Youth involved in the juvenile justice system report significantly higher rates of STI/HIV infections, compared to youth in the general population. A limited number of epidemiological studies document that social–ecological factors at the peer, family, school, and policy levels are significantly related to unsafe sexual behaviors among this population. However, no existing studies have evaluated the extent to which existing STI/HIV intervention approaches target the various social–ecological factors that are implicated in STI/HIV risk behaviors among this cohort. Applying the social–ecological framework, we review research on STI/HIV prevention and intervention programs, which targeted family, peers, and school contexts of children and adolescent involved in the juvenile justice system. Our findings suggest that these youth report significantly higher rates of STI than do those with no juvenile justice involvement. However, we also found that a bulk of the programs reviewed have targeted individual risk factors as the primary target for behavior change, even though contextual factors beyond the individual are implicated in sexual behaviors. We conclude with implications for research and practice based on this review.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Bandura, A. (1996). Self-efficacy. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Belenko, S., Dembo, R., Weiland, D., Rollie, M., Salvatore, C., Hanlon, A., & Childs, K. (2008). Recently arrested adolescents are at high risk for sexually transmitted diseases. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 35, 758–763. doi:10.1097/OLQ.0b013e31816d1f94.
Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The ecology of human development: Experiments by nature and design. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Bryan, A. D., Schmiege, S. J., & Broaddus, M. R. (2006). HIV risk reduction among detained adolescents: A randomized, controlled trial. Pediatrics, 124(6), e1180–e1188. doi:10.1542/peds.2009-0679.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2010). Sexually transmitted disease surveillance 2009. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services.
Childs, K., Dembo, R., Belenko, S., Sullivan, C., & Cochran, J. (2011). A group-based modeling approach to examining sociodemographic variation in the association among risky sexual behavior, drug use, and criminal involvement in a sample of newly arrested juvenile offenders. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice,. doi:10.1177/1541204011402854.
Clark, J. N., Van Eck, R. N., King, A., Glusman, B., McCain-Williams, A., Van Eck, S., et al. (2000). HIV/AIDS education among incarcerated youth. Journal of Criminal Justice, 28, 415–433. doi:10.1016/S0047-2352(00)00056-8.
Cohen, M. S. (1998). Sexually transmitted diseases enhance HIV transmission: No longer a hypothesis. Lancet, 351(S3), 5–7.
Davis, L. (2010). Adolescent sexual health and the dynamics of oppression: A call for cultural competency. Washington, DC: Advocates for Youth.
DiClemente, R. J., Crosby, R. A., & Kegler, M. C. (Eds.). (2002). Emerging theories in health promotion practice and research: Strategies for improving public health. San Francisco: Wiley.
DiClemente, R. J., Salazar, L. F., & Crosby, R. A. (2007). A review of STD/HIV preventive interventions for adolescents: Sustaining effects using an Ecological approach. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 32(8), 888–906. doi:10.1093/jpepsy/jsp069.
DiClemente, R. J., Wingood, G. M., & Crosby, R. A. (2003). A contextual perspective for understanding and preventing STD/HIV among adolescents. In D. Romer (Ed.), Reducing adolescent risk: Toward an integrated approach (pp. 366–373). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Eng, T. R., & Butler, W. T. (Eds). (1997). The hidden epidemic: Confronting sexually transmitted diseases. The National Academy of Sciences, Institute of Medicine.Committee on Prevention and Control of Sexually Transmitted Diseases. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
Fisher, J. D., Fisher, W. A., Amico, K. R., & Harman, J. J. (2006). An information-motivation-behavioral skills model of adherence to antiretroviral therapy. Health Psychology, 25(4), 462–473. doi:10.1037/0278-618.104.22.1682.
Fisher, W. A., Fisher, J. D., & Harman, J. J. (2003). The information-motivation-behavioral skills model: A general social psychological approach to understanding and promoting health behavior. In J. Suls & K. A. Wallston (Eds.), Social psychological foundations of health and illness (pp. 82–106). Walden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.
Glass, T. A., & McAtee, M. J. (2006). Behavioral science at the crossroads in public health: Extending horizons, envisioning the future. Social Science and Medicine, 62, 1650–1671. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2005.08.044.
Godin, G., Michaud, F., Alary, M., Otis, J., Masse, B., Fortin, C., et al. (2003). Evaluation of an HIV and STD prevention program for adolescents in juvenile rehabilitation centers. Health Education & Behavior, 30(5), 604–614. doi:10.1177/1090198103255368.
Goldberg, E., Millson, P., Rivers, S., Manning, S. J., Leslie, K., Read, S., et al. (2009). A human immunodeficiency virus risk reduction intervention for incarcerated youth: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Adolescent Health, 44, 136–145. doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2008.07.021.
Hovell, M., Wahlgren, D., & Adams, M. (2009). The logical and empirical basis for the behavioral ecological model. In R. J. DiClemente, R. A. Crosby, & M. Kegler (Eds.), Emerging theories in health promotion practice and research: Strategies for enhancing public health (2nd ed., pp. 415–450). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Hurd, N. M., Valerio, M. A., Garcia, N. M., & Scott, A. A. (2010). Adapting an HIV prevention intervention for high-risk, incarcerated adolescents. Health Education & Behavior, 37(1), 37–50. doi:10.1177/1090198109335655.
Kelly, P. J., Martinez, E., & Medrano, M. (2005). Gender-specific health education in the juvenile justice system. Journal of Correctional Health Care, 11, 45–58. doi:10.1177/107834580401100104.
Kotchick, B. A., Shaffer, A., Miller, K. S., & Forehand, R. (2001). Adolescent sexual risk behavior: A multi-system perspective. Clinical Psychology Review, 21, 493–519.
Latham, T. P., Sales, J. M., Boyce, L. S., Renfro, T. L., Wingood, G. M., DiClemente, R. J., & Rose, E. (2010). Application of ADAPT-ITT: Adapting an evidence-based HIV prevention intervention for incarcerated African American adolescent females. Health Promotion Practice, 11(1), 53S–60S. doi:10.1177/1524839910361433.
Lauby, J. L., LaPollo, A. B., Herbst, J. H., Painter, T. M., Batson, H., Pierre, A., & Milnamow, M. (2010). Preventing AIDS through live movement and sound: Efficacy of a theater-based HIV prevention intervention delivered to high-risk male adolescents in juvenile justice settings. AIDS Education and Prevention, 22(5), 402–416.
Marvel, F., Rowe, C. L., Colon-Perez, L., DiClemente, R. J., & Liddle, H. A. (2009). Multidimensional family therapy HIV/STD risk-reduction intervention: An integrative family-based model for drug-involved. Juvenile offenders. Family Process, 48(1), 69–84. doi:10.1111/j.1545-5300.2009.01268.x.
Maton, K. (2000). Making a difference: The social ecology of social transformation. American Journal of Community Psychology, 28(1), 25–57. doi:10.1023/A:1005190312887.
Mouttapa, M., Watson, D. W., McCuller, W. J., Reiber, C., Tsai, W., & Plug, M. (2010). HIV prevention among incarcerated male adolescents in an alternative school setting. Journal of Correctional Health Care, 16(1), 27–38. doi:10.1177/1078345809348202.
Robertson, A., Lawrence, J. S., Morse, D. T., Baird-Thomas, C., Liew, H., & Gresham, K. (2011). The healthy teen girls project: Comparison of health education and STD risk reduction intervention for incarcerated adolescent females. Health Education & Behavior, 38(3), 241–250. doi:10.1177/1090198110372332.
Rosengard, C., Stein, L. A. R., Barnett, N. P., Monti, P. M., Golembeske, C., Lebeau-Craven, R., & Miranda, R. (2007). Randomized clinical trial of motivational enhancement of substance use treatment among incarcerated adolescents: Post-release condom non-use. Journal of HIV/AIDS Prevention in Children & Youth, 8(2), 45–64. doi:10.1300/J499v08n02_04.
Sales, J. M., Milhausen, R. R., & DiClemente, R. J. (2006). A decade in review: Building on the experiences of past adolescent STI/HIV interventions to optimise future prevention efforts. Sexually Transmitted Infections, 82(6), 431–436.
Schlapman, N., & Cass, P. S. (2000). Project: HIV prevention for incarcerated youth in Indiana. Journal of Community Health Nursing, 17(3), 151–158. doi:10.1207/S15327655JCHN1703_03.
Schmiege, S. J., Ewing, S. W. F., Hendershot, C. S., & Bryan, A. D. (2011). Positive outlook as a moderator of the effectiveness of an HIV/STI intervention with adolescents in detention. Health Education Research, 26(3), 432–442. doi:10.1093/her/cyq060.
Shelton, D. (2001). AIDS and drug use prevention intervention for confined youthful offenders. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 22, 159–172. doi:10.1080/01612840120509.
Stokols, D. (1996). Translating social ecological theory into guidelines for community health promotion. American Journal of Health Promotion, 10, 282–298. doi:10.4278/0890-1171-10.4.282.
Stokols, D., Allen, J., & Bellingham, R. L. (1996). The social ecology of health promotion: Implications for research and practice. American Journal of Health Promotion, 10(4), 247–251. doi:10.4278/0890-1171-10.4.247.
Tolou-Shams, M., Stewart, A., Fasciano, J., & Brown, L. K. (2010). A review of HIV prevention interventions for juvenile offenders. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 35(3), 250–261. doi:10.1093/jpepsy/jsp069.
Voisin, D. R., Crosby, R., Yarber, W. L., Salazar, L. F., DiClemente, R. J., & Staples-Horne, M. (2007). Witnessing community violence and health-risk behaviors among detained adolescents. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 77(4), 506–513. doi:10.1037/0002-9422.214.171.1246.
Voisin, D. R., Hong, J. S., & King, K. (2012a). A review: Ecological factors associated with sexual risk behaviors among detained adolescents. Children and Youth Services Review, 34(10), 1983–1991. doi:10.1016/j.childyouth.2012.07.003.
Voisin, D. R., Jenkins, E. J., & Takahashi, L. (2011). Towards a conceptual model linking community violence exposure to HIV-related risk behaviors among adolescents: Directions for research. Journal of Adolescent Health, 49(3), 230–236.
Voisin, D. R., Neilands, T. B., Salazar, L. F., Crosby, R., & DiClemente, R. J. (2008). Pathways to drug and sexual risk behaviors among detained adolescents. Social Work Research, 32(3), 147–157. doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2011.01.002.
Voisin, D., Tan, K., Chan Tack, A., Wade, D., & DiClemente, R. (2012b). Examining parental monitoring as a pathway from community violence exposure to drug use and risky sex among detained youth. Journal of Social Service Research, 38(5), 699–711. doi:10.1080/01488376.2012.716020.
World Health Organization. (1977). Health needs of adolescents. Report of a WHO Expert Committee, Technical Report Series 609. Geneva.
Jun Sung Hong wishes to express his deepest gratitude to Mr. Al Acker.
About this article
Cite this article
Hong, J.S., Voisin, D.R. & Crosby, S. A Review of STI/HIV Interventions for Delinquent and Detained Juveniles: An Application of the Social–Ecological Framework. J Child Fam Stud 24, 2769–2778 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-014-0080-8
- Juvenile justice
- Social–ecological framework