Skip to main content

The Effects of Maternal and Paternal Helicopter Parenting on the Self-determination and Well-being of Emerging Adults

Abstract

Objectives

We examined gender differences in helicopter parenting and emerging adults’ well-being through the basic psychological needs of autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Based on gender congruence theory, we hypothesized that daughters’ well-being would be more adversely impacted by their mothers’ helicopter parenting compared to fathers’, while the opposite pattern would emerge for sons.

Method

Participants were 446 college students between 18–25 years old who completed an online survey. The majority of participants were white, female, underclassman from middle to upper-middle class families.

Results

Participants reported that their mothers engaged in more helicopter parenting than their fathers. Male and female participants did not differ in the amount of helicopter parenting they experienced, so we tested a model combining these sub-samples. Two minor differences were identified: Daughters reported maternal helicopter parenting was more strongly associated with decreased autonomy and sons reported paternal helicopter parenting was more strongly associated with a decreased relatedness. Thus, a partial equivalence model was tested with only these two paths free to vary between groups. Maternal helicopter parenting was indirectly associated with their children’s reduced well-being on all three measures (i.e., anxiety, depression, and satisfaction with life) through a reduced sense of autonomy and competence. Paternal helicopter parenting was only indirectly associated with their offspring’s well-being through autonomy.

Conclusions

Results supported prior research suggesting helicopter parenting adversely affects emerging adults’ well-being through its negative impact on the basic psychological needs of self-determination. There was limited support for gender differences in the impact of helicopter parenting on emerging adults.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1

References

  1. American College Health Association. (2017). American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment II: Reference group executive summary spring 2017. Hanover, MD: author. https://www.acha.org/documents/ncha/NCHA-II_SPRING_2017_REFERENCE_GROUP_EXECUTIVE_SUMMARY.pdf.

  2. Arnett, J. J. (2000). Emerging adulthood: a theory of development from the late teens through the twenties. American Psychologist, 55, 469–480. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.55.5.469.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  3. Auerbach, R. P., Mortier, P., Bruffaerts, R., Alonso, J., Benjet, C., Cuijpers, P., & Murray, E. (2018). WHO World Mental Health Surveys International College Student Project: prevalence and distribution of mental disorders. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 127, 623–638. https://doi.org/10.1037/abn0000362.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  4. Bhanot, R., & Jovanovic, J. (2005). Do parents’ academic gender stereotypes influence whether they intrude on their children’s homework? Sex Roles, 52, 597–607. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11199-005-3728-4.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Bornstein, M. H. (2012). Cultural approaches to parenting. Parenting, 12, 212–221. https://doi.org/10.1080/15295192.2012.683359.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  6. Bradley-Geist, J. C., & Olson-Buchanan, J. B. (2014). Helicopter parents: an examination of the correlates of over-parenting of college students. Education + Training, 56, 314–328. https://doi.org/10.1108/ET-10-2012-0096.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Brenning, K. M., Soenens, B., Van Petegem, S., & Kins, E. (2017). Searching for the roots of overprotective parenting in emerging adulthood: Investigating the link with parental attachment representations using an Actor Partner Interdependence Model (APIM). Journal of Child and Family Studies, 26, 2299–2310. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-017-0744-2.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Burke, T. J., Segrin, C., & Farris, K. L. (2018). Young adult and parent perceptions of facilitation: associations with overparenting, family functioning, and student adjustment. Journal of Family Communication, 18, 233–247. https://doi.org/10.1080/15267431.2018.1467913.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Center for Collegiate Mental Health (2017). 2016 annual report (Publication no. STA 17-74). https://sites.psu.edu/ccmh/files/2017/01/2016-Annual-Report-FINAL_2016_01_09-1gc2hj6.pdf.

  10. Cui, M., Graber, J.A., Metz, A., & Darling, C.A. (2016). Parental indulgence, self-regulation, and young adults’ behavioral and emotional problems. Journal of Family Studies. https://doi.org/10.1080/13229400.2016.1237884.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Darlow, V., Norvilitis, J. M., & Schuetze, P. (2017). The relationship between helicopter parenting and adjustment to college. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 26, 2291–2298. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-017-0751-3.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Day, R. D., & Padilla-Walker, L. M. (2009). Mother and father connectedness and involvement during early adolescence. Journal of Family Psychology, 23, 900–904. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0016438.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  13. Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2008). Facilitating optimal motivation and psychological well-being across life’s domains. Canadian Psychology, 49, 14–23. https://doi.org/10.1037/0708-5591.49.1.14.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Deci, E. & Ryan, R. (n.d.). Self-determination theory: an approach to human motivation and personality. http://www.selfdeterminationtheory.org/.

  15. Diener, E., Emmons, R. A., Larsen, R. J., & Griffin, S. (1985). The satisfaction with life scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49, 71–75. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327752jpa4901_13.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  16. Fingerman, K. L., Cheng, Y.-P., Wesselmann, E. D., Zarit, S., Fustenberg, F., & Birditt, K. S. (2012). Helicopter parents and landing pad kids: Intense parental support of grown children. Journal of Marriage and Family, 74, 880–896. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2012.00987.x.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  17. Fortier, M. S., Sweet, S. N., O’Sullivan, T. L., & Williams, G. C. (2007). A self-determination process model of physical activity adoption in the context of a randomized trial. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 8, 741–757. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2006.10.006.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Givertz, M., & Segrin, C. (2014). The association between overinvolved parenting and young adults’ self-efficacy, psychological entitlement, and family communication. Communication Research, 41, 1111–1136. https://doi.org/10.1177/0093650212456392.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Grolnick, W. S., & Ryan, R. M. (1989). Parent styles associated with children’s self-regulation and competence in school. Journal of Educational Psychology, 81, 143–154. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.81.2.143.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Grossmann, K., Grossmann, K. E., Fremmer-Bombik, E., Kindler, H., Scheuerer-Englisch, H., & Zimmermann, A. P. (2002). The uniqueness of the child–father attachment relationship: fathers’ sensitive and challenging play as a pivotal variable in a 16-year longitudinal study. Social Development, 11, 301–337. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9507.00202.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Hays, S. (1998). The fallacious assumptions and unrealistic prescriptions of attachment theory: a comment on “Parents’ Socioemotional Investment in Children.”. Journal of Marriage and Family, 60, 782–790. https://doi.org/10.2307/353546.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Hendrick, S. S. (1981). Self-disclosure and marital satisfaction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 40, 1150–1159. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.40.6.1150.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Herman, S., Archambeau, O. G., Deliramich, A. N., Kim, B. S., Chiu, P. H., & Frueh, B. C. (2011). Depressive symptoms and mental health treatment in an ethnoracially diverse college student sample. Journal of American College Health, 59, 715–720. https://doi.org/10.1080/07448481.2010.529625.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  24. Hill, J. P., & Lynch, M. E. (1983). The intensification of gender-related role expectations during early adolescence. In J. Brooks-Gunn & A. Petersen (Eds.), Girls at puberty: biological and psychosocial perspectives (pp. 201–228). New York, NY: Plenum.