Journal of Child and Family Studies

, Volume 27, Issue 5, pp 1567–1578 | Cite as

Combining Parent and Teacher Training for Early ADHD: A Randomized Study of Effectiveness

  • Marie Louise Rimestad
  • Tea Trillingsgaard
  • Mia Skytte O’Toole
  • Esben Hougaard
Original Paper


Parent training (PT) has been documented as an effective intervention for early ADHD based on parental assessment, but documentation of transfer of its results outside the family context has been limited. Due to the cross-contextual impairments typically caused by ADHD, it has been proposed that PT in combination with an intervention in kindergarten or school based on systematic teacher training (TT) would be better suited. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a combination of PT and TT in a community sample of children with early ADHD problems. Families of 64 3-8-year old children were randomized to either PT alone with “The Incredible Years” PT or to a combined PT + TT intervention. Moderate to large pre-post effect sizes on mother-reported outcomes were revealed in both groups, in line with those generally reported in the literature on PT interventions for early ADHD. With an n of 64, the current study was powered to detect superiority of the PT + TT intervention if the difference was of a moderate effect size (Cohen’s d = 0.5). There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups on any of the outcome measures as rated by parents or teachers. In conclusion, the study did not provide support for the combined PT + TT intervention for early ADHD problems as a superior intervention in comparison with PT alone.


Early intervention Parent training Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder Teacher training Incredible Years 



This research was funded in part by the Edith and Godtfred Kirk Christiansen’s Foundation.

Author Contributions

M.L.R.: designed and executed the study, assisted with the data analyses, and wrote the paper. T.T.: collaborated with the design and writing of the study. M.S.O.: analyzed the data and wrote the data analyses part of the method and the M.L.M. results, assisted in the editing of writing the study. E.H.: collaborated with the design and participated in all phases of writing the paper.

Compliance with ethical standards

All participants signed a consent form after they were given oral and written information on the study. The study was conducted in compliance with standards from the regional ethical committee and approved by the Danish Data Protection Agency.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of AarhusAarhusDenmark

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