Skip to main content

Validity and Reliability of the Parenting Stress Index Short Form (PSI-SF) Applied to a Chilean Sample

Abstract

The Parenting Stress Index was developed in response to the need for a measure to assess the parent-child system. Its abbreviated version, the Parenting Stress Index Short Form, is an instrument with multiple clinical applications and is useful for research and intervention purposes. The Parenting Stress Index Short Form was standardized for use with parents of children ranging from 1 month to 12 years old. Several validation studies are available, most of them not supporting the original structure of three factors. No validation studies for this instrument currently exist in Latin America for a socially vulnerable population. The purpose of this study was to evaluate both the validity and internal consistency of Parenting Stress Index Short Form in a Chilean sample including 336 dyads (mean age of mothers 21.4 years; SD = 7.38; and mean age of children 84.8 days; SD = 78.0), demonstrating risk for negative health outcomes and who attend public primary health care. An exploratory factor analysis showed a three-factor structure that was compatible with the original version and explained 41.45 % of the variance. Internal consistency was high both for the total scale (Cronbach’s α = 0.92) and the three subscales (0.81: Parenting Distress; 0.89: Parent–Child Dysfunctional Interaction and 0.88: Difficult Child). The Goldberg General Health Questionnaire was used to assess external criterion related validity and a positive and statistically significant correlation was found (0.86). The evidence suggests that the Parenting Stress Index Short Form can be used as an instrument to measure the relationship between parenting and stress. Due to its psychometric characteristics, it can be applied to a vulnerable Chilean population. The contribution of this study is the validation of this instrument in a Spanish speaking population with characteristics of social vulnerability.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  • Abergel, M., & Blicharski, T. (2013). Naissance prématurée et lien mère-enfant: attachement de l’enfant, état de stress post-traumatique maternel. Devenir, 25(1), 49–64.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Abidin, R. R. (1990). Parenting stress index/short form. Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc.

    Google Scholar 

  • Abidin, R. R. (1995). Parenting stress index: Professional manual. 3rd edn. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc..

    Google Scholar 

  • Ahern, L. (2004). Psychometric properties of the Parenting Stress Index–Short Form. (Thesis for a Master’s degree). North Carolina State University, Department of Psychology, Raleigh, EE.UU.

  • Ainsworth, M. D., Blehar, M., Waters, E., & Wall, S. (1978). Patterns of attachment: A psychological study of the strange situation. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

  • Araya, R., Wynn, R., & Lewis, G. (1992). Comparison of two self-administered psychiatric questionnaires (GHQ-12 and SRQ-20) in primary care in Chile. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 27, 168–173.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Bedregal, P., Carneiro, P., Cordero, M., Galasso, E., & López, I. (2013). Evaluación de Impacto del programa “Nadie es Perfecto” (Evaluation of impact of “Nobody is Perfect” program). Pre-treatment results. Report for the Ministry of Health of Chile.

  • Bhavnagri, N. P. (1999). Low income African American mothers’ parenting stress and instructional strategies to promote peer relationships in preschool children. Early Education & Development, 10, 551–571.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Briggs-Gowan, M. J., Horwitz, S. M., Schwab-Stone, M. E., Leventhal, J. M., & Leaf, P. J. (2000). Mental health in pediatric settings: distribution of disorders and factors related to service use. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 39(7), 841-849.

  • Brougha, T., Morrell, C., Slade, P., & Walters, S. (2011). Universal prevention of depression in women postnatally: Cluster randomized trial evidence in primary care. Psychological Medicine, 41, 739–748.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Buja, A., & Eyuboglu, N. (1993). Remarks on parallel analysis. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 27, 509–540.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Byars, K., Yeomans-Maldonado, G., & Noll, J. (2011). Parental functioning and pediatric sleep disturbance: An examination of factors associated with parenting stress in children clinically referred for evaluation of insomnia. Sleep Medicine, 12, 898–905.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Cappa, K., Begle, A., Conger, J., Dumas, J., & Conger, A. (2011). Bidirectional relationships between parenting stress and child coping competence: Findings from the Pace Study. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 20, 334–342.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Christmann, A., & Van Aelst, S. (2002). Robust estimation of Cronbach’s alpha (Tech. Rep. No. SFB47542/02). Dortmund, Germany: University of Dortmund.

  • Cowen, P. (1998). Crisis child care: An intervention for at-risk families. Issues in Comprehensive Pediatric Nursing, 1, 147–158.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Davis, N., & Carter, A. (2007). Parenting stress in mothers and fathers of toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Associations with child characteristics. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 28, 1278–1291.

    Google Scholar 

  • Deater-Deckard, K. (1998). Parenting stress and child adjustment: Some old hypotheses and new questions. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 5, 314–332.

    Google Scholar 

  • Deater-Deckard, K., & Scarr, S. (1996). Parenting stress among dual-earner mothers and fathers: Are there gender differences?. Journal of Family Psychology, 10, 45–59.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Derogatis, L. R. (1983). Description and bibliography for the SCL-90-R and other instruments of the psychopathology rating scale series. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine.

  • DePanfilis, D., & Dubowitz, H. (2005). Family connections: A program for preventing child neglect. Child Maltreatment: Journal of the American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children, 10, 108–123.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Díaz-Herrero, A., Brito de la Nuez, A., López-Pina, J., Pérez-López, J., & Martínez-Fuentes, M. (2010). Estructura factorial y consistencia interna de la versión española del Parenting Stress Index-Short Form. Psicothema, 22, 1033–1038.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Díaz-Herrero, A., López-Pina, J. A., Pérez-López, J., Brito de la Nuez, A., & Martínez-Fuentes, M. (2011). Validity of the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form in a sample of Spanish fathers. The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 14, 990–997.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Farkas, C., & Corthorn, C. (2012). Modelo explicativo del desarrollo temprano cognitivo, motor y de lenguaje en infantes chilenos de nivel socioeconómico bajo (Explanatory model of early cognitive, motor and language development in low socioeconomic level Chilean children). Estudios de Psicología, 33, 311–323.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Farkas, C., & Valdés, N. (2010). Maternal stress and perceptions of self-efficacy in socioeconomically disadvantaged mothers: An explicative model. Infant Behavior and Development, 33, 654–662.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Federico de Almeida, T., Pereira, M., Barrero de Souza, M., Texeira, M., & Raymal, F. (2012). Family context and incidence of dental caries in preschool children living in areas covered by the Family Health Strategy in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil. Cadernos de Saúde Pública, 28, 1183–1195.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Frontini, R., Moreira, H., & Canavarro, M. C. (2016). Parenting stress and quality of life in pediatric obesity: The mediating role of parenting styles. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 25(3), 1011–1023.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Garmendia, M. (2007). Análisis factorial: Una aplicación en el cuestionario de salud general de Goldberg, versión de 12 preguntas (Application of Goldberg’s General Health Questionnaire, 12 questions version). Revista Chilena de Salud Pública, 11, 57–65.

    Google Scholar 

  • Goldberg, D. (1972). The detection of psychiatric illness by questionnaire. London: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gómez, E., Kotliarenco, M., Muñoz, M., & Assef, V. (2011). Centro Crecer en Comunidad: Despertando la resiliencia familiar (Crecer en Comunidad Center: Awakening family resilience). Perspectivas CEES-UC, 11, 1–36.

    Google Scholar 

  • Government of Chile, Ministry of Health. (2008). Pauta de Riesgo Psicosocial Evaluación Psicosocial Abreviada (EPsA): Nota metodológica complementaria para profesionales y equipos de salud. (Psychosocial Risk Guidelines, Abbreviated Psychosocial Evaluation (EPsA): Supplementary methodology note for healthcare professional and teams). Santiago, Chile: Crece Contigo.

