothesis. Social Forces, 87(4), 1813–1843.
Giordano, P. C., Millhollin, T. J., Cernkovich, S. A., Pugh, M. D., & Rudolph, J. L. (1999). Delinquency, identity, and women’s involvement in relationship violence. Criminology, 37(1), 17–40.
Glaze, L. E., & Maruschak, L. M. (2008). Parents in prison and their minor children (Bureau of Justice Statistics Bulletin). http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/pptmc.pdf.
Goffman, E. (1963). Stigma: Notes on the management of spoiled identity. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Hagan, J., & Foster, H. (2012). Intergenerational educational effects of mass imprisonment in America. Sociology of Education, 85(3), 259–286.
Hahl, J. M., Alarid, L. F., Harris, R. J., & Firestone, J. M. (2016). Comparing criminal outcomes for children of fathers and mothers who are incarcerated: Dallaire revisited. Corrections, 1(3), 177–195.
Haskins, A. R., Amorim, M., & Mingo, M. (2018). Parental incarceration and child outcomes: those at risk, evidence of impacts, methodological insights, and areas of future work. Sociology Compass, 12(3), 1–14.
Heimer, K., & Matsueda, R. L. (1994). Role-taking, role commitment, and delinquency: a theory of differential social control. American Sociological Review, 59(3), 365–390.
Hirschi, T. (1969). Causes of delinquency. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Hoffman, J. A. (1984). Psychological separation of late adolescents from their parents. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 31(2), 170–178.
Ingoglia, S., Lo Coco, A., Liga, F., & Grazia Lo Cricchio, M. (2011). Emotional separation and detachment as two distinct dimensions of parent-adolescent relationships. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 35(3), 271–281.
Johnson, W. L., Giordano, P. C., Longmore, M. A., & Manning, W. D. (2016). Parents, identities, and trajectories of antisocial behavior from adolescence to young adulthood. Journal of Developmental and Life-Course Criminology, 2(4), 442–465.
Johnston, D. & Sullivan, M. (Eds) (2016). Parental incarceration: Personal accounts and developmental impact. New York, NY: Routledge.
Josselson, R. L. (1980). Ego development in adolescence. In J. Adelson (Ed.), Handbook of Adolescent Psychology (pp. 188–210). New York, NY: Wiley.
Kaniušonytė, G., & Žukauskienė, R. (2018). Relationships with parents, identity styles, and positive youth development during the transition from adolescence to emerging adulthood. Emerging Adulthood, 6(1), 42–52.
Kautz, S. V. (2017). Adolescent adaptation to parental incarceration. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal, 34(6), 557–572.
Kjellstrand, J. M., & Eddy, J. M. (2011). Parental incarceration during childhood, family context, and youth problem behavior across adolescence. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 50(1), 18–36.
Koepke, S., & Denissen, J. J. A. (2012). Dynamics of identity development and separation–individuation in parent–child relationships during adolescence and emerging adulthood–A conceptual integration. Developmental Review, 32(1), 67–88.
Kroger, J. (1985). Separation-individuation and ego identity status in New Zealand university students. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 14(2), 133–147.
Lapsley, D. K., Rice, K. G., & Shadid, G. E. (1989). Psychological separation and adjustment to college. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 36(3), 286–294.
Lee, R. D., Fang, X., & Luo, F. (2013). The impact of parental incarceration on the physical and mental health of young adults. Pediatrics, 131(4), 1188–1195.
Lemert, E. M. (1967). Human deviance, social problems, and social control. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Luther, K. (2016). Stigma management among children of incarcerated parents. Deviant Behavior, 37(11), 1264–1275.
Mahler, M. S. (1967). On human symbiosis and the vicissitudes of individuation. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 15(4), 740–763.
Mahler, M. S., Pine, F., & Bergman, A. (2015). The psychological birth of the human infant symbiosis and individuation. New York, NY: Basic Books.
Majorano, M., Musetti, A., Brondino, M., & Corsano, P. (2015). Loneliness, emotional autonomy and motivation for solitary behavior during adolescence. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 24(11), 3436–3447.
Matsueda, R. L. (1992). Reflected appraisals, parental labeling, and delinquency: specifying a symbolic interactionist theory. American Journal of Sociology, 97(6), 1577–1611.
Maurer, T. W., Pleck, J. H., & Rane, T. R. (2001). Parental identity and reflected‐appraisals: measurement and gender dynamics. Journal of Marriage and Family, 63(2), 309–321.
Mears, D. P., & Siennick, S. E. (2016). Young adult outcomes and the life-course penalties of parental incarceration. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 53(1), 3–35.
