Differential Effects of Mother’s and Father’s Parenting on Prosocial and Antisocial Behavior: Child Sex Moderating
- 664 Downloads
The current study examined the differential effects of maternal and paternal parenting on prosocial and antisocial behavior during middle childhood, and the moderating role of child sex. Parents of 96 boys and 107 girls (mean age = 92.42 months, SD = 3.52) completed different questionnaires to assess parenting and child behavior. All participants were Caucasian from south of Spain. Multiple hierarchical regressions (enter method) were performed to determine significant predictors of prosocial and antisocial behavior. The results showed that maternal and paternal hostility predicted an increase of externalizing problems in boys and girls (p < .001 in both sex groups). As well, Warmth/Induction of both parents predicted an increase in adaptive skills in boys and girls (p < .001 in both sex groups). On the other hand, differential effects of fathers’ and mothers’ parenting were found: both for boys and girls, maternal inconsistency positively predicted externalizing problems and negatively adaptive skills (p < .001 in both sex groups) and paternal overprotection positively predicted externalizing problems and negatively adaptive skills (p < .05 in both sex groups). Finally, maternal coercion negatively predicted adaptive skills in boys and girls (p < .05 in both sex groups); however, it increased externalizing problems only in girls (p < .05), whereas maternal permissiveness only increased these problems in boys (p < .01 in both cases). The discussion highlighted the importance of considering both parents’ and children’s sex to further knowledge of parenting styles affecting children’s behaviors.
KeywordsParenting Mothers and fathers Prosocial and antisocial behaviors Middle childhood Child sex moderation
The authors would like to thank the families and the educational community who took part in the study.
This study was funded by the Andalusian Research Plan (PAIDI-HUM-554) and the Research Plan of the University of Cadiz (E-11-2014-0387470-02). Rosa Ruiz-Ortiz has received research grants from University of Cadiz. Paloma Braza has received research grants from the Andalusian Research Plan (PAIDI-HUM-554).
All authors designed this study, recruited and analyzed the data, and wrote the paper jointly.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
- Barbot, B., Crossman, E., Hunter, S. R., Grigorenko, E. L., & Luthar, S. S. (2014). Reciprocal influences between maternal parenting and child adjustment in a high-risk population: A 5-year cross-lagged analysis of bidirectional effects. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 84(5), 567–580. doi: 10.1037/ort0000012.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Beyers, J. M., Bates, J. E., Pettit, G. S., & Dodge, K. A. (2003). Neighborhood structure, parenting processes, and the development of youths’ externalizing behaviors: A multilevel analysis. American Journal of Community Psychology, 31(1–2), 35–53. doi: 10.1023/A:1023018502759.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Bornstein, M. H. (2015). Children’s parents. In M. H. Bornstein, T. Leventhal (Vol. Eds.), & R. M. Lerner (Series Ed.), Handbook of child psychology and developmental science: Ecological Settings and Processes. (7th ed.), (Vol. 4, pp. 55–134). New Jersey: Wiley.Google Scholar
- Braza, P., Carreras, R., Muñoz, J. M., Braza, F., Azurmendi, A., Pascual-Sagastizábal, E., Cardas, J., & Sánchez-Martín, J. R. (2015). Negative maternal and paternal parenting styles as predictors of children’s behavioral problems: Moderating effects of the child’s sex. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 24(4), 847–856. doi: 10.1007/s10826-013-9893-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Carlo, G., Knight, G. P., McGinley, M., & Hayes, R. (2011a). The roles of parental inductions, moral emotions, and moral cognitions in prosocial tendencies among Mexican American and European American early adolescents. Journal of Early Adolescence, 31(6), 757–781. doi: 10.1177/0272431610373100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Carlo, G., Mestre, M. V., Samper, P., Tur, A., & Armenta, B. E. (2011b). The longitudinal relations among dimensions of parenting styles, sympathy, prosocial moral reasoning and prosocial behaviors. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 35(2), 116–124. doi: 10.1177/0165025410375921.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Cerezo, F. (2009). Bullying: análisis de la situación en las aulas españolas. International Journal of Psychology & Psychological Therapy, 9(3), 367–378. ISSN: 1577-7057.Google Scholar
- Charles, P., Spielfogel, J., Gorman-Smith, D., Schoeny, M., Henry, D., & Tolan, P. (2016). Disagreement in parental reports of father involvement. Journal of Family Issues. 1–24. doi: 10.1177/0192513X16644639.