  • Guilfoyle, S. M., Zeller, M. H., & Modi, A. C. (2010). Parenting stress impacts obesity-specific health-related quality of life in a pediatric obesity treatment-seeking sample. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP, 31(1), 17.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Hair, J., Black, W., Babin, B., Anderson, R. E., & Tatham, R. L. (2005). Multivariate data analysis. 5th edn. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

    Google Scholar 

  • Haskett, M., Ahern, L., Ward, C., & Allaire, J. (2006). Factor structure and validity of the Parenting Stress Index–Short Form. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 35, 302–312.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Hawley, C. A., Ward, A. B., Magnay, A. R., & Long, J. (2003). Parental stress and burden following traumatic brain injury amongst children and adolescents. Brain Injury, 17(1), 1–23.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • INE, I. N. de E. de C.-. (2011). Estadisticas Vitales - Informe anual 2011, 1–566. Retrieved from http://goo.gl/4XmefK

  • Ippen, C., Kuending, C., & Mayorga, L. (2005). Review of ParentingPlease provide name of publisher and place of publication in reference Ippen et al. (2005). Stress Index Short Form. In C. Ippen, N. Taylor, & R. Igelman (Eds.). National child traumatic stress network measure review database.

  • Janicke, D. M., Marciel, K. K., Ingerski, L. M., Novoa, W., Lowry, K. W., Sallinen, B. J., & Silverstein, J. H. (2007). Impact of psychosocial factors on quality of life in overweight youth. Obesity, 15(7), 1799–1807.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Jiménez, J., & Zavala, M. (2011). Chilean and Spanish kinship foster care families. Infancia y Aprendizaje, 34, 495–506.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kirk, R. H. (2003). Family support: The roles of early years’ centres. Children & Society, 17(2), 85–99.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Laganiére, J., Tessier, R., & Nadeau, L. (2003). Mother-infant attachment and prematurity: A link mediatized by maternal perceptions (Attachement dans le cas de prématurité: Un lien médiatisé par les perceptions maternelles). Enfance, 55, 101–117.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lloret-Segura, S., Ferreres-Traver, A., Hernández-Baeza, A., & Tomás-Marco, I. (2014). El análisis exploratorio de los ítems: una guía práctica, revisada y actualizada (Exploratory analysis of items: A practical, reviewed and updated guide). Anales de Psicología, 30, 1151–1169.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • López, Y. (2011). Embarazo en la adolescencia y su repercusión biopsicosocial sobre el organismo de la madre y de su futuro hijo (Pregnancy and biopsychosocial consequences in the body of the mother and future child). Revista Cubana de Enfermería, 27, 337–350.

    Google Scholar 

  • Macías, M., Roberts, K., Saylor, C., & Fussell, J. (2006). Toileting concerns, parenting stress, and behavior problems in children with special health care needs. Clinical Pediatrics, 45, 415–422.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Martínez, R., Hernández, M. J., & Hernández, M. V. (2006). Psicometría (Psychometry). Madrid: Alianza Editorial.

    Google Scholar 

  • McKelvey, L., Whiteside-Mansell, L., Faldowski, R., Shears, J., Ayoub, C., & Hart, A. (2009). Validity of the short form of the Parenting Stress Index for fathers of toddlers. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 18, 102–111.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mert, E., Hallioglu, O., & Camdeviren, H. A. (2008). Turkish version of the Parenting Stress Index Short Form: A psychometric study. Turkiye Klinikleri Journal of Medical Sciences, 28, 291–296.

