Journal of Child and Family Studies

, Volume 24, Issue 8, pp 2241–2249

Socio-Cultural Context and Bulling Others in Childhood

  • Carmen Morcillo
  • Maria A. Ramos-Olazagasti
  • Carlos Blanco
  • Regina Sala
  • Glorisa Canino
  • Hector Bird
  • Cristiane S. Duarte
Original Paper

Abstract

The objective of this epidemiological study was to examine, using an ecological perspective, which individual and distal contextual factors (familial, social and cultural) are associated with bullying other children across two different sites. Our sample included 1,271 Puerto Rican children 10 and older years of age at baseline residing in the South Bronx in New York and in the Standard Metropolitan Area in San Juan and Caguas, Puerto Rico. Bullying others was assessed through parents’ and children’s response to one item in the conduct disorder section of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Version IV. Child, family, social and cultural factors were examined as independent variables with bullying others as dependent variable in hierarchical models adjusting for gender, maternal education, poverty, single parent household and site. Prevalence of bullying others was 15.2 % in South Bronx versus 4.6 % in Puerto Rico (p < 0.0001). Poor social adjustment and academic achievement, parental harsh discipline, negative school environment, exposure to violence, peer delinquency and level of acculturation in the child were all risk factors for bullying others. Child acculturation accounted for site differences in rates of bullying others. We conclude that, besides the school context, specific aspects of the community, family, and culture influence the development of bullying perpetration and should be targets for interventions and prevention programs. Minority youth living in at-risk contexts may benefit from contextually sensitive preventive interventions that address how assimilation into a high-risk context may increase involvement in bullying perpetration.

