Journal of Child and Family Studies

, Volume 24, Issue 12, pp 3742–3756 | Cite as

The Perceived Role of Parental Support and Pressure in the Interplay of Test Anxiety and School Engagement Among Adolescents: Evidence for Gender-Specific Relations

  • Diana Raufelder
  • Frances Hoferichter
  • Tobias Ringeisen
  • Nicola Regner
  • Christina Jacke
Original Paper


Although there has been an increasing amount of research conducted on test anxiety in adolescence, little is known about the relation of test anxiety and school engagement. The current study addresses this gap by focusing on the potential gender-specific interplay of test anxiety and school engagement among adolescents, testing the role of parental support and parental pressure as mediators in this association. We performed latent multigroup structural equation modeling on a sample of 7th and 8th graders (N = 1088; M Age = 13.7 years; SD = .53) in secondary schools in Brandenburg, Germany. The results suggest that there are gender differences in the interplay of test anxiety, perceived socio-academic parental support and pressure, and school engagement. Whereas girls’ school engagement is more centered on the mother figure, for boys both parents seem to play an essential role concerning their school engagement as well as test anxiety.


Test anxiety Parental support Parental pressure School engagement Gender differences Adolescence 



The research reported in this paper was supported by a grant from The Volkswagen Foundation (Schumpeter Fellowship II/84 452). The authors would like to thank the principals, teachers and students for their cooperation in making these studies possible.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Diana Raufelder
    • 1
  • Frances Hoferichter
    • 1
  • Tobias Ringeisen
    • 2
  • Nicola Regner
    • 3
  • Christina Jacke
    • 1
  1. 1.Educational Science and Psychology, Methods and EvaluationFree University BerlinBerlinGermany
  2. 2.Department of EconomicsMerseburg University of Applied SciencesMerseburgGermany
  3. 3.UCL Institute of EducationLondonUK

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