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  25. Hong, J. C., Hwang, M. Y., Kuo, Y. C., & Hsu, W. Y. (2015). Parental monitoring and helicopter parenting relevant to vocational student’s procrastination and self-regulated learning. Learning and Individual Differences, 42, 139–146. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2015.08.003.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Hunt, J., & Eisenberg, D. (2010). Mental health problems and help-seeking behavior among college students. Journal of Adolescent Health, 46, 3–10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2009.08.008.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  27. Johnston, M. M., & Finney, S. J. (2010). Measuring basic needs satisfaction: Evaluating previous research and conducting new psychometric evaluations of the Basic Needs Satisfaction in General Scale. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 35, 280–296. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2010.04.003.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Kakihara, F., Tilton-Weaver, L., Kerr, M., & Stattin, H. (2010). The relationship of parental control to youth adjustment: do youths’ feelings about their parents play a role? Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 39, 1442–1456. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-009-9479-8.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  29. Kenney-Benson, G. A., & Pomerantz, E. M. (2005). The role of mothers’ use of control in children’s perfectionism: Implications for the development of children’s depressive symptoms. Journal of Personality, 73, 23–46. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6494.2004.00303.x.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  30. Kessler, R. C., Amminger, G. P., Aguilar‐Gaxiola, S., Alonso, J., Lee, S., & Ustun, T. B. (2007). Age of onset of mental disorders: a review of recent literature. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 20, 359–364. https://doi.org/10.1097/YCO.0b013e32816ebc8c.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  31. Kim, S. W., & Hill, N. E. (2015). Including fathers in the picture: a meta-analysis of parental involvement and students’ academic achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 107, 919–934. https://doi.org/10.1037/edu0000023.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Kim, S. Y., Wang, Y., Orozco-Lapray, D., Shen, Y., & Murtuza, M. (2013). Does “tiger parenting” exist? Parenting profiles of Chinese Americans and adolescent developmental outcomes. Asian American Journal of Psychology, 4, 7–18. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0030612.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  33. Klein, M. B., & Pierce, Jr, J. D. (2009). Parental care aids, but parental overprotection hinders, college adjustment. Journal of College Student Retention: Research, Theory & Practice, 11, 167–181. https://doi.org/10.2190/CS.11.2.a.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. Kouros, C. D., Pruitt, M. M., Ekas, N. V., Kiriaki, R., & Sunderland, M. (2017). Helicopter parenting, autonomy support, and college students’ mental health and well-being: The moderating role of sex and ethnicity. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 26, 939–949. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-016-0614-3.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  35. Kwon, K. A., Yoo, G., & Bingham, G. E. (2016). Helicopter parenting in emerging adulthood: Support or barrier for Korean college students’ psychological adjustment? Journal of Child and Family Studies, 25, 136–145. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-015-0195-6.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. LeMoyne, T., & Buchanan, T. (2012). Does “hovering” matter? Helicopter parenting and its effect on well-being. Sociological Spectrum, 31, 399–418. https://doi.org/10.1080/02732173.2011.574038.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. Liss, M., & Schiffrin, H. H. (2014). Balancing the big stuff: finding happiness in work, family, and life. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.

    Google Scholar 

  38. Locke, J. Y., Campbell, M. A., & Kavanagh, D. (2012). Can a parent do too much for their child? An examination by parenting professionals of the concept of overparenting. Journal of Psychologists and Counsellors in Schools, 22, 249–265. https://doi.org/10.1017/jgc.2012.29.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  39. Luthar, S. S. (2003). The culture of affluence: Psychological costs of material wealth. Child Development, 74, 1581–1593. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1467-8624.2003.00625.x.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  40. Lytton, H., & Romney, D. M. (1991). Parents’ differential socialization of boys and girls: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 109, 267–296. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.109.2.267.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  41. Marsiglio, W., Amato, P., Day, R. D., & Lamb, M. E. (2000). Scholarship on fatherhood in the 1990s and beyond. Journal of Marriage and Family, 62, 1173–1191. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2000.01173.x.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  42. Martinek, D. (2012). Motivating teachers. Sociology Study, 2, 445–457. https://doi.org/10.17265/2159-5526/2012.06.005.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  43. McGinley, M. (2018). Can hovering hinder helping? Examining the joint effects of helicopter parenting and attachment on prosocial behaviors and empathy in emerging adults. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 179, 102–115. https://doi.org/10.1080/00221325.2018.1438985.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  44. McKinney, C., & Kwan, J. W. (2018). Emerging adult perceptions of and preferences for parenting styles and associated psychological outcomes. Journal of Family Issues, 39, 2491–2504. https://doi.org/10.1177/0192513X18756928.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  45. Nelson, M. K. (2010). Parenting out of control: anxious parents in uncertain times. New York, NY: New York University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  46. Nelson, L. J., Padilla-Walker, L. M., & Nielson, M. G. (2015). Is hovering smothering or loving? An examination of parental warmth as a moderator of relations between helicopter parenting and emerging adults’ indices of adjustment. Emerging Adulthood, 3, 282–285. https://doi.org/10.1177/2167696815576458.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  47. Odenweller, K. G., Booth-Butterfield, M., & Weber, K. (2014). Investigating helicopter parenting, family environments, and relational outcomes for millennials. Communication Studies, 65, 407–425. https://doi.org/10.1080/10510974.2013.811434.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  48. Padilla-Walker, L. M., & Nelson, L. J. (2012). Black hawk down? Establishing helicopter parenting as a distinct construct from other forms of parental control during emerging adulthood. Journal of Adolescence, 35, 1177–1190. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2012.03.007.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  49. Pavot, W., & Diener, E. (1993). Review of the satisfaction with life scale. Psychological Assessment, 5, 164–172. https://doi.org/10.1037/1040-3590.5.2.164.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  50. Pelegrina, S., Garcı́a-Linares, M. C., & Casanova, P. F. (2003). Adolescents and their parents’ perceptions about parenting characteristics. Who can better predict the adolescent’s academic competence? Journal of Adolescence, 26, 651–665. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-1971(03)00062-9.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  51. Pleck, J. H. (2012). Integrating father involvement in parenting research. Parenting, 12, 243–253. https://doi.org/10.1080/15295192.2012.683365.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  52. Poulin, F., Nadeau, K., & Scaramella, L. V. (2012). The role of parents in young adolescents’ competence with peers: an observational study of advice giving and intrusiveness. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 58, 437–462. https://doi.org/10.1353/mpq.2012.0021.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  53. Radloff, L. S. (1977). The CES-D scale: a self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Applied Psychological Measurement, 1, 385–401. https://doi.org/10.1177/014662167700100306.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  54. Reed, K., Duncan, J. M., Lucier-Greer, M., Fixelle, C., & Ferraro, A. J. (2016). Helicopter parenting and emerging adult self-efficacy: implications for mental and physical health. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 25, 3136–3149. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-016-0466-x.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  55. Reilly, K. (2018). Record numbers of college students are seeking treatment for depression and anxiety — but schools can’t keep up. The New York Times. http://time.com/5190291/anxiety-depression-college-university-students/.

  56. Rogers, M. A., Theule, J., Ryan, B. A., Adams, G. R., & Keating, L. (2009). Parental involvement and children’s school achievement: Evidence for mediating processes. Canadian Journal of School Psychology, 24, 34–57. https://doi.org/10.1177/0829573508328445.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  57. Rousseau, S., & Scharf, M. (2015). “I will guide you” The indirect link between overparenting and young adults’ adjustment. Psychiatry Research, 228, 826–834. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2015.05.016.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  58. Ruble, D.N., Martin, C.L., & Berenbaum, S.A. (2006). Gender development. In W. Damon (Series Ed.) & N. Eisenberg (Vol. Ed.), Handbook of Child Psychology: Vol. 3. Social, Emotional, and Personality Development. 6th edn (pp. 858–932). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