Keywords

Bullying Perpetration Context Culture Puerto Rican 

References

  1. Bandura, A. (1978). Social learning theory of aggression. The Journal of Communication, 28(3), 12–29.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Barboza, G. E., Schiamberg, L. B., Oehmke, J., Korzeniewski, S. J., Post, L. A., & Heraux, C. G. (2009). Individual characteristics and the multiple contexts of adolescent bullying: An ecological perspective. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 38(1), 101–121.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bird, H., Canino, G., Davies, M., Duarte, C. S., Febo, V., Ramirez, R., et al. (2006a). A study of disruptive behavior disorders in Puerto Rican youth: I. Background, design, and survey methods. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 45(9), 1032–1041.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bird, H., Davies, M., Duarte, C., Loeber, R., & Canino, G. (2006b). A study of disruptive behavior disorders in Puerto Rican youth: II. Baseline prevalence, comorbidity, and correlates in two sites. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 45(9), 1042–1053.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bravo, M., Ribera, J., Rubio-Stipec, M., Canino, G., Shrout, P., Ramirez, R., et al. (2001). Test–retest reliability of the Spanish version of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC-IV). Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 29(5), 433–444.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bronfenbrenner, U. (1995). Developmental ecology through space and time: A future perspective. Examining Lives in Context: Perspectives on the Ecology of Human Development, 619, 647.Google Scholar
  7. Cervantes, R. C., Padilla, A. M., & De Snyder, N. S. (1990). Reliability and validity of the Hispanic Stress Inventory. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 12(1), 76–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cook, C. R., Williams, K. R., Guerra, N. G., Kim, T. E., & Sadek, S. (2010). Predictors of bullying and victimization in childhood and adolescence: A meta-analytic investigation. School Psychology Quarterly, 25(2), 65–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Craig, W., Harel-Fisch, Y., Fogel-Grinvald, H., Dostaler, S., Hetland, J., Simons-Morton, B., et al. (2009). A cross-national profile of bullying and victimization among adolescents in 40 countries. International Journal of Public Health, 54, 216–224.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Duffy, A. L., & Nesdale, D. (2009). Peer groups, social identity, and children’s bullying behavior. Social Development, 18(1), 121–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Espelage, D. L., Bosworth, K., & Simon, T. R. (2000). Examining the social context of bullying behaviors in early adolescence. Journal of Counseling and Development, 78(3), 326–333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Espelage, D. L., & Holt, M. K. (2001). Bullying and victimization during early adolescence: Peer influences and psychosocial correlates. Journal of Emotional Abuse, 2(2/3), 123–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Fite, P. J., & Colder, C. R. (2007). Proactive and reactive aggression and peer delinquency. Journal of Early Adolescence, 27(2), 223–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Fite, P. J., Vitulano, M., Wynn, P., Wimsatt, A., Gaertner, A., & Rathert, J. (2010). Influence of perceived neighborhood safety on proactive and reactive aggression. Journal of Community Psychology, 38(6), 757–768.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Good, M., Smilkstein, G., Good, B., Shaffer, T., & Arons, T. (1979). The family APGAR Indices: A study of construct validity. The Journal of Family Practice, 8, 577–582.Google Scholar
  16. Goodman, S. H., Hoven, C. W., Narrow, W. E., Cohen, P., Fielding, B., Alegria, M., et al. (1998). Measurement of risk for mental disorders and competence in a psychiatric epidemiologic community survey: The National Institute of Mental Health Methods for the Epidemiology of Child and Adolescent Mental Disorders (MECA) Study. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 33(4), 162–173.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Haynie, D. L., Silver, E., & Teasdale, B. (2006). Neighborhood characteristics, peer networks, and adolescent violence. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 22(2), 147–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hosmer, D. W., & Lemeshow, S. (2004). Applied logistic regression. London: Wiley.Google Scholar
  19. Hudson, W. W. (1982). Methodological observations on applied behavioral science. A measurement package for clinical workers. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 18(2), 229–238.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Jansen, D., Veenstra, R., Ormel, J., Verhulst, F., & Reijneveld, S. (2011). Early risk factors for being a bully, victim, or bully/victim in late elementary and early secondary education. The longitudinal TRAILS study. BMC Public Health, 11(1), 440.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Jimerson, S. R., Espelage, D. L., & Swearer, S. M. (2010). A Social–Ecological model for bullying prevention and intervention. In S. R. Jimerson, S. M. Swearer, & D. L. Espelage (Eds.), Handbook of bullying in schools: An international perspective (pp. 61–72). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  22. Klomek, A. B., Sourander, A., Niemela, S., Kumpulainen, K., Piha, J., Tamminen, T., et al. (2009). Childhood bullying behaviors as a risk for suicide attempts and completed suicides: A population-based birth cohort study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 48(3), 254–261.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kowalski, R. M., & Limber, S. P. (2013). Psychological, physical, and academic correlates of cyber bullying and traditional bullying. Journal of Adolescent Health, 53(1 Suppl), S13–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Lish, J. D., Weissman, M. M., Adams, P. B., Hoven, C. W., & Bird, H. R. (1995). Family psychiatric screening instruments for epidemiologic studies: Pilot testing and validation. Psychiatry Research, 57(2), 169–180.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Loeber, R., Farrington, D., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., & Van Kammen, W. (1998). Antisocial behavior and mental health problems: Explanatory factors in childhood and adolescence. London: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  26. Magana, J. R., de la Rocha, O., Amsel, J., Magana, H. A., Fernandez, M. I., & Rulnick, S. (1996). Revisiting the dimensions of acculturation: Cultural theory and psychometric practice. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 18(4), 444–468.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Mendoza, R. H. (1989). An empirical scale to measure type and degree of acculturation in Mexican American adolescents and adults. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 20(4), 372–385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Merrell, K. W., Gueldner, B. A., Ross, S. W., & Isava, D. M. (2008). How effective are school bullying intervention programs? A meta-analysis of intervention research. School Psychology Quarterly, 23(1), 26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Nansel, T. R., Craig, W., Overpeck, M. D., Saluja, G., & Ruan, W. (2004). Cross-national consistency in the relationship between bullying behaviors and psychosocial adjustment. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 158(8), 730–736.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Nansel, T. R., Overpeck, M., Pilla, R. S., Ruan, W., Simons-Morton, B., & Scheidt, P. (2001). Bullying behaviors among US youth. JAMA, 285(16), 2094.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Natvig, G. K., Albrektsen, G., & Qvarnstrom, U. (2001). School-related stress experience as a risk factor for bullying behavior. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 30(5), 561–575.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Olweus, D. (1978). Aggression in the schools: Bullies and whipping boys. Washington, DC: Hemisphere.Google Scholar
