The Long-Term Impact of Family Routines and Parental Knowledge on Alcohol Use and Health Behaviors: Results from a 14 Year Follow-Up
Previous research has found significant associations between family routines (e.g., time shared and family meals), parenting characteristics, and later adolescent health behaviors. In general, greater family interactions, parental monitoring, and more optimal parenting style have been associated with less alcohol use during adolescence. We expanded upon this work by examining effects of family and parenting characteristics on alcohol use and health behaviors during young adulthood. We also followed tenets of the Contextual Model of Parenting by examining the moderating effects of parenting style on the associations between parent/family practices and outcomes. Data came from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997. A total of 5419 youth were surveyed at 12–14 years of age, and then annually for the next 14 years; 4565 were surveyed at a 10 year follow-up and 4539 were examined at the 14 year follow-up (84% retention). Multivariate models, controlling for sex and race/ethnicity, indicated that, in general, family routines and parental knowledge in early adolescence were associated with healthier behaviors at both the 10-year and 14-follow-ups. Results also showed that the protective effects of parental knowledge and family routines were strongest in families characterized by and authoritative parenting style.
KeywordsFamily routines Parental knowledge Parenting Substance use Health behaviors
C.A.: Designed and executed the study, assisted with the data analyses, and wrote the paper. G.C.: Assisted in literature searching, preliminary analysis, writing of the manuscript, and editing. K.K.: Assisted in literature searching, preliminary analysis, writing of the manuscript, table preparation, and editing.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Each of the authors has received up-to-date CITI training in the conduct of research with human participants, and all principles have been followed in the conduct of this study.
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