Aksan, N., & Kochanska, G. (2004). Links between systems of inhibition from infancy to preschool years. Child Development, 75, 1477–1490.
Baillargeon, R. H., Morisset, A., Keenan, K., Normand, C. L., Séguin, J. R., Japel, C., & Cao, G. (2012). Development of disruptive behaviors in young children: a prospective population-based cohort study. Infant Mental Health Journal, 33, 633–650.
Barber, B. K. (1996). Parental psychological control: revisiting a neglected construct. Child Development, 67, 3296–3319.
Bates, J. E. (1989). Concepts and measures of temperament. In G. A. Kohnstamm, J. A. Bates & M. K. Rothbart (Eds.), Temperament in childhood (pp. 3–26). New York, NY: Wiley.
Beijing Municipal Bureau of Statistics (2010). The sixth National Population Census. http://www.bjstats.gov.cn/tjsj/yjdsj/jmsz/2010/201511/t20151124_328416.html for income data [in Chinese].
Beijing Municipal Bureau of Statistics (2013). The sixth National Population Census. http://www.bjstats.gov.cn/zt/rkjd/zbjs/201603/t20160322_340749.html for education status data [in Chinese].
Blandon, A. Y., & Volling, B. L. (2008). Parental gentle guidance and children’s compliance within the family: a replication study. Journal of Family Psychology, 22, 355–366.
Braungart-Rieker, J., Garwood, M. M., & Stifter, C. A. (1997). Compliance and noncompliance: the roles of maternal control and child temperament. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 18, 411–428.
Braungart-Rieker, J. M., Hill-Soderlund, A. L., & Karrass, J. (2010). Fear and anger reactivity trajectories from 4 to 16 months: the roles of temperament, regulation, and maternal sensitivity. Developmental Psychology, 46, 791–804.
Carey, W. B., & McDevitt, S. C. (1978). Revision of the infant temperament questionnaire. Pediatrics, 61, 735–739.
Chen, X., Rubin, K. H., Liu, M., Chen, H., Wang, L., Li, D., & Li, B. (2003). Compliance in Chinese and Canadian toddlers: a cross-cultural study. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 27, 428–436.
Crockenberg, S., & Litman, C. (1990). Autonomy as competence in 2-year-olds: maternal correlates of child defiance, compliance, and self-assertion. Developmental Psychology, 26, 961–971.
Dix, T., Stewart, A. D., Gershoff, E. T., & Day, W. H. (2007). Autonomy and children’s reactions to being controlled: evidence that both compliance and defiance may be positive markers in early development. Child Development, 78, 1204–1221.
Feldman, R., & Klein, P. S. (2003). Toddlers’ self-regulated compliance to mothers, caregivers, and fathers: implications for theories of socialization. Developmental Psychology, 39, 680–692.
Feldman, B. J., Masyn, K. E., & Conger, R. D. (2009). New approaches to studying problem behaviors: a comparison of methods for modeling longitudinal, categorical adolescent drinking data. Developmental Psychology, 45, 652–676.
Fowles, D. C. (1998). Psychophysiology and psychopathology: a motivational approach. Psychophysiology, 25, 373–391.
Frick, P. J., & White, S. F. (2008). Research review: the importance of callous-unemotional traits for developmental models of aggressive and antisocial behavior. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 49, 359–375.
Frodi, A., Bridges, L., & Shonk, S. (1989). Maternal correlates of infant temperament ratings and of infant–mother attachment: a longitudinal study. Infant Mental Health Journal, 10, 273–289.
Gartstein, M. A., Bridgett, D. J., Young, B. N., Panksepp, J., & Power, T. (2013). Origins of effortful control: infant and parent contributions. Infancy, 18, 149–183.
Graham, A. M., Buss, C., Rasmussen, J. M., Rudolph, M. D., Demeter, D. V., & Gilmore, J. H. (2015). Implications of newborn amygdala connectivity for fear and cognitive development at 6-months-of-age. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 18, 12–25.
Grusec, J. E., & Goodnow, J. J. (1994). Impact of parental discipline methods on the child’s internalization of values: a reconceptualization of current points of view. Developmental Psychology, 30, 4–19.
Hamilton, J., Gagne, P. E., & Hancock, G. R. (2003). The effect of sample size on latent growth models. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association. Chicago, IL. Retrieved from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED476862.pdf.
Hill, A. L., & Braungart-Rieker, J. M. (2002). Four-month attentional regulation and its prediction of three-year compliance. Infancy, 3, 261–273.
Karreman, A., van Tuijl, C., van Aken, M. A., & Deković, M. (2006). Parenting and self-regulation in preschoolers: a meta-analysis. Infant & Child Development, 15, 561–579.
Kline, R. B. (2005). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling (2nd ed.). New York, NY: The Guilford Press.
Kochanska, G. (1995). Children’s temperament, mothers’ discipline, and security of attachment: multiple pathways to emerging internalization. Child Development, 66, 597–615.
Kochanska, G., & Aksan, N. (1995). Mother-child mutually positive affect, the quality of child compliance to requests and prohibitions, and maternal control as correlates of early internalization. Child Development, 66, 236–254.
Kochanska, G., & Aksan, N. (2006). Children’s conscience and self-regulation. Journal of Personality, 74, 1587–1617.
Kochanska, G., Coy, K. C., & Murray, K. T. (2001). The development of self-regulation in the first four years of life. Child Development, 72, 1091–1111.
Kochanska, G., Tjebkes, J. L., & Forman, D. R. (1998). Children’s emerging regulation of conduct: restraint, compliance, and internalization from infancy to the second year. Child Development, 69, 1378–1389.
Kok, R., van IJzendoorn, M. H., Linting, M., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., Tharner, A., & Luijk, M. P. C. M., et al. (2013). Attachment insecurity predicts child active resistance to parental requests in a compliance task. Child Care, Health, & Development, 39, 277–287.
Kwon, K. A., & Elicker, J. G. (2012). The role of mothers’ and fathers’ parental control and coparenting in toddlers’ compliance. Early Education & Development, 23, 748–765.
Lickenbrock, D. M., Braungart-Rieker, J. M., Ekas, N. V., Zentall, S. R., Oshio, T., & Planalp, E. M. (2013). Early temperament and attachment security with mothers and fathers as predictors of toddler compliance and noncompliance. Infant & Child Development, 22, 580–602.
Liu, M., & Guo, F. (2010). Parenting practices and their relevance to child behaviors in Canada and China. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 51, 109–114.
Lo, Y., Mendell, N. R., & Rubin, D. B. (2001). Testing the number of components in a normal mixture. Biometrika, 88, 767–778.
Muthén & Muthén (1998–2016). Mplus user’s guide. (7th ed.) Los Angeles, CA: Muthén & Muthén. .
Nelemans, S. A., Hale, W. W., Branje, S. J., van Lier, P. A., Jansen, L. M., Platje, E., & Meeus, W. (2013). Persistent heightened cortisol awakening response and adolescent internalizing symptoms: a 3-year longitudinal community study. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 42, 767–777.
Power, T. G., McGrath, M. P., Hughes, S. O., & Manire, S. H. (1994). Compliance and self-assertion: young children’s responses to mothers versus fathers. Developmental Psychology, 30, 980–989.
Reddy, V., Liebal, K., Hicks, K., Jonnalagadda, S., & Chintalapuri, B. (2013). The emergent practice of infant compliance: an exploration in two cultures. Developmental Psychology, 49, 1754–1762.
Rothbart, M. K., Sheese, B. E., Rueda, M. R., & Posner, M. I. (2011). Developing mechanisms of self-regulation in early life. Emotion Review, 3, 207–213.
Ruff, H. A., & Capozzoli, M. (2003). Development of attention and distractibility in the first 4 years of life. Developmental Psychology, 39, 877–890.
Satorra, A., & Bentler, P. M. (2001). A scaled difference chi-square test statistic for moment structure analysis. Psychometrika, 66, 507–514.
Spinrad, T. L., Eisenberg, N., Silva, K. M., Eggum, N. D., Reiser, M., & Edwards, A. (2012). Longitudinal relations among maternal behaviors, effortful control and young children’s committed compliance. Developmental Psychology, 48, 552–566.
Strand, P. S. (2000). Responsive parenting and child socialization: integrating two contexts of family life. Journal of Child & Family Studies, 9, 269–281.
Wahler, R. G. (1994). Child conduct problems: disorders in conduct or social continuity? Journal of Child & Family Studies, 3, 143–156.
Zhang, J., Xu, J., & Shen, L. (2000). The assessment of Carey’s five temperament questionnaires. Chinese Mental Health Journal, 14, 153–156. [in Chinese].