The broader autism phenotype (BAP) is a collection of sub-diagnostic autistic traits more common in families of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) than in the general population. BAP is a latent construct that can be defined using different domains, measured using multiple instruments, and reported using different techniques. Therefore, estimates of BAP may vary greatly across studies. Our objective was to systematically review studies that reported occurrence of BAP in parents of children with ASD in order to quantify and describe heterogeneity in estimates. We systematically searched PubMed and Scopus using PRISMA guidelines for studies quantifying percentage of parents of children with ASD who had BAP. We identified 41 studies that measured BAP in parents of children with ASD. These studies used eight different instruments, four different forms of data collection, and had a wide range of sample sizes (N = 4 to N = 3299). Percentage with BAP ranged from 2.6% to 80%. BAP was more prevalent in fathers than mothers. Parental BAP may be an important tool for parsing heterogeneity in ASD etiology and for developing parent-mediated ASD interventions. However, the variety in measurement instruments and variability in study samples limits our ability to synthesize estimates. To improve measurement of BAP and increase consistency across studies, universal methods should be accepted and adopted across studies. A more consistent approach to BAP measurement may enable efficient etiologic research that can be meta-analyzed and may allow for a larger evidence base that can be used to account for BAP when developing parent-mediated interventions.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Adolphs, R., Spezio, M. L., Parlier, M., & Piven, J. (2008). Distinct face-processing strategies in parents of autistic children. Current Biology, 18(14), 1090–1093. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2008.06.073.
Baron-Cohen, S., Wheelwright, S., Skinner, R., Martin, J., & Clubley, E. (2001). The Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ): Evidence from Asperger Syndrome/High-Functioning Autism, Malesand Females, Scientists and Mathematicians. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 31(1), 5–17. https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1005653411471.
Baron-Cohen, S., Lombardo, M. V., Auyeung, B., Ashwin, E., Chakrabarti, B., & Knickmeyer, R. (2011). Why are autism spectrum conditions more prevalent in males? PLoS Biology, 9(6), e1001081. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001081.
Bernier, R., Gerdts, J., Munson, J., Dawson, G., & Estes, A. (2012). Evidence for broader autism phenotype characteristics in parents from multiple-incidence autism families. Autism Research, 5(1), 13–20. https://doi.org/10.1002/aur.226.
Berthoz, S., Lalanne, C., Crane, L., & Hill, E. L. (2013). Investigating emotional impairments in adults with autism spectrum disorders and the broader autism phenotype. Psychiatry Research, 208(3), 257–264. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2013.05.014.
Bishop, D. V. M., Maybery, M., Maley, A., Wong, D., Hill, W., & Hallmayer, J. (2004a). Using self-report to identify the broad phenotype in parents of children with autistic spectrum disorders: a study using the Autism-Spectrum Quotient. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45(8), 1431–1436. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2004.00325.x.
Bishop, D. V. M., Maybery, M., Wong, D., Maley, A., Hill, W., & Hallmayer, J. (2004b). Are phonological processing deficits part of the broad autism phenotype? American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics, 128B(1), 54–60. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.b.30039.
Bolte, S., & Poustka, F. (2003). The recognition of facial affect in autistic and schizophrenic subjects and their first-degree relatives. Psychological Medicine, 33(5), 907–915.
Bolton, P., Macdonald, H., Pickles, A., Rios, P., Goode, S., Crowson, M., et al. (1994). A case-control family history study of autism. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 35(5), 877–900.
Bora, E., Aydin, A., Sarac, T., Kadak, M. T., & Kose, S. (2017). Heterogeneity of subclinical autistic traits among parents of children with autism spectrum disorder: Identifying the broader autism phenotype with a data-driven method. Autism Res, 10(2), 321–326. https://doi.org/10.1002/aur.1661.
Cholemkery, H., Medda, J., Lempp, T., & Freitag, C. M. (2016). Classifying Autism Spectrum Disorders by ADI-R: subtypes or severity gradient? Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 46(7), 2327–2339. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-016-2760-2.