  33. Olweus, D. (1994). Bullying at school: Basic facts and effects of a school based intervention program. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 35(7), 1171–1190.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Olweus, D., & Limber, S. P. (2010). Bullying in school: Evaluation and dissemination of the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program. The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 80(1), 124–134.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Patterson, G. R., & Stouthamer-Loeber, M. (1984). The correlation of family management practices and delinquency. Child Development, 55(4), 1299–1307.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Pepler, D., Jiang, D., Craig, W., & Connolly, J. (2008). Developmental trajectories of bullying and associated factors. Child Development, 79(2), 325–338.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Perren, S., & Alsaker, F. D. (2006). Social behavior and peer relationships of victims, bully-victims, and bullies in kindergarten. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47(1), 45–57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Perren, S., Ettekal, I., & Ladd, G. (2013). The impact of peer victimization on later maladjustment: Mediating and moderating effects of hostile and self-blaming attributions. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 54(1), 46–55.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Portes, A., & Rivas, A. (2011). The adaptation of migrant children. Future of Children, 21(1), 219–246.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Portes, A., & Zhou, M. (1993). The new second generation: Segmented assimilation and its variants. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 530(1), 74–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Redfield, R., Linton, R., & Herskovits, M. J. (1936). Memorandum for the study of acculturation. American Anthropologist, 38(1), 149–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Research Triangle Institute. (2007). Software for survey data analysis (SUDAAN) version 9.0.3. Research Triangle Park, NC.Google Scholar
  43. Rosenbaum, P. R., & Rubin, D. B. (1985). Constructing a control group using multivariate matched sampling methods that incorporate the propensity score. The American Statistician, 39(1), 33–38.Google Scholar
  44. Rubin, D. B. (1997). Estimating causal effects from large data sets using propensity scores. Annals of Internal Medicine, 127(8 Part 2), 757–763.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Rubin, D. B., & Thomas, N. (2000). Combining propensity score matching with additional adjustments for prognostic covariates. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 95(450), 573–585.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Sabogal, F., Marin, G., Otero-Sabogal, R., Marin, B., & Perez-Stable, E. (1987). Hispanic familism and acculturation: What changes and what doesn’t? Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 4, 397–412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Shaffer, D., Fisher, P., Lucas, C. P., Dulcan, M. K., & Schwab-Stone, M. E. (2000). NIMH Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Version IV (NIMH DISC-IV): Description, differences from previous versions, and reliability of some common diagnoses. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 39(1), 28–38.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Sourander, A., Brunstein Klomek, A., Kumpulainen, K., Puustjarvi, A., Elonheimo, H., Ristkari, T., et al. (2010). Bullying at age eight and criminality in adulthood: Findings from the Finnish Nationwide 1981 Birth Cohort Study. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 46, 1211–1219.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Sourander, A., Jensen, P., Ronning, J. A., Niemela, S., Helenius, H., Sillanmaki, L., et al. (2007). What is the early adulthood outcome of boys who bully or are bullied in childhood? The Finnish “From a Boy to a Man” Study. Pediatrics, 120(2), 397.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Sourander, A., Ronning, J., Brunstein-Klomek, A., Gyllenberg, D., Kumpulainen, K., Niemela, S., et al. (2009). Childhood bullying behavior and later psychiatric hospital and psychopharmacologic treatment: Findings from the Finnish 1981 birth cohort study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 66(9), 1005.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Stepp, S., Pardini, D., Loeber, R., & Morris, N. (2011). The relation between adolescent social competence and young adult delinquency and educational attainment among at-risk youth: The mediating role of peer delinquency. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 56(8), 457.Google Scholar
  52. Swearer, S. M., Espelage, D. L., Vaillancourt, T., & Hymel, S. (2010). What can be done about school bullying? Educational Researcher, 39(1), 38–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Ttofi, M. M., Farrington, D. P., Losel, F., & Loeber, R. (2011). The predictive efficiency of school bullying versus later offending: A systematic/meta-analytic review of longitudinal studies. Criminal Behavior and Mental Health, 21(2), 80–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Veenstra, R., Lindenberg, S., Oldehinkel, A. J., De Winter, A. F., Verhulst, F. C., & Ormel, J. (2005). Bullying and victimization in elementary schools: A comparison of bullies, victims, bully/victims, and uninvolved preadolescents. Developmental Psychology, 41(4), 672.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Ward, C. A., Bochner, S., & Furnham, A. (2001). The psychology of culture shock. London: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  56. Wolke, D., Woods, S., Stanford, K., & Schulz, H. (2001). Bullying and victimization of primary school children in England and Germany: Prevalence and school factors. British Journal of Psychology, 92(4), 673–696.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carmen Morcillo
    • 1
  • Maria A. Ramos-Olazagasti
    • 1
  • Carlos Blanco
    • 1
  • Regina Sala
    • 1
  • Glorisa Canino
    • 2
  • Hector Bird
    • 1
  • Cristiane S. Duarte
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychiatryColumbia University/New York State Psychiatric InstituteNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Behavioral Sciences Research InstituteUniversity of Puerto RicoSan JuanUSA

Personalised recommendations