Associations Between Maternal Gatekeeping and Fathers’ Parenting Quality

An Author Correction to this article was published on 22 June 2018

This article has been updated

Abstract

High-quality father involvement in childrearing is associated with positive child outcomes. Yet, variability between fathers in parenting quality remains. The present study examined associations between maternal gatekeeping and fathers’ observed parenting quality in 182 dual-earner families who transitioned to parenthood in 2008–2009. Maternal gatekeeping, or beliefs and behaviors that may serve to discourage (gate close) or encourage (gate open) father involvement in childrearing, was measured using fathers’ reports at 3- and 9-months postpartum. Fathers’ parenting quality was assessed during a brief observational task at 3- and 9-months postpartum. A cross-lagged structural equation model, which included repeated measures of maternal gate closing, gate opening, and fathers’ parenting quality (i.e., sensitivity, detachment, and positive regard) at 3- and 9-months postpartum, revealed associations between maternal gatekeeping and fathers’ parenting quality. In particular, fathers who experienced greater gate closing at 3-months postpartum showed greater relative declines in parenting quality at 9-months postpartum. Of note, maternal gate opening at 3-months postpartum was not associated with fathers’ parenting quality at 9-months postpartum. Additionally, paths from fathers’ parenting quality at 3-months postpartum to maternal gatekeeping at 9-months postpartum were not significant. This is the first study to examine longitudinal associations between maternal gatekeeping and fathers’ parenting quality.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1

Change history

  • 22 June 2018

    The original version of this article unfortunately contained two mistakes. The sentence on page 6 should read “Finally, fathers’ perceptions of greater infant negative affectivity at 3-months postpartum were associated with higher levels of gate closing at 9-months postpartum (r = .18, p < .05).” The words “gate opening” should read as “gate closing” and the p-value as less than .05.

References

  1. Adamsons, K. (2010). Using identity theory to develop a midrange model of parental gatekeeping and parenting behavior. Journal of Family Theory & Review, 2(2), 137–148. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1756-2589.2010.00047.x.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Ainsworth, M., Bell., S. M., & Slayton, D. J. (1974). Infant-mother attachment and social development: Socialization as a product of reciprocal responsiveness to signals. In M. P. M. Richards (Ed.), The integration of a child into a social world. London: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  3. Allen, S. M., & Hawkins, A. J. (1999). Maternal gatekeeping: Mothers’ beliefs and behaviors that inhibit greater father involvement in family work. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 61, 199–212. https://doi.org/10.2307/353894.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Austin, W. G., Fieldstone, L., & Pruett, M. K. (2013). Bench book for assessing parental gatekeeping in parenting disputes: Understanding the dynamics of gate closing and opening for the best interests of children. Journal of Child Custody, 10, 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1080/15379418.2013.778693.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Austin, W. G., Pruett, M. K., Kirkpatrick, H. D., Flens, J. R., & Gould, J. W. (2013). Parental gatekeeping and child custody/child access evaluation: Part I: Conceptual framework, research, and application. Family Court Review, 51(3), 485–501. https://doi.org/10.1111/fcre.12045.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Barnett, M. A., Deng, M., Mills-Koonce, W. R., Willoughby, M., & Cox, M. (2008). Interdependence of parenting of mothers and fathers of infants. Journal of Family Psychology, 22(4), 561–573. https://doi.org/10.1037/0893-3200.22.3.561.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  7. Barry, A. A., Smith, J. Z., Deutsch, F. M., & Perry-Jenkins, M. (2011). Fathers’ involvement in child care and perceptions of parenting skill over the transition to parenthood. Journal of Family Issues, 32, 1500–1521. https://doi.org/10.1177/0192513X11406229.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Beitel, A. H., & Parke, R. D. (1998). Paternal involvement in infancy: The role of maternal and paternal attitudes. Journal of Family Psychology, 12(2), 268–288. https://doi.org/10.1037/0893-3200.12.2.268.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Belsky, J. (1984). The determinants of parenting: A process model. Child Development, 55, 83–96.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  10. Brown, G. L., Mangelsdorf, S. C., & Neff, C. (2012). Father involvement, paternal sensitivity, and father− child attachment security in the first 3 years. Journal of Family Psychology, 26, 421–430. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0027836.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  11. Brown, G. L., McBride, B. A., Shin, N., & Bost, K. K. (2007). Parenting predictors of father–child attachment security: Interactive effects of father involvement and fathering quality. Fathering, 5(3), 197–219. https://doi.org/10.3149/fth.0503.197.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Cabrera, N. J., Fagan, J., & Farrie, D. (2008). Explaining the long reach of fathers’ prenatal involvement on later paternal engagement. Journal of Marriage and Family, 70(5), 1094–1107. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2008.00551.x.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  13. Cabrera, N. J., Shannon, J. D., & Tamis-LeMonda, C. (2007). Fathers’ influence on their children’s cognitive and emotional development: From toddlers to pre-K. Applied Development Science, 11(4), 208–213. https://doi.org/10.1080/10888690701762100.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Coley, R. L., & Morris, J. E. (2002). Comparing father and mother reports of father involvement among low‐income minority families. Journal of Marriage and Family, 64(4), 982–997. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2002.00982.x.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Cook, J. L., Jones, R. M., Dick, A. J., & Singh, A. (2005). Revisiting men’s role in father involvement: The importance of personal expectations. Fathering, 3(2), 165–178.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Cook, J. C., Schoppe-Sullivan, S. J., Buckley, C. K., & Davis, E. F. (2009). Are some children harder to coparent than others? Children’s negative emotionality and coparenting relationship quality. Journal of Family Psychology, 23(4), 606–610. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0015992.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  17. Cox, M., & Crnic, K. (2002). Qualitative ratings for parent-child interaction at 3-12 months of age. Unpublished manuscript, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

