Advertisement

Journal of Child and Family Studies

, Volume 27, Issue 2, pp 615–628 | Cite as

Trajectories of Early Parenting Practices among Low-Income Ethnically Diverse Women

  • Anna K. Ettinger
  • Anne W. Riley
  • Elizabeth Colantuoni
  • Tamar Mendelson
Original Paper
  • 343 Downloads

Abstract

Responsive and consistent parenting practices are essential to child social, emotional, and mental well-being, yet little is known about how parenting behaviors change over time among low income, urban families who may experience environmental instability and other stressors that make these practices more variable. This study examined maternal parenting trajectories and economic, social and health resources associated with these trajectories among low-income predominantly Black and Hispanic mothers over time using three waves of data from the Welfare, Children, and Families: A Three-City Study (N = 1140). Growth trajectories of maternal parenting practices (including family routines, firm-responsive parenting, and corporal punishment) were modeled using linear random effects models. Stratified trajectory analyses were conducted to examine the differences in effects of maternal resources on parenting practices over time by child developmental status. On average, mothers’ parenting practices improved over time as the children aged. Trajectory analyses revealed that maternal resources were associated with baseline levels of parenting rather than changes in trajectories over time. Mothers with more social and health resources reported more positive parenting practices and lower levels of corporal punishment at each time point. Results suggest the value of intervening early to enhance maternal education, health, and mental health to improve parenting practices among low-income ethnically diverse mothers.

Keywords

Parenting trajectories Family routines Maternal resources Low-income families Ethnically diverse families 

Notes

Author Contributions

A.E. designed and executed study; conducted analyses; drafted all sections of paper. A.R. provided guidance on the design of the study and implications of results; reviewed and edited drafts of the paper. E.C. collaborated on the statistical methods of the paper; reviewed and commented on drafts of the manuscript. T. M. provided guidance on the structure of the manuscript; collaborated in writing and editing initial and final drafts of the manuscript.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the original study. For this secondary analysis of publicly available data, formal consent is not required.