  59. Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55, 68–78. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.55.1.68.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  60. Scharf, M., Rousseau, S., & Bsoul, S. (2017). Overparenting and young adults’ interpersonal sensitivity: Cultural and parental gender-related diversity. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 26, 1356–1364. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-016-0652-x.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  61. Schiffrin, H. H., & Liss, M. (2017). The effects of helicopter parenting on academic motivation. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 26, 1472–1480. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-017-0658-z.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  62. Schiffrin, H. H., Liss, M., Geary, K., Miles-McLean, H., Tashner, T., Hagerman, C., & Rizzo, K. (2013). Mother, father, or parent? College students’ intensive parenting attitudes differ by referent. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 23, 1073–1080. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-013-9764-8.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  63. Schiffrin, H. H., Liss, M., Miles-McLean, H., Geary, K., Erchull, M. J., & Tashner, T. (2014). Helping or hovering? The effects of helicopter parenting on college students. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 23, 548–557. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-013-9716-3.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  64. Segrin, C., Givertz, M., Swaitkowski, P., & Montgomery, N. (2015). Overparenting is associated with child problems and a critical family environment. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 24, 470–479. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-013-9858-3.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  65. Segrin, C., Woszidlo, A., Givertz, M., Bauer, A., & Murphy, M. T. (2012). The association between overparenting, parent-child communication, and entitlement and adaptive traits in adult children. Family Relations, 61, 237–252. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-3729.2011.00689.x.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  66. Segrin, C., Woszidlo, A., Givertz, M., & Montgomery, N. (2013). Parent and child traits associated with overparenting. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 32, 569–595. https://doi.org/10.1521/jscp.2013.32.6.569.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  67. Smetana, J. G. (2017). Current research on parenting styles, dimensions, and beliefs. Current Opinion in Psychology, 15, 19–25. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.copsyc.2017.02.012.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  68. Soenens, B., & Vansteenkiste, M. (2010). A theoretical upgrade of the concept of parental psychological control: Proposing new insights on the basis of self-determination theory. Developmental Review, 30, 74–99. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dr.2009.11.001.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  69. Somers, P., & Settle, J. (2010). The helicopter parent: research toward a typology. College and University: The Journal of the American Association of Collegiate Registrars, 86, 18–27. https://www.aacrao.org/research-publications/quarterly-journals/college-university-journal/article/c-u-archive/c-u-vol.-86-no.-1-summer-2010.

  70. Sweet, S. N., Fortier, M. S., Strachan, S. M., & Blanchard, C. M. (2012). Testing and integrating self-determination theory and self-efficacy theory in a physical activity context. Canadian Psychology, 53, 319–327. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0030280.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  71. Thomas, G., Fletcher, G. J., & Lange, C. (1997). On-line empathic accuracy in marital interaction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72, 839–850. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.72.4.839.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  72. Trip, G. (2010). Mental health needs seen growing at college. The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/roomfordebate/2011/01/12/dealing-with-mental-disorders-on-campus/a-brief-window-for-help.

  73. Twenge, J. M., Joiner, T. E., Rogers, M. L., & Martin, G. N. (2018). Increases in depressive symptoms, suicide-related outcomes, and suicide rates among US adolescents after 2010 and links to increased new media screen time. Clinical Psychological Science, 6, 3–17. https://doi.org/10.1177/2167702617723376.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  74. van Ingen, D. J., Freiheit, S. R., Steinfeldt, J. A., Moore, L. L., Wimer, D. J., Knutt, A. D., & Roberts, A. (2015). Helicopter parenting: The effect of an overbearing caregiving style on peer attachment and self‐efficacy. Journal of College Counseling, 18, 7–20. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2161-1882.2015.00065.x.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  75. Willoughby, B. J., Hersh, J. N., Padilla-Walker, L. M., & Nelson, L. J. (2015). “Back off”! Helicopter parenting and a retreat from marriage among emerging adults. Journal of Family Issues, 36, 669–692. https://doi.org/10.1177/0192513X13495854.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  76. Zigmond, A. S., & Snaith, R. P. (1983). The hospital anxiety and depression scale. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 67, 361–370. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0447.1983.tb09716.x.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Holly H. Schiffrin.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

This research was approved by the Institutional Review Board (IRB) at the university where it was conducted, which has Federal-wide Assurance from the Office of Human Research Protection (OHRP). Thus, all procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. This research was conducted in compliance with the ethical standards of the American Psychological Association.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Additional information

Publisher’s note: Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Schiffrin, H.H., Erchull, M.J., Sendrick, E. et al. The Effects of Maternal and Paternal Helicopter Parenting on the Self-determination and Well-being of Emerging Adults. J Child Fam Stud 28, 3346–3359 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-019-01513-6

Download citation

Keywords

  • Gender
  • Helicopter parenting
  • Self-determination theory
  • Depression
  • Anxiety
  • Satisfaction with life