  18. Cox, M. J., & Paley, B. (1997). Families as systems. Annual Review of Psychology, 48, 243–267. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.48.1.243.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  19. DeLuccie, M. F. (1995). Mothers as gatekeepers: A model of maternal mediators of father involvement. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 1154–1166.

    Google Scholar 

  20. Doherty, W. J., Erickson, M. F., & LaRossa, R. (2006). An intervention to increase father involvement and skills with infants during the transition to parenthood. Journal of Family Psychology, 20(3), 438–447. https://doi.org/10.1037/0893-3200.20.3.438.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  21. Enders, C. K. (2013). Dealing with missing data in developmental research. Child Development Perspectives, 7(1), 27–31. https://doi.org/10.1111/cdep.12008.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Evertsson, M., & Nermo, M. (2007). Changing resources and the division of housework: A longitudinal study of Swedish couples. European Sociological Review, 23(4), 455–470. https://doi.org/10.1093/esr/jcm018.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Fagan, J., & Cherson, M. (2015). Maternal gatekeeping the associations among facilitation, encouragement, and low-income fathers’ engagement with young children. Journal of Family Issues, 54, 581–589. https://doi.org/10.1177/0192513X15578007.

  24. Feinberg, M. E. (2003). The internal structure and ecological context of coparenting: A framework for research and intervention. Parenting: Science and Practice, 3, 95–131. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327922PAR0302_01.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Feinberg, M. E., Brown, L. D., & Kan, M. L. (2012). A multi-domain self-report measure of coparenting. Parenting, 12, 1–21. https://doi.org/10.1080/15295192.2012.638870.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  26. Fletcher, R., May, C., Morgan, P. J., St George, J., & Lubans, D. R. (2011). Fathers’ perceptions of rough-and-tumble play: Implications for early childhood services. Australasian Journal of Early Childhood, 36, 131–138.

    Google Scholar 

  27. Gaunt, R. (2008). Maternal gatekeeping: Antecedents and consequences. Journal of Family Issues, 29(3), 373–395.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Goldberg, A. E., Smith, J. Z., & Perry-Jenkins, M. (2012). The division of labor in lesbian, gay, and heterosexual new adoptive parents. Journal of Marriage and Family, 74(4), 812–828. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2012.00992.x.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Grossmann, K., Grossmann, K. E., Fremmer-Bombik, E., Kindler, H., & Scheuerer-Englisch, H. (2002). The uniqueness of the child–father attachment relationship: Fathers’ sensitive and challenging play as a pivotal variable in a 16‐year longitudinal study. Social Development, 11(3), 301–337. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9507.00202.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Henwood, K., & Procter, J. (2003). The ‘good father’: Reading men’s accounts of paternal involvement during the transition to first‐time fatherhood. British Journal of Social Psychology, 42, 337–355. https://doi.org/10.1348/014466603322438198.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  31. Hofferth, S. L., Pleck, J., Stueve, J. L., Bianchi, S., & Sayer, L. (2002). The demography of fathers: What fathers do. In C. Tamis-LeMonda & N. Cabrera (Eds.), Handbook of father involvement.. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