- Cornell, A. H., & Frick, P. J. (2007). The moderating effects of parenting styles in the association between behavioral inhibition and parent-reported guilt and empathy in preschool children. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 36(3), 305–318. doi: 10.1080/15374410701444181.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Dubois-Comtois, K., Moss, E., Cyr, C., & Pascuzzo, K. (2013). Behavior problems in middle childhood: The predictive role of maternal distress, child attachment, and mother-child interactions. Journal of abnormal child psychology, 41(8), 1311–1324. doi: 10.1007/s10802-013-9764-6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Eisenberg, N., Spinrad, T. L., & Knafo-Noam, A. (2015). Prosocial development. In M. E. Lamb (Vol. Ed.), 7 R. M. Lerner 613 (Series Ed.), Handbook of child psychology and developmental science: Socioemotional processes. 7th edn. (Vol. 3, pp. 610–656). New Jersey: Wiley.Google Scholar
- Eisner, M. P., & Malti, T. (2015). Aggressive and violent behavior. In M. E. Lamb (Vol. Ed.), & R. M. Lerner (Series Ed.), Handbook of child psychology and developmental science: Socioemotional processes. (7th ed.), (Vol. 3, pp. 794–841). New Jersey: Wiley.Google Scholar
- Freitag, M. K., Belsky, J., Grossmann, K., Grossmann, K. E., & Scheuerer‐Englisch, H. (1996). Continuity in parent–child relationships from infancy to middle childhood and relations with friendship competence. Child Development, 67(4), 1437–1454. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.1996.tb01806.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- García, J. A., & Sánchez, J. M. R. (2005). Prácticas educativas familiares y autoestima. Psicothema, 17(1), 76–82. ISSN: 0214-9915.Google Scholar
- González, J., Fernández, S., Pérez, E., & Santamaría, P. (2004). Adaptación española del sistema de evaluación de la conducta en niños y adolescentes: BASC. Madrid: TEA Ediciones.Google Scholar
- Greenfield, P. M., Suzuki, L. K., & Rothstein‐Fisch, C. (2006). Cultural pathways through human development. In W. Dammon, & R. M. Lerner (Series Eds.) & K. A. Renninger, & I. E. Sigel (Vol. Ed.), Handbook of child psychology: Child psychology in practice (6th ed.), (Vol. 4, pp. 675–692). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
- Kiel, E. J., & Buss, K. A. (2011). Prospective relations among fearful temperament, protective parenting, and social withdrawal: The role of maternal accuracy in a moderated mediation framework. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 39(7), 953–966. doi: 10.1007/s10802-011-9516-4.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Levine, M. (2006). The price of privilege: How parental pressure and material advantage are creating a generation of disconnected and unhappy kids. New York: Harper.Google Scholar
- Liss, M., & Schiffrin, H. H. (2014). Balancing the big stuff: Finding happiness in work, family, and life. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.Google Scholar
- McKee, L., Roland, E., Coffelt, N., Olson, A. L., Forehand, R., Massari, C., Jones, D., Gaffney, C. A., & Zens, M. S. (2007). Harsh discipline and child problem behaviors: the roles of positive parenting and gender. Journal of Family Violence, 22(4), 187–196. doi: 10.1007/s10896-007-9070-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Patterson, G. R. (1982). Coercive family processes. Eugene, OR: Castalia.Google Scholar
- Reynolds, C. R., & Kamphaus, R. W. (2004). Behavior assessment system for children. 2nd edn. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.Google Scholar
- Robinson, C. C., Mandleco, B., Olsen, S. F., & Hart, C. H. (2001). The parenting styles and dimensions questionnaire. In B. F. Perlmutter, J. Touliatos, & G. W. Holden (Eds.), Handbook of family measurement techniques: Instruments & index (Vol. 3, pp. 319–321). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
- Tavassolie, T., Dudding, S., Madigan, A. L., Thorvardarson, E., & Winsler, A. (2016). Differences in perceived parenting style between mothers and fathers: Implications for child outcomes and marital conflict. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 25(6), 2055–2068. doi: 10.1007/s10826-016-0376-y.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Wray‐Lake, L., Crouter, A. C., & McHale, S. M. (2010). Developmental patterns in decision‐making autonomy across middle childhood and adolescence: European American parents’ perspectives. Child development, 81(2), 636–651. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2009.01420.x.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar