Parents, Peers, and Places: Young Urban Adolescents’ Microsystems and Substance Use Involvement
- 886 Downloads
Limited research is available that explains complex contextual and interactive effects of microsystems such as family relationships, peer networks, and place-based influences have on urban adolescent substance use. We contend that research into these complex processes is improved by integrating psychological, social, and geographic data to better understand urban adolescent substance use involvement. Accordingly, we tested a longitudinal, 3-way moderation model to determine if the direct effect of teen–parent relationships on substance use involvement is moderated by peer network characteristics, which in turn is moderated by the risk and protective attributes within urban adolescents’ activity spaces, among a sample of 248 adolescents. Results revealed that peer networks moderate the effects of relations with parents on substance use involvement for those adolescents with higher levels of risk attributes within their activity space, but not for those who spend time in locations with less risk. Thus, the teen–parent relationship interacts with peer network characteristics, for those urban adolescents whose activity space is constituted within high-risk environments. We conclude that peer networks have important interactive effects with family relationships that influence substance use, and that this is particularly salient for young adolescents who are exposed to risky environments. This finding underscores the importance of continued study into the interrelations among microsystems of urban adolescents, and provides further support that substance use is a social practice that is constituted within the unique geography of young adolescents’ lives.
KeywordsYoung adolescents Urban adolescents Microsytems Parents Peers Activity space
This research was supported by a Grant No. 1R01 DA031724-01A1, from the National Institute on Drug Abuse to the first author. The findings and conclusions are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the National Institute on Drug Abuse, or National Institute of Health.
- Beckmeyer, J. (2014). Comparing perceptions of how many peers’ and friends’ use alcohol: Associations with middle adolescents’ own alcohol use. In 142nd APHA Annual Meeting and Exposition (November 15–November 19, 2014). APHA.Google Scholar
- Browning, C. R., & Soller, B. (2014). Moving beyond neighborhood: Activity spaces and ecological networks as contexts for youth development. Cityscape (Washington, DC), 16(1), 165.Google Scholar
- Collins, W. A., & Sroufe, L. A. (1999). Capacity for intimate relationships: A developmental construction. In W. Furman & B. B. Brown (Eds.), The development of romantic relationships in adolescence. Cambridge studies in social and emotional development (pp. 125–147). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Flay, B. R., Snyder, F., & Petraitis, J. (2009). The theory of triadic influence. In R. J. DiClemente, R. A. Crosby, & M. C. Kegler (Eds.), Emerging theories in health promotion practice and research, (2nd ed). pp. 451–510. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
- Furr-Holden, C. D. M., Lee, M. H., Milam, A. J., Johnson, R. M., Lee, K.-S., & Ialongo, N. S. (2011). The growth of neighborhood disorder and marijuana use among urban adolescents: A case for policy and environmental interventions. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 72, 371–379.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Golledge, R., & Stimson, R. J. (1997). Spatial behavior: A geographic perspective. London: Guilford.Google Scholar
- Hayes, A. F., & Preacher, K. J. (2013). Conditional process modeling: Using structural equation modeling to examine contingent causal processes. In G. R. Hancock & R. O. Mueller (Eds.), Structural equation modeling: A second course (2nd ed.). Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing.Google Scholar
- Johnston, L. D., O’Malley, P. M., Bachman, J. G., Schulenberg, J. E., & Miech, R. A. (2014). Monitoring the future national survey results on drug use, 1975–2013: Volume I, secondary school students. Ann Arbor: Institute for Social Research, The University of Michigan.Google Scholar
- Kandel, D. B. (1996). The parental and peer contexts of adolescent deviance: An algebra of interpersonal influences. Journal of Drug Issues, 26, 289–315. doi: 10.1177/002204269602600202.
- Kerig, P. K., Schulz, M. S., & Hauser, S. T. (2011). Adolescence and beyond: Family processes and development. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Laursen, B., & Collins, W. A. (2009). Parent–child relationships during adolescence. In R. M. Lerner & L. Steinberg (Eds.), Handbook of adolescent psychology. Vol 2: Contextual influences on adolescent development (3rd ed.). (pp. 3-42). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons Inc.Google Scholar
- Loeber, R., Wei, E., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., Huizinga, D., & Thornberry, T. (1999). Behavioral antecedents to serious and violent offending: Joint analyses from the Denver Youth Survey, Pittsburgh Youth Study and the Rochester Youth Development Study. Studies on Crime and Crime Prevention, 8(2), 245–263.Google Scholar
- Martino, S. C., Ellickson, P. L., & McCaffrey, D. F. (2008). Developmental trajectories of substance use from early to late adolescence: A comparison of rural and urban youth. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 69, 430–440. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.107.2.238.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Mennis, J., & Mason, M. (2012). The moderating effects of age and gender social networks. Social Networks, 34, 150–157.Google Scholar
- Reynolds, C. R., & Kamphaus, R. W. (2004). BASC-2: Behavior assessment system for children. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.Google Scholar
- Sampson, R., Raudenbush, S. W., & Earls, F. (2009). Neighborhoods and violent crime: A multilevel study of collective efficacy (pp. 79–97). Urban health: Readings in the social, built, and physical environments of US cities.Google Scholar
- Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2013). Results from the 2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Summary of National Findings, NSDUH Series H-46, HHS Publication No. (SMA) 13-4795. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.Google Scholar
- Tarter, R. E., Kirisci, L., Gavaler, J. S., Reynolds, M., Kirillova, G., Clark, D. B., et al. (2009). Prospective study of the association between abandoned dwellings and testosterone level on the development of behaviors leading to cannabis use disorder in boys. Biological Psychiatry, 65, 116–121.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Williams, L. R., & Anthony, E. K. (2015). A model of positive family and peer relationships on adolescent functioning. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 24, 658–667. doi: 10.1007/s10826-013-9876-1.
- Wright, D. (2004). State Estimates of Substance Use from the 2002 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (DHHS Publication No. SMA 04-3907, NSDUH Series H-23). Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Office of Applied Studies.Google Scholar
- Zinzow, H. M., Ruggiero, K. J., Resnick, H. S., Hanson, R., Smith, D., Saunders, B., & Kilpatrick, D. G. (2009). Prevalence and mental health correlates of witnessed parental and community violence in a national sample of adolescents. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 50, 441–450. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2008.02004.x.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar