Advertisement

Journal of Child and Family Studies

, Volume 24, Issue 11, pp 3474–3481 | Cite as

Evaluation of the Parenting Sense of Competence Scale in Mothers of Infants

  • Sharon M. KarpEmail author
  • Melanie Lutenbacher
  • Kenneth A. Wallston
Original Paper

Abstract

One of the most frequently used measures to assess parents’ assessment of their parenting ability is the Parenting Sense of Competence (PSOC) Scale. However, there is limited psychometric evaluation of the measure with samples of mothers of infants. This paper examines the psychometric properties of the PSOC in a heterogeneous sample of mothers of infants between the ages of 2 and 12 months of age. To capture a diverse sample, data were obtained from two studies of mothers of infants. All participants (n = 218) completed the 17-item PSOC at one time point during the postpartum period along with information about maternal age and education. Additional measures for the purpose of examining convergent validity assessed mothers’ self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and social support. The characteristics of the mothers differed significantly between the two subsamples except for their PSOC scores. Despite these differences, within each subsample the PSOC total and subscale scores were internally consistent and significantly, moderately correlated with the three psychosocial measures confirming the PSOC’s construct validity when administered to mothers of infants. Future studies should continue to evaluate the psychometric properties of the PSOC with varied samples of mothers as well as fathers.

Keywords

Psychometric evaluation Parenting competence Mothers Infants 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Support for this work was provided by Grants from the BlueCross BlueShield Tennessee Health Foundation and the Vanderbilt University School of Nursing, Iota Chapter of Sigma Theta Tau International, and by the National Center for Research Resources, Grant UL1 RR024975-01, now at the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, Grant 2 UL1 TR000445-06. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the NIH.