    Google Scholar 

  • Olhaberry, M., & Farkas, C. (2012). Estrés materno y configuración familiar: estudio comparativo en familias chilenas monoparentales y nucleares de bajos ingresos (Maternal stress and family configuration: A comparative study in Chilean single-parenting and nuclear low income). Universitas Psychologica, 11, 1317–1326.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ong, L. C., Norshireen, N. A. R., & Chandran, V. (2011). Maternal mental health in families of children with spina bifida. World Journal of Pediatrics, 7(1), 54–59.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Passino, A. W., Whitman, T. L., Borkowski, J. G., Schellenbach, C. J., Maxwell, S. E., Keogh, D., & Rellinger, E. (1993). Personal adjustment during pregnancy and adolescent parenting. Adolescence, 28, 97–122.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Pérez-Padilla, J., Menéndez, S., & Lozano, O. (2015). Validity of the Parenting Stress Index Short Form in a sample of at-risk mothers. Evaluation Review, 39(4), 428–446.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Raikes, H., & Thompson, R. (2005). Efficacy and social support as predictors of parenting stress among families in poverty. Infant Mental Health Journal, 26, 177–190.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Reitman, D., Currier, R., & Stickle, T. (2002). A critical evaluation of the Parenting Stress Index–Short Form (PSI–SF) in a Head Start population. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 31, 384–392.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Roggman, L. A., Moe, S. T., Hart, A. D., & Forthun, L. F. (1994). Family leisure and social support: Relations with parenting stress and psychological well-being in Head Start Parents. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 9, 463–480.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Santelices, M. P. (2014). Stress and caregiver sensitivity among childcare staff in Santiago, Chile. European Childhood Education Research Journal, 22, 271–285.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Schaeffer, C., Alexander, P., Bethke, K., & Kretz, L. (2005). Predictors of child abuse potential among military parents: Comparing mothers and fathers. Journal of Family Violence, 20, 123–129.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Silovsky, J., & Niec, L. (2002). Characteristics of young children with sexual behavior problems: A pilot study. Child Maltreatment: Journal of the American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children, 7, 187–197.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tervo, R. (2012). Developmental and behavior problems predict parenting stress in young children with global delay. Journal of Child Neurology, 27, 291–296.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Timmer, S., Sedlar, G., & Urquiza, A. (2004). Challenging children in kin versus non-kin foster care: Perceived costs and benefits to caregivers. Child Maltreatment: Journal of the American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children, 9, 251–262.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Trucco, M., Campusano, M., & Larraín, S. (1979). Un cuestionario para detectar desórdenes emocionales: Estudio de validación preliminar (Questionnaire to detect emotional disorders: Preliminary validation study). Revista Chilena de Neuro-Psiquiatría, 134, 508–515.

    Google Scholar 

  • Whiteside-Mansell, L., Ayoub, C., McKelvey, L., Faldowski, R., Hart, A., & Shears, J. (2007). Parenting stress of low-income parents of toddlers and preschoolers: Psychometric properties of a short form of the Parenting Stress Index. Parenting: Science and Practice, 7, 27–56.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wolfe, R., & Hirsch, B. (2003). Outcomes of parent education programs based on reevaluation counseling. Journal of Child & Family Studies, 12, 61–76.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zaidman-Zait, A., Mirenda, P., Zumbo, B., Wellington, S., Dua, V., & Kalynchuk, K. (2010). An item response theory analysis of the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form with parents of children with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 51, 1269–1277.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Zimmerman, D. W., Zumbo, B. D., & Lalonde, C. (1993). Coefficient alpha as an estimate of test reliability under violation of two assumptions. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 53, 33–49.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

This study was supported by the Chilean National Science and Technology Fund (FONDECYT), project 1100762. We extend our thanks to psychologists Mónica Molina, Daniela Valenzuela, Teresita Lira, and Ignacio Pérez, for their active participation in restructuring this final version.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Marcela Aracena.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Aracena, M., Gómez, E., Undurraga, C. et al. Validity and Reliability of the Parenting Stress Index Short Form (PSI-SF) Applied to a Chilean Sample. J Child Fam Stud 25, 3554–3564 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-016-0520-8

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-016-0520-8

Keywords

  • Parenting
  • Reliability
  • Validity
  • Primary care
  • Parenting stress