Constantino, J. N. (2002). Social Responsiveness Scale. Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services.
Constantino, J. N. (2011). The quantitative nature of autistic social impairment. Pediatric Research, 69(5 Pt 2), 55R–62R. https://doi.org/10.1203/PDR.0b013e318212ec6e.
Constantino, J. N., Abbacchi, A. M., Lavesser, P. D., Reed, H., Givens, L., Chiang, L., et al. (2009). Developmental course of autistic social impairment in males. Development and Psychopathology, 21(1), 127–138. https://doi.org/10.1017/S095457940900008X.
Constantino, J. N., & Gruber, C. P. (2012). Social Responsiveness Scale. Second Edition. Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services.
Constantino, J. N., & Todd, R. D. (2003). Autistic traits in the general population: a twin study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 60(5), 524–530. https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.60.5.524.
Constantino, J. N., & Todd, R. D. (2005). Intergenerational transmission of subthreshold autistic traits in the general population. Biological Psychiatry, 57(6), 655–660. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2004.12.014.
Coon, H., Villalobos, M. E., Robison, R. J., Camp, N. J., Cannon, D. S., Allen-Brady, K., et al (2010). Genome-wide linkage using the Social Responsiveness Scale in Utah autism pedigrees. Molecular Autism, 1(1), 8. https://doi.org/10.1186/2040-2392-1-8.
Cruz, L. P., Camargos-Junior, W., & Rocha, F. L. (2013). The broad autism phenotype in parents of individuals with autism: a systematic review of the literature. Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, 35(4), 252–263. https://doi.org/10.1590/2237-6089-2013-0019.
Davidson, J., Goin-Kochel, R. P., Green-Snyder, L. A., Hundley, R. J., Warren, Z., & Peters, S. U. (2014). Expression of the broad autism phenotype in simplex autism families from the Simons Simplex Collection. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 44(10), 2392–2399. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-012-1492-1.
Dawson, G., Estes, A., Munson, J., Schellenberg, G., Bernier, R., & Abbott, R. (2007). Quantitative assessment of autism symptom-related traits in probands and parents: Broader Phenotype Autism Symptom Scale. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37(3), 523–536. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-006-0182-2.
de Jonge, M., Parr, J., Rutter, M., Wallace, S., Kemner, C., Bailey, A., et al. (2015). New interview and observation measures of the broader autism phenotype: group differentiation. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 45(4), 893–901. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-014-2230-7.
De la Marche, W., Noens, I., Kuppens, S., Spilt, J. L., Boets, B., & Steyaert, J. (2015). Measuring quantitative autism traits in families: informant effect or intergenerational transmission? European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 24(4), 385–395. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00787-014-0586-z.
De Los Reyes, A. (2013). Strategic objectives for improving understanding of informant discrepancies in developmental psychopathology research. Development and Psychopathology, 25(3), 669–682. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954579413000096.
Duvekot, J., van der Ende, J., Constantino, J. N., Verhulst, F. C., & Greaves-Lord, K. (2016). Symptoms of autism spectrum disorder and anxiety: shared familial transmission and cross-assortative mating. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 57(6), 759–769. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.12508.
Fombonne, E., Bolton, P., Prior, J., Jordan, H., & Rutter, M. (1997). A family study of autism: cognitive patterns and levels in parents and siblings. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 38(6), 667–683.
Gaugler, T., Klei, L., Sanders, S. J., Bodea, C. A., Goldberg, A. P., Lee, A. B., et al. (2014). Most genetic risk for autism resides with common variation. Nature Genetics, 46(8), 881–885. https://doi.org/10.1038/ng.3039.
Gerdts, J., & Bernier, R. (2011). The broader autism phenotype and its implications on the etiology and treatment of autism spectrum disorders. Autism Research and Treatment, 2011, 545901 https://doi.org/10.1155/2011/545901.