Murray, J., Bijleveld, C. C., Farrington, D. P., & Loeber, R. (2014). Effects of parental incarceration on children: Cross-national comparative studies. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Murray, J., Loeber, R., & Pardini, D. (2012). Parental involvement in the criminal justice system and the development of youth theft, marijuana use. depression, and poor academic performance. Criminology, 50(1), 255–302.
Pace, U., & Zappulla, C. (2010). Relations between suicidal ideation, depression, and emotional autonomy from parents in adolescence. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 19(6), 747–756.
Phillips, S. D., & Gates, T. (2011). A conceptual framework for understanding the stigmatization of children of incarcerated parents. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 20(3), 286–294.
Pratt, T. C., Cullen, F. T., Sellers, C. S., Winfree, Jr., L. T., Madensen, T. D., Daigle, L. E., Fearn, N. E., & Gau, J. M. (2010). The empirical status of social learning theory: a meta‐analysis. Justice Quarterly, 27(6), 765–802.
Reslan, S., Saules, K. K., & Serras, A. (2011). “Partier” self-concept mediates the relationship between college student binge drinking and related adverse consequences. Addictive Behaviors, 36(8), 855–860.
Rocque, M., Posick, C., & Paternoster, R. (2016). Identities through time: an exploration of identity change as a cause of desistance. Justice Quarterly, 33(1), 45–72.
Rosenberg, M. (1979). Conceiving the self. New York, NY: Basic Books.
Rosenberg, M. (1981). The self-concept: Social product and social force. In M. Rosenberg & R. H. Turner (Eds), Social psychology: Sociological perspectives (pp. 593–624). New York, NY: Basic Books Inc.
Saunders, V. (2018). What does your dad do for a living? Children of prisoners and their experiences of stigma. Children and Youth Services Review, 90, 21–27.
Schroeder, R. D., Giordano, P. C., & Cernkovich, S. A. (2010). Adult child-parent bonds and life course criminality. Journal of Criminal Justice, 38(4), 562–571.
Shaw, M. (2016). The racial implications of the effects of parental incarceration on intergenerational mobility. Sociology Compass, 10(12), 1102–1109.
Skardhamar, T., Savolainen, J., Aase, K. N., & Lyngstad, T. H. (2015). Does marriage reduce crime? Crime and Justice, 44(1), 385–446.
Steinberg, L., & Silverberg, S. B. (1986). The vicissitudes of autonomy in early adolescence. Child Development, 57(4), 841–851.
Straus, M. A., Hamby, S. L., Boney-McCoy, S., & Sugarman, D. B. (1996). The revised conflict tactics scales (CTS2) development and preliminary psychometric data. Journal of Family Issues, 17(3), 283–316.
Stryker, S. (1968). Identity salience and role performance: The relevance of symbolic interaction theory for family research. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 30(4), 558–564.
Stryker, S., & Burke, P. J. (2000). The past, present, and future of an identity theory. Social Psychology Quarterly, 63(4), 284–297.
Swisher, R. R., & Roettger, M. E. (2012). Father’s incarceration and youth delinquency and depression: examining differences by race and ethnicity. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 22(4), 597–603.
Swisher, R. R., & Shaw-Smith, U. R. (2015). Paternal incarceration and adolescent well-being: Life course contingencies and other moderators. Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology, 104(4), 929–959.
Thornberry, T. P., Freeman‐Gallant, A., & Lovegrove, P. J. (2009). Intergenerational linkages in antisocial behaviour. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, 19(2), 80–93.
Tonry, M. (2011). Punishing race: A continuing American dilemma. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Turney, K. (2014). Stress proliferation across generations? Examining the relationship between parental incarceration and childhood health. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 55(3), 302–319.
Turney, K. (2017). The unequal consequences of mass incarceration for children. Demography, 54(1), 361–389.
U.S. Census Bureau. (2011). American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates. Retrieved from https://factfinder.census.gov/faces/nav/jsf/pages/community_facts.xhtml.
Wakefield, S., & Wildeman, C. (2014). Children of the prison boom: Mass incarceration and the future of American inequality. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Wakefield, S., & Wildeman, C. (2018). How parental incarceration harms children and what to do about it. National Council on Family Relations, 3(1), 1–6.
Wildeman, C., Scardamalia, K., Walsh, E. G., O’Brien, R. L., & Brew, B. (2017). Paternal incarceration and teachers’ expectations of students. Socius, 3(1), 1–17.
Wildeman, C., & Turney, K. (2014). Positive, negative, or null? The effects of maternal incarceration on children’s behavioral problems. Demography, 51(3), 1041–1068.
Zupančič, M., & Kavčič, T. (2014). Student personality traits predicting individuation in relation to mothers and fathers. Journal of Adolescence, 37(5), 715–726.