Advertisement

Journal of Child and Family Studies

, Volume 25, Issue 5, pp 1441–1450 | Cite as

Parents, Peers, and Places: Young Urban Adolescents’ Microsystems and Substance Use Involvement

  • Michael MasonEmail author
  • Jeremy Mennis
  • John Light
  • Julie Rusby
  • Erika Westling
  • Stephanie Crewe
  • Thomas Way
  • Brian Flay
  • Nikola Zaharakis
Original Paper

Abstract

Limited research is available that explains complex contextual and interactive effects of microsystems such as family relationships, peer networks, and place-based influences have on urban adolescent substance use. We contend that research into these complex processes is improved by integrating psychological, social, and geographic data to better understand urban adolescent substance use involvement. Accordingly, we tested a longitudinal, 3-way moderation model to determine if the direct effect of teen–parent relationships on substance use involvement is moderated by peer network characteristics, which in turn is moderated by the risk and protective attributes within urban adolescents’ activity spaces, among a sample of 248 adolescents. Results revealed that peer networks moderate the effects of relations with parents on substance use involvement for those adolescents with higher levels of risk attributes within their activity space, but not for those who spend time in locations with less risk. Thus, the teen–parent relationship interacts with peer network characteristics, for those urban adolescents whose activity space is constituted within high-risk environments. We conclude that peer networks have important interactive effects with family relationships that influence substance use, and that this is particularly salient for young adolescents who are exposed to risky environments. This finding underscores the importance of continued study into the interrelations among microsystems of urban adolescents, and provides further support that substance use is a social practice that is constituted within the unique geography of young adolescents’ lives.

Keywords

Young adolescents Urban adolescents Microsytems Parents Peers Activity space 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This research was supported by a Grant No. 1R01 DA031724-01A1, from the National Institute on Drug Abuse to the first author. The findings and conclusions are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the National Institute on Drug Abuse, or National Institute of Health.

References

  1. Auslander, B. A., Short, M. B., Succop, P. A., & Rosenthal, S. L. (2009). Associations between parenting behaviors and adolescent romantic relationships. Journal of Adolescent Health, 45(1), 98–101.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. Bauman, K. E., & Ennett, S. T. (1996). On the importance of peer influence for adolescent drug use: Commonly neglected considerations. Addiction, 91(2), 185–198. doi: 10.1046/j.1360-0443.1996.9121852.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Beckmeyer, J. (2014). Comparing perceptions of how many peers’ and friends’ use alcohol: Associations with middle adolescents’ own alcohol use. In 142nd APHA Annual Meeting and Exposition (November 15–November 19, 2014). APHA.Google Scholar
  4. Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). Contexts of child rearing: Problems and prospects. American Psychologist, 34(10), 844. doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.34.10.844.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Browning, C. R., & Soller, B. (2014). Moving beyond neighborhood: Activity spaces and ecological networks as contexts for youth development. Cityscape (Washington, DC), 16(1), 165.Google Scholar
  6. Collins, W. A. (2003). More than myth: The developmental significance of romantic relationships during adolescence. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 13(1), 1–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Collins, W. A., & Sroufe, L. A. (1999). Capacity for intimate relationships: A developmental construction. In W. Furman & B. B. Brown (Eds.), The development of romantic relationships in adolescence. Cambridge studies in social and emotional development (pp. 125–147). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  8. Crum, R. M., Lillie-Blanton, M., & Anthony, J. C. (1996). Neighborhood environment and opportunity to use cocaine and other drugs in late childhood and early adolescence. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 43, 155–161.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Cruz, J. E., Emery, R. E., & Turkheimer, E. (2012). Peer network drinking predicts increased alcohol use from adolescence to early adulthood after controlling for genetic and shared environmental selection. Developmental Psychology, 48(5), 1390.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. Dishion, T. J. (1990). The family ecology of boys’ peer relations in middle childhood. Child Development, 61(3), 874–892.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Dishion, T. J., & Stormshak, E. A. (2007). Intervening in children’s lives: An ecological, family-centered approach to mental health care. Washington: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Flay, B. R. (1999). Understanding environmental, situational and intrapersonal risk and protective factors for youth tobacco use: The Theory of Triadic Influence. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 1(Suppl 1), S111–S114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Flay, B. R., Snyder, F., & Petraitis, J. (2009). The theory of triadic influence. In R. J. DiClemente, R. A. Crosby, & M. C. Kegler (Eds.), Emerging theories in health promotion practice and research, (2nd ed). pp. 451–510. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  14. Furr-Holden, C. D. M., Lee, M. H., Milam, A. J., Johnson, R. M., Lee, K.-S., & Ialongo, N. S. (2011). The growth of neighborhood disorder and marijuana use among urban adolescents: A case for policy and environmental interventions. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 72, 371–379.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. Golledge, R., & Stimson, R. J. (1997). Spatial behavior: A geographic perspective. London: Guilford.Google Scholar
  16. Goodchild, M. F., & Janelle, D. G. (1984). The city around the clock: Space–time patterns of urban ecological structure. Environment and Planning A, 16(6), 807–820.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Haas, S. A., Schaefer, D. R., & Kornienko, O. (2010). Health and the structure of adolescent social networks. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 51, 424–439. doi: 10.1177/0022146510386791.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Hayes, A. F., & Preacher, K. J. (2013). Conditional process modeling: Using structural equation modeling to examine contingent causal processes. In G. R. Hancock & R. O. Mueller (Eds.), Structural equation modeling: A second course (2nd ed.). Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing.Google Scholar
  19. Johnston, L. D., O’Malley, P. M., Bachman, J. G., Schulenberg, J. E., & Miech, R. A. (2014). Monitoring the future national survey results on drug use, 1975–2013: Volume I, secondary school students. Ann Arbor: Institute for Social Research, The University of Michigan.Google Scholar
  20. Kandel, D. B. (1996). The parental and peer contexts of adolescent deviance: An algebra of interpersonal influences. Journal of Drug Issues, 26, 289–315. doi: 10.1177/002204269602600202.
  21. Kerig, P. K., Schulz, M. S., & Hauser, S. T. (2011). Adolescence and beyond: Family processes and development. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  22. Knecht, A. B., Burk, W. J., Weesie, J., & Steglich, C. (2011). Friendship and alcohol use in early adolescence: A multilevel social network approach. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 21(2), 475–487.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kwan, M. P. (2013). Beyond space (as we knew it): toward temporally integrated geographies of segregation, health, and accessibility: Space–time integration in geography and GIScience. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 103(5), 1078–1086.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Lambert, S., Brown, T., Phillips, C., & Ialongo, N. (2004). The relationship between perceptions of neighborhood characteristics and substance use among urban African American adolescents. American Journal of Community Psychology, 43(3–4), 205–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Laursen, B., & Collins, W. A. (2009). Parent–child relationships during adolescence. In R. M. Lerner & L. Steinberg (Eds.), Handbook of adolescent psychology. Vol 2: Contextual influences on adolescent development (3rd ed.). (pp. 3-42). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons Inc.Google Scholar
  26. Lee, R. (2012). Community violence exposure and adolescent substance use: Does monitoring and positive parenting moderate risk in urban communities? Journal of Community Psychology, 40, 406–421. doi: 10.1002/jcop.20520.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Light, J. M., Greenan, C., Snijders, T. A. B., Nies, K. M., & Rusby, J. C. (2013). Onset to first alcohol use in early adolescence: A network diffusion model. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 23(3), 487–499.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. Lloyd, J., & Anthony, J. (2003). Hanging out with the wrong crowd: How much difference can parents make in an urban environment? Journal of Urban Health, 80(3), 383–399.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. Loeber, R., Wei, E., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., Huizinga, D., & Thornberry, T. (1999). Behavioral antecedents to serious and violent offending: Joint analyses from the Denver Youth Survey, Pittsburgh Youth Study and the Rochester Youth Development Study. Studies on Crime and Crime Prevention, 8(2), 245–263.Google Scholar
  30. Martino, S. C., Ellickson, P. L., & McCaffrey, D. F. (2008). Developmental trajectories of substance use from early to late adolescence: A comparison of rural and urban youth. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 69, 430–440. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.107.2.238.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. Mason, M., Cheung, I., & Walker, L. (2004). Substance use, social networks, and the geography of urban adolescents. Substance Use and Misuse, 39(10–12), 1751–1777.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Mason, M. J., Mennis, J., Coatsworth, D. J., Valente, T., Lawrence, F., & Pate, P. (2009). The relationship of place to substance use and perceptions of risk and safety in urban adolescents. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 29(4), 485–492.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. Mason, M. J., Pate, P., Drapkin, M., & Sozinho, K. (2011). Motivational interviewing integrated with a social network intervention for urban female adolescents in primary care. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 41, 148–155. doi: 10.1016/j.jsat.2011.02.009.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Mason, M., Valente, T., Coatsworth, J. D., Mennis, J., Lawrence, F., & Zelenak, P. (2010). Place-based social network quality and correlates of substance use among urban adolescents. Journal of Adolescence, 33(3), 419–427.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. Mennis, J., & Mason, M. (2012). The moderating effects of age and gender social networks. Social Networks, 34, 150–157.Google Scholar
  36. Mennis, J., Mason, M. J., & Cao, Y. (2013). Qualitative GIS and the visualization of narrative activity space data. International Journal of Geographical Information Science, 27(2), 267–291.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. Miller, H. J. (1991). Modelling accessibility using space–time prism concepts within geographical information systems. International Journal of Geographical Information System, 5(3), 287–301. doi: 10.1080/02693799108927856.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Moberg, D. P., & Hahn, L. (1991). The adolescent drug involvement scale. Journal of Child & Adolescent Substance Abuse, 2(1), 75–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Reynolds, C. R., & Kamphaus, R. W. (2004). BASC-2: Behavior assessment system for children. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.Google Scholar
  40. Rubin, D. B. (1987). Multiple Imputation for nonresponse in surveys. New York: J. Wiley & Sons.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Sampson, R., Raudenbush, S. W., & Earls, F. (2009). Neighborhoods and violent crime: A multilevel study of collective efficacy (pp. 79–97). Urban health: Readings in the social, built, and physical environments of US cities.Google Scholar
  42. Scaramella, L. V., Conger, R. D., Spoth, R., & Simons, R. L. (2002). Evaluation of a social contextual model of delinquency: A cross-study replication. Child Development, 73(1), 175–195.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Sherman, J. E., Spencer, J., Preisser, J. S., Gesler, W. M., & Arcury, T. A. (2005). A suite of methods for representing activity space in a healthcare accessibility study. International Journal of Health Geographics, 4(1), 24. doi: 10.1186/1476-072X-4-24.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  44. Shiffman, S. (2007). Nicotine replacement therapy for smoking cessation in the “real world”. Thorax, 62(11), 930.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. Spoth, R., Yoo, S., Kahn, J. H., & Redmond, C. (1996). A model of the effects of protective parent and peer factors on young adolescent alcohol refusal skills. Journal of Primary Prevention, 16(4), 373–394.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2013). Results from the 2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Summary of National Findings, NSDUH Series H-46, HHS Publication No. (SMA) 13-4795. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.Google Scholar
  47. Tarter, R. E., Kirisci, L., Gavaler, J. S., Reynolds, M., Kirillova, G., Clark, D. B., et al. (2009). Prospective study of the association between abandoned dwellings and testosterone level on the development of behaviors leading to cannabis use disorder in boys. Biological Psychiatry, 65, 116–121.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  48. Valente, T. W., Unger, J. B., & Johnson, C. A. (2005). Do popular students smoke? The association between popularity and smoking among middle school students. Journal of Adolescent Health, 37(4), 323–329. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2004.10.016.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Williams, L. R., & Anthony, E. K. (2015). A model of positive family and peer relationships on adolescent functioning. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 24, 658–667. doi: 10.1007/s10826-013-9876-1.
  50. Wills, T. A., Sandy, J. M., & Yaeger, A. (2000). Temperament and adolescent substance use: An epigenetic approach to risk and protection. Journal of Personality, 68(6), 1127–1151.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Wong, D. W., & Shaw, S. L. (2011). Measuring segregation: An activity space approach. Journal of Geographical Systems, 13(2), 127–145.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  52. Wright, D. (2004). State Estimates of Substance Use from the 2002 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (DHHS Publication No. SMA 04-3907, NSDUH Series H-23). Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Office of Applied Studies.Google Scholar
  53. Zandbergen, P. A., & Barbeau, S. J. (2011). Positional accuracy of assisted GPS data from high-sensitivity GPS-enabled mobile phones. Royal Institute of Navigation, 64(3), 381–399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Zenk, S. N., Schulz, A. J., Matthews, S. A., Odoms-Young, A., Wilbur, J., Wegrzyn, L., et al. (2011). Activity space environment and dietary and physical activity behaviors: A pilot study. Health & Place, 17(5), 1150–1161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Zinzow, H. M., Ruggiero, K. J., Resnick, H. S., Hanson, R., Smith, D., Saunders, B., & Kilpatrick, D. G. (2009). Prevalence and mental health correlates of witnessed parental and community violence in a national sample of adolescents. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 50, 441–450. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2008.02004.x.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael Mason
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jeremy Mennis
    • 1
  • John Light
    • 1
  • Julie Rusby
    • 1
  • Erika Westling
    • 1
  • Stephanie Crewe
    • 1
  • Thomas Way
    • 1
  • Brian Flay
    • 1
  • Nikola Zaharakis
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Psychiatry, Commonwealth Institute for Child and Family StudiesVirginia Commonwealth UniversityRichmondUSA

Personalised recommendations