Gerdts, J., Bernier, R., Dawson, G., & Estes, A. (2013). The broader autism phenotype in simplex and multiplex families. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 43(7), 1597–1605. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-012-1706-6.
Ghaziuddin, M. (2005). A family history study of Asperger syndrome. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 35(2), 177–182. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-004-1996-4.
Gottesman, I. I., & Gould, T. D. (2003). The endophenotype concept in psychiatry: etymology and strategic intentions. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160(4), 636–645. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.160.4.636.
Gould, T. D., & Gottesman, I. I. (2006). Psychiatric endophenotypes and the development of valid animal models. Genes, Brain, and Behavior, 5(2), 113–119. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1601-183X.2005.00186.x.
Hasegawa, C., Kikuchi, M., Yoshimura, Y., Hiraishi, H., Munesue, T., Nakatani, H., et al. (2015). Broader autism phenotype in mothers predicts social responsiveness in young children with autism spectrum disorders. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 69(3), 136–144. https://doi.org/10.1111/pcn.12210.
Hurley, R. S., Losh, M., Parlier, M., Reznick, J. S., & Piven, J. (2007). The broad autism phenotype questionnaire. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37(9), 1679–1690. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-006-0299-3.
Ingersoll, B., & Hambrick, D. Z. (2011). The relationship between the broader autism phenotype, child severity, and stress and depression in parents of children with autism spectrum disorders. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 5(1), 337–344. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rasd.2010.04.017.
Ingersoll, B., Hopwood, C. J., Wainer, A., & Brent Donnellan, M. (2011a). A comparison of three self-report measures of the broader autism phenotype in a non-clinical sample. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 41(12), 1646–1657. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-011-1192-2.
Ingersoll, B., Meyer, K., & Becker, M. W. (2011b). Increased rates of depressed mood in mothers of children with ASD associated with the presence of the broader autism phenotype. Autism Research, 4(2), 143–148. https://doi.org/10.1002/aur.170.
Kanner, L. (1943). Autistic Disturbances of Affective Contact. Nervous Child, 2(3), 217–250.
Klin, A., Pauls, D., Schultz, R., & Volkmar, F. (2005). Three diagnostic approaches to Asperger syndrome: implications for research. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 35(2), 221–234. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-004-2001-y.
Klusek, J., Losh, M. & Martin, G. E. (2014). Sex differences and within-family associations in the broad autism phenotype. Autism, 18(2), 106–116. https://doi.org/10.1177/1362361312464529.
Lai, M. C., Lombardo, M. V., Chakrabarti, B., & Baron-Cohen, S. (2013). Subgrouping the autism “spectrum”: reflections on DSM-5. PLoS Biology, 11(4), e1001544. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001544.
Lainhart, J. E., Ozonoff, S., Coon, H., Krasny, L., Dinh, E., Nice, J., & McMahon, W. (2002). Autism, regression, and the broader autism phenotype. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 113(3), 231–237. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.10615.
Landa, R., Folstein, S. E., & Isaacs, C. (1991). Spontaneous narrative-discourse performance of parents of autistic individuals. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 34(6), 1339–1345.
Levin-Decanini, T., Maltman, N., Francis, S. M., Guter, S., Anderson, G. M., Cook, E. H., & Jacob, S. (2013). Parental broader autism subphenotypes in ASD affected families: relationship to gender, child’s symptoms, SSRI treatment, and platelet serotonin. Autism Research, 6(6), 621–630. https://doi.org/10.1002/aur.1322.
Liu, X. Q., Paterson, A. D., Szatmari, P., & Autism Genome Project, Consortium. (2008). Genome-wide linkage analyses of quantitative and categorical autism subphenotypes. Biological Psychiatry, 64(7), 561–570. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2008.05.023.
Losh, M., Adolphs, R., Poe, M. D., Couture, S., Penn, D., Baranek, G. T., & Piven, J. (2009). Neuropsychological profile of autism and the broad autism phenotype. Archives of General Psychiatry, 66(5), 518–526. https://doi.org/10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2009.34.
Losh, M., Childress, D., Lam, K., & Piven, J. (2008). Defining key features of the broad autism phenotype: a comparison across parents of multiple- and single-incidence autism families. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics, 147B(4), 424–433. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.b.30612.
Losh, M., & Piven, J. (2007). Social-cognition and the broad autism phenotype: identifying genetically meaningful phenotypes. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 48(1), 105–112. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2006.01594.x.
Lyall, K., Constantino, J. N., Weisskopf, M. G., Roberts, A. L., Ascherio, A., & Santangelo, S. L. (2014). Parental social responsiveness and risk of autism spectrum disorder in offspring. JAMA Psychiatry, 71(8), 936–942. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2014.476.
Maxwell, C. R., Parish-Morris, J., Hsin, O., Bush, J. C., & Schultz, R. T. (2013). The broad autism phenotype predicts child functioning in autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders, 5(1), 25. https://doi.org/10.1186/1866-1955-5-25.
Mohammadi, M. R., Zarafshan, H., & Ghasempour, S. (2012). Broader autism phenotype in Iranian parents of children with autism spectrum disorders vs. normal children. Iranian Journal of Psychiatry, 7(4), 157–163.
Page, J., Constantino, J. N., Zambrana, K., Martin, E., Tunc, I., Zhang, Y., et al. (2016). Quantitative autistic trait measurements index background genetic risk for ASD in Hispanic families. Molecular Autism, 7(1), 39. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13229-016-0100-1.
Parr, J. R., De Jonge, M. V., Wallace, S., Pickles, A., Rutter, M. L., Le Couteur, A. S., et al. (2015a). New interview and observation measures of the broader autism phenotype: description of strategy and reliability findings for the interview measures. Autism Research, 8(5), 522–533. https://doi.org/10.1002/aur.1466.
Parr, J. R., Gray, L., Wigham, S., McConachie, H., & Le Couteur, A. (2015b). Measuring the relationship between the parental Broader Autism Phenotype, parent-child interaction, and children’s progress following parent mediated intervention. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 20, 24–30. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rasd.2015.07.006.
Pickles, A., Parr, J. R., Rutter, M. L., De Jonge, M. V., Wallace, S., Le Couteur, A. S., et al. (2013). New interview and observation measures of the broader autism phenotype: impressions of interviewee measure. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 43(9), 2082–2089. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-013-1810-2.
Pickles, A., Starr, E., Kazak, S., Bolton, P., Papanikolaou, K., Bailey, A. et al. (2000). Variable expression of the autism broader phenotype: findings from extended pedigrees. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 41(4), 491–502.
Piven, J., Wzorek, M., Landa, R., Lainhart, J., Bolton, P., Chase, G. A., & Folstein, S. (1994). Personality characteristics of the parents of autistic individuals. Psychological Medicine, 24(3), 783–795.
Piven, J., Palmer, P., Jacobi, D., Childress, D., & Arndt, S. (1997a). Broader autism phenotype: evidence from a family history study of multiple-incidence autism families. American Journal of Psychiatry, 154(2), 185–190. https://doi.org/10.1176/ajp.154.2.185.
Piven, J., Palmer, P., Landa, R., Santangelo, S., Jacobi, D. & Childress, D. (1997b). Personality and language characteristics in parents from multiple-incidence autism families. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 74(4), 398–411.
Randazzo, K. V., Landsverk, J., & Ganger, W. (2003). Three informants’ reports of child behavior: parents, teachers, and foster parents. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 42(11), 1343–1350. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.chi.0000085753.71002.da.
Robinson, E. B., Koenen, K. C., McCormick, M. C., Munir, K., Hallett, V., Happe, F., et al. (2011). Evidence that autistic traits show the same etiology in the general population and at the quantitative extremes (5%, 2.5%, and 1%). Archives of General Psychiatry, 68(11), 1113–1121. https://doi.org/10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2011.119.
Rothman, K. J., Greenland, S., & Lash, T. L. (2008). Modern Epidemiology. 3rd Edition. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins.
Rubenstein, E., Edmondson Pretzel, R., Windham, G. C., Schieve, L. A., Wiggins, L. D., DiGuiseppi, C., et al. (2017). The broader autism phenotype in mothers is associated with increased discordance between maternal-reported and clinician-observed instruments that measure child autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 47(10), 3253–3266. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-017-3248-4.
Rubenstein, E., Wiggins, L. D., Schieve, L. A., Bradley, C., DiGuiseppi, C., & Moody, E. et al. (2018). Associations between parental broader autism phenotype and child autism spectrum disorder phenotype in the Study to Explore Early Development. Autism, https://doi.org/10.1177/1362361317753563.
Ruser, T. F., Arin, D., Dowd, M., Putnam, S., Winklosky, B., Rosen-Sheidley, B., et al. (2007). Communicative competence in parents of children with autism and parents of children with specific language impairment. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37(7), 1323–1336. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-006-0274-z.
Ruta, L., Mazzone, D., Mazzone, L., Wheelwright, S., & Baron-Cohen, S. (2012). The Autism-Spectrum Quotient–Italian version: a cross-cultural confirmation of the broader autism phenotype. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 42(4), 625–633. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-011-1290-1.
Ruzich, E., Allison, C., Smith, P., Watson, P., Auyeung, B., Ring, H., & Baron-Cohen, S. (2015). Measuring autistic traits in the general population: a systematic review of the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) in a nonclinical population sample of 6,900 typical adult males and females. Molecular Autism, 6, 2. https://doi.org/10.1186/2040-2392-6-2.
Sasson, N. J., Faso, D. J., Parlier, M., Daniels, J. L., & Piven, J. (2014). When father doesn’t know best: selective disagreement between self-report and informant report of the broad autism phenotype in parents of a child with autism. Autism Research, 7(6), 731–739. https://doi.org/10.1002/aur.1425.
Sasson, N. J., Lam, K. S., Childress, D., Parlier, M., Daniels, J. L., & Piven, J. (2013a). The broad autism phenotype questionnaire: prevalence and diagnostic classification. Autism Research, 6(2), 134–143. https://doi.org/10.1002/aur.1272.
Sasson, N. J., Lam, K. S., Parlier, M., Daniels, J. L., & Piven, J. (2013b). Autism and the broad autism phenotype: familial patterns and intergenerational transmission. Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders, 5(1), 11 https://doi.org/10.1186/1866-1955-5-11.
Schwichtenberg, A. J., Young, G. S., Sigman, M., Hutman, T., & Ozonoff, S. (2010). Can family affectedness inform infant sibling outcomes of autism spectrum disorders? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 51(9), 1021–1030. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2010.02267.x.
Seidman, I., Yirmiya, N., Milshtein, S., Ebstein, R. P., & Levi, S. (2012). The Broad Autism Phenotype Questionnaire: mothers versus fathers of children with an autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 42(5), 837–846. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-011-1315-9.
Shi, L. J., Ou, J. J., Gong, J. B., Wang, S. H., Zhou, Y. Y., Zhu, F. R., et al. (2015). Broad autism phenotype features of Chinese parents with autistic children and their associations with severity of social impairment in probands. BMC Psychiatry, 15, 168 https://doi.org/10.1186/s12888-015-0568-9.
Smith, C. J., Lang, C. M., Kryzak, L., Reichenberg, A., Hollander, E., & Silverman, J. M. (2009). Familial associations of intense preoccupations, an empirical factor of the restricted, repetitive behaviors and interests domain of autism. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 50(8), 982–990. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2009.02060.x.
Starr, E., Berument, S. K., Pickles, A., Tomlins, M., Bailey, A., Papanikolaou, K., & Rutter, M. (2001). A family genetic study of autism associated with profound mental retardation. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 31(1), 89–96.
Sucksmith, E., Allison, C., Baron-Cohen, S., Chakrabarti, B., & Hoekstra, R. A. (2013). Empathy and emotion recognition in people with autism, first-degree relatives, and controls. Neuropsychologia, 51(1), 98–105. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2012.11.013.
Sucksmith, E., Roth, I., & Hoekstra, R. A. (2011). Autistic traits below the clinical threshold: re-examining the broader autism phenotype in the 21st century. Neuropsychology Review, 21(4), 360–389. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11065-011-9183-9.
Szatmari, P., MacLean, J. E., Jones, M. B., Bryson, S. E., Zwaigenbaum, L., Bartolucci, G., et al. (2000). The familial aggregation of the lesser variant in biological and nonbiological relatives of PDD probands: a family history study. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 41(5), 579–586.
Taylor, L. J., Maybery, M. T., Wray, J., Ravine, D., Hunt, A., & Whitehouse, A. J. (2013). Brief report: do the nature of communication impairments in autism spectrum disorders relate to the broader autism phenotype in parents? Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 43(12), 2984–2989. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-013-1838-3.
Uljarevic, M., Evans, D. W., Alvares, G. A., & Whitehouse, A. J. (2016). Short report: relationship between restricted and repetitive behaviours in children with autism spectrum disorder and their parents. Molecular Autism, 7, 29. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13229-016-0091-y.
Virkud, Y. V., Todd, R. D., Abbacchi, A. M., Zhang, Y., & Constantino, J. N. (2009). Familial aggregation of quantitative autistic traits in multiplex versus simplex autism. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics, 150B(3), 328–334. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.b.30810.
Wheelwright, S., Auyeung, B., Allison, C., & Baron-Cohen, S. (2010). Defining the broader, medium and narrow autism phenotype among parents using the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ). Mol Autism, 1(1), 10. https://doi.org/10.1186/2040-2392-1-10.
Whitehouse, A. J., Barry, J. G., & Bishop, D. V. (2007). The broader language phenotype of autism: a comparison with specific language impairment. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 48(8), 822–830. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2007.01765.x.
Whitehouse, A. J., Coon, H., Miller, J., Salisbury, B., & Bishop, D. V. (2010). Narrowing the broader autism phenotype: a study using the Communication Checklist-Adult Version (CC-A). Autism, 14(6), 559–574. https://doi.org/10.1177/1362361310382107.
Wolff, S., Narayan, S., & Moyes, B. (1988). Personality characteristics of parents of autistic children: a controlled study. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 29(2), 143–153.
Wong, D., Maybery, M., Bishop, D. V., Maley, A., & Hallmayer, J. (2006). Profiles of executive function in parents and siblings of individuals with autism spectrum disorders. Genes, Brain, and Behavior, 5(8), 561–576. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1601-183X.2005.00199.x.
Wood, C. L., Warnell, F., Johnson, M., Hames, A., Pearce, M. S., McConachie, H., & Parr, J. R. (2015). Evidence for ASD recurrence rates and reproductive stoppage from large UK ASD research family databases. Autism Research, 8(1), 73–81. https://doi.org/10.1002/aur.1414.
Yucel, G. H., Belger, A., Bizzell, J., Parlier, M., Adolphs, R., & Piven, J. (2015). Abnormal Neural Activation to Faces in the Parents of Children with Autism. Cerebral Cortex, 25(12), 4653–4666. https://doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhu147.
This study was funded by Autism Speaks grant 10052.
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors. E.R. conceived of the study idea and design. E.R. and D.C conducted the literature search and review. E.R. organized and drafted the manuscript. E.R. and D.C. reviewed and edited the manuscript.
Electronic supplementary material
About this article
Cite this article
Rubenstein, E., Chawla, D. Broader Autism Phenotype in Parents of Children with Autism: A Systematic Review of Percentage Estimates. J Child Fam Stud 27, 1705–1720 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-018-1026-3
- Broader autism phenotype