References

  1. Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: W. H. Freeman and Company.Google Scholar
  2. Beck, A. T., Ward, C. H., Mendelson, M. M., Mock, J. J., & Erbaugh, J. J. (1961). An inventory for measuring depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 4(6), 561–571. doi: 10.1001/archpsyc.1961.01710120031004.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Breslau, N. (1985). Depressive symptoms, major depression, and generalized anxiety: A comparison of self-reports on CES-D and results from diagnostic interviews. Psychiatry Research, 15(3), 219–229. doi: 10.1016/0165-1781(85)90079-4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Broadhead, W. E., Gehlbach, S. H., de Gruy, F. V., & Berton, H. K. (1988). The Duke-UNC Functional Social Support Questionnaire: Measurement of social support in family medicine patients. Medical Care, 26(7), 709–723.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Bugental, D. B., Johnston, C., New, M., & Silvester, J. (1998). Measuring parental attributions: Conceptual and methodological issues. Journal of Family Psychology, 12(4), 459–480. doi: 10.1037/0893-3200.12.4.459.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cohler, B. J., Weiss, J. L., & Grunebaum, H. U. (1970). Child-care attitudes and emotional disturbance among mothers of young children. Genetic Psychology Monographs, 82(1), 3–47.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Coleman, P. K., & Karraker, K. H. (2000). Parenting self-efficacy among mothers of school-age children: Conceptualization, measurement, and correlates. Family Relations, 49(1), 13–24. doi: 10.1111/j.1741-3729.2000.00013.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cooklin, A. R., Giallo, R., & Rose, N. (2012). Parental fatigue and parenting practices during early childhood: An Australian community survey. Child: Care, Health and Development, 38(5), 654–664. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2214.2011.01333.x.Google Scholar
  9. Cox, J. E., Buman, M., Valenzuela, J., Joseph, N. P., Mitchell, A., & Woods, E. R. (2008). Depression, parenting attributes, and social support among adolescent mothers attending a teen tot program. Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology, 21(5), 275–281. doi: 10.1016/j.jpag.2008.02.002.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Crandall, R. (1973). The measurement of self-esteem and related constructs. In J. P. Robinson & P. R. Shaver (Eds.), Measures of social psychological attitudes (Revised ed.). Ann Arbor: Institute of Social Research, The University of Michigan.Google Scholar
  11. Crowne, D. P., & Marlow, D. (1960). A new scale of social desirability independent of psychopathology. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 24(4), 349–354. doi: 10.1037/h0047358.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. DeLongis, A., Coyne, J. C., Dakof, G., Folkman, S., & Lazarus, R. S. (1982). Relationship of daily hassels, uplifts, and major life events to health status. Health Psychology, 1(2), 119–136. doi: 10.1037/0278-6133.1.2.119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dunn, W., Cox, J., Foster, L., Mische-Lawson, L., & Tanquary, J. (2012). Impact of a contextual intervention on child participation and parent competence among children with autism spectrum disorders: A pretest-posttest repeated-measures design. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 66(5), 520–528. doi: 10.5014/ajot.2012.004119.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Gibaud-Wallston, J. (1977). Self-esteem and situational stress factors related to sense of competence in new parents. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Nashville: Vanderbilt University.Google Scholar
  15. Gilmore, L., & Cuskelly, M. (2009). Factor structure of the Parenting Sense of Competence Scale using a normative sample. Child: Care, Health and Development, 35(1), 48–55. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2214.2008.00867.Google Scholar
  16. Hall, L. A. (1990). Prevalence and correlates of depressive symptoms in mothers of young children. Public Health Nursing, 7(2), 71–79. doi: 10.1111/j.1525-1446.1990.tb00615.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Harwood, K., McLean, N., & Durkin, K. (2007). First-time mothers’ expectations of parenthood: What happens when optimistic expectations are not matched by later experiences? Developmental Psychology, 43(1), 1–12. doi: 10.1037/0012-1649.43.1.1.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Hess, C. R., Papas, M. A., & Black, M. M. (2002). Resilience among African American adolescent mothers: Predictors of positive parenting in early infancy. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 27(7), 619–629. doi: 10.1093/jpepsy/27.7.619.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Johnston, C., & Mash, E. J. (1989). A measure of parenting satisfaction and efficacy. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 18(2), 167–175. doi: 10.1207/s15374424jccp1802_8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Jones, T. L., & Prinz, R. J. (2005). Potential roles of parental self-efficacy in parent and child adjustment: A review. Clinical Psychology Review, 25(3), 341–363. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2004.12.004.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Karp, S. M., Lutenbacher, M., & Dietrich, M. S. (2010). The associations of psychosocial factors and infant feeding beliefs and practices of young, first time, low income mothers. Issues in Comprehensive Pediatric Nursing, 33(4), 268–287. doi: 10.3109/01460862.2010.531533.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Kohlhoff, J., & Barnett, B. (2013). Parenting self-efficacy: Links with maternal depression, infant behaviour and adult attachment. Early Human Development, 89(4), 249–256. doi: 10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2013.01.008.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Logsdon, M. C., Hertweck, P., Ziegler, C., & Pinto-Foltz, M. (2008). Testing a bioecological model to examine social support in postpartum adolescents. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 40(2), 116–123. doi: 10.1111/j.1547-5069.2008.00215.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Lovibond, P. F., & Lovibond, S. H. (1995). The structure of negative emotional states: Comparison of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) with the Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 33(3), 335–343. doi: 10.1016/0005-7967(94)00075-U.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Lutenbacher, M. (2002). Relationships between psychosocial factors and abusive parenting attitudes in low-income single mothers. Nursing Research, 51(3), 158–167. doi: 10.1097/00006199-200205000-00004.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Lutenbacher, M., Gabbe, P. T., Karp, S. M., Dietrich, M. S., Narrigan, D., Carpenter, L., & Walsh, W. (2014). Does additional prenatal care in the home improve birth outcomes for women with a prior preterm delivery? A randomized clinical trial. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 18(5), 1142–1154. doi: 10.1007/s10995-013-1344-4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. McDowell, I., & Newell, C. (Eds.). (1996). Measuring health: A guide to rating scales and questionnaires. New York: Oxford University.Google Scholar
  28. McVeigh, C., & Smith, M. (2000). A comparison of adult and teenage mother’s self-esteem and satisfaction with social support. Midwifery, 16(4), 269–276. doi: 10.1054/midw.2000.0226.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Mercer, R. T., & Ferketich, S. L. (1995). Experienced and inexperienced mothers’ maternal competence during infancy. Research in Nursing & Health, 18(4), 333–343. doi: 10.1002/nur.4770180407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Montigny, F., & Lacharite, C. (2005). Perceived parental efficacy: Concept analysis. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 49(4), 387–396. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2648.2004.03302.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Oberlander, S. E., Black, M. M., & Starr, R. H. (2007). African American adolescent mothers and grandmothers: A multigenerational approach to parenting. American Journal of Community Psychology, 39(1–2), 37–46. doi: 10.1007/s10464-007-9087-2.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Ohan, J. L., Leung, D. W., & Johnston, C. (2000). The Parenting Sense of Competence Scale: Evidence of a stable factor structure and validity. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science/Revue canadienne des sciences du comportement, 32(4), 251–261. doi: 10.1037/h0087122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Panzarine, S., Slater, E., & Sharps, P. (1995). Coping, social support, and depressive symptoms in adolescent mothers. Journal of Adolescent Health, 17(2), 113–119. doi: 10.1016/1054-139x(95)00064-y.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Porter, C. L., & Hsu, H.-C. (2003). First-time mothers’ perceptions of efficacy during the transition to motherhood: Links to infant temperament. Journal of Family Psychology, 17(1), 54–64. doi: 10.1037/0893-3200.17.1.54.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Radloff, L. S. (1977). The CES-D Scale: A self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Applied Psychological Measurement, 1(3), 385–401. doi: 10.1177/014662167700100306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Rogers, H., & Matthews, J. (2004). The parenting sense of competence scale: Investigation of the factor structure, reliability, and validity for an Australian sample. Australian Psychologist, 39(1), 88–96. doi: 10.1080/00050060410001660380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and the adolescent self-image. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  38. Rosenberg, M. (1979). Conceiving the self. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  39. Sadler, L. S., Anderson, S. A., & Sabatelli, R. M. (2001). Parental competence among African American adolescent mothers and grandmothers. Journal of Pediatric Nursing, 16(4), 217–233. doi: 10.1053/jpdn.2001.25532.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Sevigny, P. R., & Loutzenhiser, L. (2010). Predictors of parenting self-efficacy in mothers and fathers of toddlers. Child: Care, Health and Development, 36(2), 179–189. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2214.2009.00980.x.Google Scholar
  41. Wagner, F. R., & Morse, J. J. (1975). A measure of individual sense of competence. Psychological Reports, 36(2), 451–459.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Wessman, A., & Ricks, D. (1966). Mood and personality. New York: Holt, Rinheart, and Winston.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sharon M. Karp
    • 1
    Email author
  • Melanie Lutenbacher
    • 2
  • Kenneth A. Wallston
    • 3
  1. 1.Schools of Nursing and Medicine (Pediatrics)Vanderbilt UniversityNashvilleUSA
  2. 2.Schools of Nursing and Medicine (Pediatrics)Vanderbilt UniversityNashvilleUSA
  3. 3.School of NursingVanderbilt UniversityNashvilleUSA

Personalised recommendations