    Google Scholar 

  32. Hohmann-Marriott, B. (2011). Coparenting and father involvement in married and unmarried coresident couples. Journal of Marriage and Family, 73, 296–309. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2010.00805.x.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. Hu, L., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 6, 1–55. https://doi.org/10.1080/10705519909540118.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. Isley, S., O’Neil, R., & Parke, R. D. (1996). The relation of parental affect and control behaviors to children’s classroom acceptance: A concurrent and predictive analysis. Early Education and Development, 7(1), 7–23. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15566935eed0701_2.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  35. Jeynes, W. H. (2016). Meta-Analysis on the Roles of Fathers in Parenting: Are They Unique? Marriage & Family Review, 52, 665–688. https://doi.org/10.1080/01494929.2016.1157121.

  36. Jia, R., & Schoppe-Sullivan, S. J. (2011). Relations between coparenting and father involvement in families with preschool-age children. Developmental Psychology, 47, 106–118. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0020802.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  37. Klerman, J. A., Daley, K., Pozniak, A., (2013). Family and Medical Leave in 2013: Technical report. U.S. Department of Labor. Washington, D.C.: Abt Associates. http://www.dol.gov/asp/evaluation/fmla/FMLA-2012-Technical-Report.pdf.

  38. Laflamme, D., Pomerleau, A., & Malcuit, G. (2002). A comparison of fathers’ and mothers’ involvement in childcare and stimulation behaviours during free-play with their infants at 9 and 15 months. Sex Roles, 47, 507–518. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1022069720776.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  39. Lamb, M. E. (2010). How do fathers influences children’s development? Let me count the ways. In M. Lamb (Ed.), The role of the father in child development. 5th ed. (pp. 1–26). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

    Google Scholar 

  40. Lamb, M. E., Frodi, A. M., Hwang, C. P., Frodi, M., & Steinberg, J. (1982). Mother–and father–infant interaction involving play and holding in traditional and nontraditional Swedish families. Developmental Psychology, 18, 215–221. https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.18.2.215.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  41. Lewis, C., & Lamb, M. E. (2003). Fathers’ influences on children’s development: The evidence from two-parent families. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 18, 211–228. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03173485.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  42. Lindsey, E. W., Cremeens, P. R., & Caldera, Y. M. (2010). Mother–child and father–child mutuality in two contexts: Consequences for young children’s peer relationships. Infant and Child Development, 19, 142–160. https://doi.org/10.1002/icd.645.

    Google Scholar 

  43. Mangelsdorf, S. C., McHale, J. L., Diener, M., Goldstein, L. H., & Lehn, L. (2000). Infant attachment: Contributions of infant temperament and maternal characteristics. Infant Behavior and Development, 23(2), 175–196.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  44. Manlove, E., & Vernon-Feagans, L. (2002). Caring for infant daughters and sons in dual-earner households: Maternal reports of father involvement in weekday time and tasks. Infant and Child Development, 11, 305–320. https://doi.org/10.1002/icd.260.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  45. Martin, A., Ryan, R. M., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2007). The joint influence of mother and father parenting on child cognitive outcomes at age 5. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 22, 423–439. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2007.07.001.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  46. McBride, B. A., Brown, G. L., Bost, K. K., Shin, N., Vaughn, B., & Korth, B. (2005). Paternal Identity, Maternal Gatekeeping, and Father Involvement. Family Relations, 54, 360–372. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-3729.2005.00323.x.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  47. McBride, B. A., Schoppe, S. J., & Rane, T. R. (2002). Child characteristics, parenting stress, and parental involvement: Fathers versus mothers. Journal of Marriage and Family, 64, 998–1011. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2002.00998.x.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  48. Minuchin, S. (1974). Families and family therapy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  49. Moen, P., & Roehling, P. (2005). The career mystique: Cracks in the American dream. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