Supplementary material

10826_2017_895_MOESM1_ESM.docx (23 kb)
Supplementary Information

References

  1. Anderson, P. M. (2012). Parental employment, family routines and childhood obesity. Economics and Human Biology, 10, 340–351.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ehb.2012.04.006.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Angel, R. J., Burton, L. M., Chase-Lansdale, P. L., Cherlin, A. J., & Moffitt, R. A. (2008). Created variables: Main interview data, Wave 1, public-use [Data file and code book]. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research.Google Scholar
  3. Angel, R. J., Burton, L. M., Chase-Lansdale, P. L., Cherlin, A. J., Moffitt, R. A., & Wilson, W. J. (2009). Welfare, children, and families: A three-city study. Wave3 user’s manual. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University.Google Scholar
  4. Aunola, K., Nurmi, J.-E., Onatsu-Arvilommi, T., & Pulkkinen, L. (1999). The role of parents’ self-esteem, mastery-orientation and social background in their parenting styles. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 40, 307–317.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9450.404131.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Baumrind, D. (1971). Current patterns of parental authoritiy. Devleopmental Psychology Monograph, 4(1), 1–103.Google Scholar
  6. Belsky, J. (1984). The determinants of parenting: A process model. Child Development, 55, 83–96.  https://doi.org/10.2307/1129836.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Belsky, J., & Jaffee, S. R. (2006). The multiple determinants of parenting. In D. Cicchetti & D. J. Cohen (Eds.), Developmental psychopathology, Vol 3: Risk, disorder, and adaptation (pp. 38–85). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
  8. Boyd, R. C., & Waanders, C. (2013). Protective factors for depression among African American children of predominantly low-income mothers with depression. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 22, 85–95.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Bradley, R. H., Corwyn, R. F., Pipes McAdoo, H., & García Coll, C. (2001). The home environments of children in the United States part I: Variations by age, ethnicity, and poverty status. Child Development, 72, 1844–1867.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8624.t01-1-00382.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Brenner, V., & Fox, R. A. (1999). An empirically derived classification of parenting practices. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 160(3), 343–356.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00221329909595404.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Bronfenbrenner, U., & Morris, P. A. (1998). The ecology of developmental processes. In W. Damon & R. M. Lerner (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology: Volume 1: Theoretical models of human development (5th ed.) (pp. 993–1028). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
  12. Campbell, S. B., Shaw, D. S., & Gilliom, M. (2000). Early externalizing behavior problems: Toddlers and preschoolers at risk for later maladjustment. Development and Psychopathology, 12, 467–488.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954579400003114.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Chase-Lansdale, P. L., & Pittman, L. D. (2002). Welfare reform and parenting: Reasonable expectations. The Future of Children, 12, 167–185.Google Scholar
  14. Churchill, S. L., & Stoneman, Z. (2004). Correlates of family routines in Head Start families. Early Childhood Research and Practice, 6, 1–15.Google Scholar
  15. Collins, W. A., Maccoby, E. E., Steinberg, L., Hetherington, E. M., & Bornstein, M. H. (2000). Contemporary research on parenting: The case for nature and nurture. American Psychologist, 55, 218–232.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066x.55.2.218.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Conger, R. D., Ge, X., Elder, G. H., Lorenz, F. O., & Simons, R. L. (1994). Economic stress, coercive family process, and developmental problems of adolescents. Child Development, 65, 541–561.  https://doi.org/10.2307/1131401.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Cummings, E. M., & Davies, P. T. (1994). Maternal depression and child development. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 35, 73–112.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.1994.tb01133.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Dallaire, D. H., & Weinraub, M. (2005). The stability of parenting behaviors over the first 6 years of life. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 20, 201–219.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2005.04.008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Derogatis, L. R. (1993). BSI brief symptom inventory: Administration, scoring, and procedures manual (Vol. 4). Minneapolis, MN: National Computer Systems.Google Scholar
  20. Fiese, B. H. (2006). Family routines and rituals. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  21. Fiese, B. H., Hooker, K. A., Kotary, L., & Schwagler, J. (1993). Family rituals in the early stages of parenthood. Journal of Marriage & the Family, 55(3), 633–642.  https://doi.org/10.2307/353344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Fiese, B. H., & Sameroff, A. J. (1989). Family context in pediatric psychology: A transactional perspective. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 14, 293–314.  https://doi.org/10.1093/jpepsy/14.2.293.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Fiese, B. H., & Wamboldt, F. S. (2000). Family routines, rituals, and asthma management: A proposal for family-based strategies to increase treatment adherence. Families, Systems, & Health, 18, 405–418.  https://doi.org/10.1037/h0091864.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Forehand, R., & Jones, D. J. (2002). The stability of parenting: A longitudinal analysis of inner-city African-American mothers. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 11, 469–483.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. García Coll, C., & Pachter, L. M. (2002). Ethnic and minority parenting. In M. H. Bornstein (Ed.), Handbook of parenting: Vol. 4: Social conditions and applied parenting (2nd ed.) (pp. 1–20). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.Google Scholar
  26. Gibson-Davis, C. M. (2008). Family structure effects on maternal and paternal parenting in low-income families. Journal of Marriage and Family, 70, 452–465.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2008.00493.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gutman, L. M., & Feinstein, L. (2010). Parenting behaviours and children’s development from infancy to early childhood: Changes, continuities and contributions. Early Child Development and Care, 180, 535–556.  https://doi.org/10.1080/03004430802113042.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Huang, C. Y., Costeines, J., Kaufman, J. S., & Ayala, C. (2014). Parenting stress, social support, and depression for ethnic minority adolescent mothers: Impact on child development. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 23, 255–262.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. Holden, G. W., & Miller, P. C. (1999). Enduring and different: a meta-analysis of the similarity in parents’ child rearing. Psychological Bulletin, 125, 223–254.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.125.2.223.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Jensen, E. W., James, S. A., Boyce, W. T., & Hartnett, S. A. (1983). The family routines inventory: Development and validation. Social Science and Medicine, 17, 201–211.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0277-9536(83)90117-X.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Kopala-Sibley, D. C., Zuroff, D. C., & Koestner, R. (2012). The determinants of negative maternal parenting behaviours: Maternal, child, and paternal characteristics and their interaction. Early Child Development and Care, 182, 683–700.  https://doi.org/10.1080/03004430.2011.572165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kowaleski-Jones, L., & Dunifon, R. (2006). Family structure and community context: evaluating influences on adolescent outcomes. Youth & Society, 38, 110–130.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0044118X05278966.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Landry, S. H., Smith, K. E., Swank, P. R., Assel, M. A., & Vellet, S. (2001). Does early responsive parenting have a special importance for children’s development or is consistency across early childhood necessary? Developmental Psychology, 37, 387–403.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.37.3.387.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Lansford, J. E., Criss, M. M., Dodge, K. A., Shaw, D. S., Pettit, G. S., & Bates, J. E. (2009). Trajectories of physical discipline: Early childhood antecedents and developmental outcomes. Child Development, 80, 1385–1402.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2009.01340.x.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. Loeber, R., Drinkwater, M., Yin, Y., Anderson, S. J., Schmidt, L. C., & Crawford, A. (2000). Stability of family interaction from ages 6 to 18. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 28, 353–369.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1005169026208.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Lovejoy, M. C., Graczyk, P. A., O’Hare, E., & Neuman, G. (2000). Maternal depression and parenting behavior: A meta-analytic review. Clinical Psychology Review, 20, 561–592.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0272-7358(98)00100-7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. MacKenzie, M. J., Nicklas, E., Brooks-Gunn, J., & Waldfogel, J. (2011). Who spanks infants and toddlers? Evidence from the fragile families and child wellbeing study. Children and Youth Services Review, 33, 1364–1373.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2011.04.007.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  38. MacPhee, D., Fritz, J., & Miller-Heyl, J. (1996). Ethnic variations in personal social networks and parenting. Child Development, 67, 3278–3295.  https://doi.org/10.2307/1131779.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. McLoyd, V. C., Toyokawa, T., & Kaplan, R. (2008). Work demands, work-family conflict, and child adjustment in African American families: The mediating role of family routines. Journal of Family Issues, 29, 1247–1267.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0192513X08320189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Mensah, F. K., & Kiernan, K. E. (2010). Parents’ mental health and children’s cognitive and social development: Families in England in the Millennium cohort study. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 45, 1023–1035.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00127-009-0137-y.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Orthner, D. K., & Neenan, P. A. (1996). Children’s impact on stress and employability of mothers in poverty. Journal of Family Issues, 17, 667–687.  https://doi.org/10.1177/019251396017005005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Repetti, R. L., Taylor, S. E., & Seeman, T. E. (2002). Risky families: Family social environments and the mental and physical health of offspring. Psychological Bulletin, 128, 330–366.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.128.2.330.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Roskam, I., & Meunier, J. C. (2012). The determinants of parental childrearing behavior trajectories: The effects of parental and child time-varying and time-invariant predictors. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 36, 186–196.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0165025411434651.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Rosenberg, M. (1989). Society and the adolescent self-image (Revised edition). Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press.Google Scholar
  45. Sheely, A. (2010). Work characteristics and family routines in low-wage families. Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare, 37(3), 59–77.Google Scholar
  46. Shumow, L., Vandell, D. L., & Posner, J. K. (1998). Harsh, firm, and permissive parenting in low-income families: Relations to children’s academic achievement and behavioral adjustment. Journal of Family Issues, 19, 483–507.  https://doi.org/10.1177/019251398019005001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Simons, L. G., Chen, Y. F., Simons, R. L., Brody, G., & Cutrona, C. (2006). Parenting practices and child adjustment in different types of households: A study of African American families. Journal of Family Issues, 27, 803–825.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0192513X05285447Document.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Socolar, R. R. S., Savage, E., & Evans, H. (2007). A longitudinal study of parental discipline of young children. Southern Medical Journal, 100, 472–477.  https://doi.org/10.1097/SMJ.0b013e318038fb1c.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Spagnola, M., & Fiese, B. H. (2007). Family routines and rituals: A context for development in the lives of young children. Infants & Young Children, 20(4), 284–299.  https://doi.org/10.1097/01.IYC.0000290352.32170.5a.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. StataCorp. (2009). Stata statistical software: Release 11. College Station, TX: StataCorp LP.Google Scholar
  51. Steinberg, L., Blatt-Eisengart, I., & Cauffman, E. (2006). Patterns of competence and adjustment among adolescents from authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and neglectful homes: A replication in a sample of serious juvenile offenders. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 16, 47–58.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-7795.2006.00119.x.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  52. Waylen, A., & Stewart-Brown, S. (2010). Factors influencing parenting in early childhood: A prospective longitudinal study focusing on change. Child: Care, Health and Development, 36, 198–207.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2214.2009.01037.x.Google Scholar
  53. Williams, K. E., Ciarrochi, J., & Heaven, P. C. L. (2012). Inflexible parents, inflexible kids: A 6-year longitudinal study of parenting style and the development of psychological flexibility in adolescents. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 41, 1053–1066.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-012-9744-0.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Winston, P., Angel, R. J., Burton, L. M., Chase-Lansdale, P. L., Cherlin, A. J., Moffitt, R. A., et al. (1999). Welfare, children & families: A three-city study: Overview and design. http://web.jhu.edu/threecitystudy/images/overviewanddesign.pdf.
  55. Yates, T. M., Obradović, J., & Egeland, B. (2010). Transactional relations across contextual strain, parenting quality, and early childhood regulation and adaptation in a high-risk sample. Development and Psychopathology, 22, 539–555.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S095457941000026X.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anna K. Ettinger
    • 1
  • Anne W. Riley
    • 1
  • Elizabeth Colantuoni
    • 2
  • Tamar Mendelson
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of PopulationFamily & Reproductive Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public HealthBaltimoreUSA
  2. 2.Department of BiostatisticsJohns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public HealthBaltimoreUSA
  3. 3.Department of Mental HealthJohns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public HealthBaltimoreUSA

Personalised recommendations