  50. Muthén L.K., & Muthén, B.O. (2010) Missing Data Modeling. http://www.statmodel.com/discussion/messages/22/22.html.

  51. NICHD Early Child Care Research Network. (2000). Factors associated with fathers’ caregiving activities and sensitivity with young children. Journal of Family Psychology, 14, 200–219. https://doi.org/10.1037/0893-3200.14.2.200.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  52. Paquette, D. (2004). Theorizing the father-child relationship: Mechanisms and developmental outcomes. Human Development, 47, 193–219. https://doi.org/10.1159/000078723.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  53. Pixley, J. E. & Moen, P. (2003). Prioritizing Careers. In: In P. Moen(ed.) It’s about time: Couples and careers. (pp. 183–200). Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

  54. Pleck, J. H. (2010). Paternal involvement: Revised conceptualizations and theoretical linkages with child outcome. The role of the father in child development. 5th ed. (pp. 58–93). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

    Google Scholar 

  55. Pleck, J. H., & Masciadrelli, B. P. (2004). Paternal involvement by U.S. residential fathers: Levels, sources, and consequences. In M. E. Lamb (Ed.), The role of the father in child development (4th ed., pp. 222–271). New York, NY: Wiley.

    Google Scholar 

  56. Puhlman, D. J., & Pasley, K. (2013). Rethinking maternal gatekeeping. Journal of Family Theory & Review, 5, 176–193. https://doi.org/10.1111/jftr.12016.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  57. Putnam, S. P., Helbig, A. L., Gartstein, M. A., Rothbart, M. K., & Leerkes, E. (2014). Development and assessment of short and very short forms of the Infant Behavior Questionnaire–Revised. Journal of Personality Assessment, 96, 445–458. https://doi.org/10.1080/00223891.2013.841171.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  58. Sano, Y., Richards, L. N., & Zvonkovic, A. M. (2008). Are mothers really “gatekeepers” of children? Rural mothers’ perceptions of nonresident fathers’ involvement in low-income families. Journal of Family Issues, 29(12), 1701–1723. https://doi.org/10.1177/0192513X08321543.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  59. Sanson, A., & Rothbart, M. K. (1995). Child temperament and parenting. In M. Bornstein (Ed.), Handbook of parenting. Applied and Practical Parenting 4, (299–321). New Jersey: Erlbaum.

    Google Scholar 

  60. Sarkadi, A., Kristiansson, R., Oberklaid, F., & Bremberg, S. (2008). Fathers’ involvement and children’s developmental outcomes: a systematic review of longitudinal studies. Acta Paediatrica, 97, 153–158. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1651-2227.2007.00572.x.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  61. Shockley, K. M., & Allen, T. D. (2018). It’s not what I expected: The association between dual-earner couples’ met expectations for the division of paid and family labor and well-being. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 104, 240–260. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2017.11.009.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  62. Schoppe-Sullivan, S. J., Altenburger, L. E., Lee, M. A., Bower, D. J., & Kamp Dush, C. M. (2015). Who are the gatekeepers? Predictors of maternal gatekeeping. Parenting, 15, 166–186. https://doi.org/10.1080/15295192.2015.1053321.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  63. Schoppe-Sullivan, S. J., Brown, G. L., Cannon, E. A., Mangelsdorf, S. C., & Sokolowski, M. S. (2008). Maternal gatekeeping, coparenting quality, and fathering behavior in families with infants. Journal of Family Psychology, 22, 389–398. https://doi.org/10.1037/0893-3200.22.3.389.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  64. Schoppe-Sullivan, S. J., Diener, M. L., Mangelsdorf, S. C., Brown, G. L., McHale, J. L., & Frosch, C. A. (2006). Attachment and sensitivity in family context: The roles of parent and infant gender. Infant and Child Development, 15(4), 367–385. https://doi.org/10.1002/icd.449.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  65. Schoppe-Sullivan, S. J., Mangelsdorf, S. C., Brown, G. L., & Sokolowski, M. S. (2007). Goodness-of-fit in family context: Infant temperament, marital quality, and early coparenting behavior. Infant Behavior and Development, 30(1), 82–96. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.infbeh.2006.11.008.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  66. Shannon, J. D., Tamis-LeMonda, C. S., London, K., & Cabrera, N. (2002). Beyond rough and tumble: Low-income fathers’ interactions and children’s cognitive development at 24 months. Parenting: Science and Practice, 2, 77–104. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327922PAR0202_01.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  67. Stevenson, M., & Crnic, K. (2013). Intrusive fathering, children’s self‐regulation and social skills: A mediation analysis. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 57(6), 500–512. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2788.2012.01549.x.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  68. Stevenson, M. M., Fabricius, W. V., Cookston, J. T., Parke, R. D., Coltrane, S., Braver, S. L., & Saenz, D. S. (2014). Marital problems, maternal gatekeeping attitudes, and father–child relationships in adolescence. Developmental Psychology, 50(4), 1208–1218. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0035327.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  69. Sweeney, K. K., Goldberg, A. E., & Garcia, R. L. (2017). Not a “mom thing”: Predictors of gatekeeping in same-sex and heterosexual parent families. Journal of Family Psychology, 31(5), 521–531. https://doi.org/10.1037/fam0000261.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  70. The U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2016). Employment Characteristics of Families: 2015. Retrieved from https://www.bls.gov/news.release/pdf/famee.pdf.

  71. Thomassin, K., & Suveg, C. (2014). Reciprocal positive affect and well-regulated, adjusted children: a unique contribution of fathers. Parenting, 14(1), 28–46. https://doi.org/10.1080/15295192.2014.880017.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  72. Van Egeren, L. A. (2000). The Parental Regulation Inventory. East Lansing: Michigan State University. Unpublished manuscript.

    Google Scholar 

  73. Van Egeren, L. A., & Hawkins, D. P. (2004). Coming to terms with coparenting: Implications of definition and measurement. Journal of Adult Development, 11(3), 165–178. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:JADE.0000035625.74672.0b.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  74. Volling, B. L., McElwain, N. L., Notaro, P. C., & Herrera, C. (2002). Parents’ emotional availability and infant emotional competence: Predictors of parent-infant attachment and emerging self-regulation. Journal of Family Psychology, 16(4), 447–465. https://doi.org/10.1037//0893-3200.16.4.447.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  75. Walker, A. J., & McGraw, L. A. (2000). Who is responsible for responsible fathering? Journal of Marriage and family, 62, 563–569. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2000.00563.x.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  76. Waller, M. R., & Swisher, R. (2006). Fathers’ risk factors in fragile families: Implications for “healthy” relationships and father involvement. Social Problems, 53, 392–420. https://doi.org/10.1525/sp.2006.53.3.392.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  77. Yavorsky, J. E., Kamp Dush, C. M., & Schoppe‐Sullivan, S. J. (2015). The production of inequality: The gender division of labor across the transition to parenthood. Journal of Marriage and Family, 77, 662–679. https://doi.org/10.1111/jomf.12189.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  78. Zvara, B. J., Schoppe‐Sullivan, S. J., & Kamp Dush, C. (2013). Fathers’ involvement in child health care: Associations with prenatal involvement, parents’ beliefs, and maternal gatekeeping. Family Relations, 62, 649–661. https://doi.org/10.1111/fare.12023.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

This paper and its contents are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official views of the NSF, NICHD, or The Ohio State University. The New Parents Project was funded by the National Science Foundation (CAREER 0746548, Schoppe-Sullivan), with additional support from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD; 1K01HD056238, Kamp Dush), and The Ohio State University’s Institute for Population Research (NICHD R24HD058484) and program in Human Development and Family Science.

Author Contributions

LEA: designed and executed the study, analyzed the data, and took the lead role on writing the manuscript. SJS: collaborated with the design and writing of the study. CKD: collaborated in editing the final manuscript.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Lauren E. Altenburger.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of The Ohio State University Institutional Review Board and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Altenburger, L.E., Schoppe-Sullivan, S.J. & Kamp Dush, C.M. Associations Between Maternal Gatekeeping and Fathers’ Parenting Quality. J Child Fam Stud 27, 2678–2689 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-018-1107-3

Download citation

Keywords

  • Maternal gatekeeping
  • Coparenting
  • Father involvement
  • Parenting quality