Journal of Child and Family Studies

, Volume 23, Issue 3, pp 487–496 | Cite as

Internalizing Symptoms in Female Adolescents: Associations with Emotional Awareness and Emotion Regulation

  • Jennifer M. Eastabrook
  • Jessica J. Flynn
  • Tom Hollenstein
Original Paper

Abstract

The transition into adolescence involves a number of changes that for many adolescents result in increased negative affect and internalizing symptoms, especially for females. In the current study we examined the direct and indirect effects of emotional awareness on internalizing symptoms by exploring the extent to which certain emotion regulation strategies influence this relationship. Participants were 123 female adolescents aged 13–16 years (M = 14.51 years) who completed measures of emotional awareness, emotion regulation (emotional reappraisal and expressive suppression), and symptoms of depression and social anxiety. Two multiple indirect effect models were conducted including both reappraisal and suppression (one for each of the dependent variables, depression and social anxiety) via the bootstrapping method. Results found that reappraisal accounted for the effect of emotional awareness on depressive symptoms but suppression accounted for the effect of emotional awareness on social anxiety symptoms. Results suggest that emotion regulation strategies play an important role in determining depressive and social anxiety symptoms and are associated with an adolescent’s level of emotional awareness.

Keywords

Adolescence Emotional awareness Emotion regulation Depression Social anxiety 

References

  1. Aldao, A., Nolen-Hoeksema, S., & Schweizer, S. (2010). Emotion-regulation strategies across psychopathology: A meta-analytic review. Clinical Psychology Review, 30, 217–237. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2009.11.004.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Arnett, J. J. (1999). Adolescent storm and stress, reconsidered. American Psychologist, 54, 317–326. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.54.5.317.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Barlow, D. H., Allen, L. B., & Choate, M. L. (2004). Toward a unified treatment for emotional disorders. Behavior Therapy, 35, 205–230. doi:10.1016/S0005-7894(04)80036-4.Google Scholar
  4. Bearman, S. K., Stice, E., & Chase, A. (2003). Evaluation of an intervention targeting both depressive and bulimic pathology: A randomized prevention trial. Behavior Therapy, 34, 277–292. doi:10.1016/S0005-7894(03)80001-1.Google Scholar
  5. Berenbaum, H., Raghavan, C., Le, H., Vernon, L. L., & Gomez, J. J. (2003). A taxonomy of emotional disturbances. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 10, 206–226. doi:10.1093/clipsy/bpg011.Google Scholar
  6. Broderick, P. C. (1998). Early adolescent gender differences in the use of ruminative and distracting coping strategies. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 18, 173–191. doi:10.1177/0272431698018002003.Google Scholar
  7. Brooks-Gunn, J., & Warren, M. P. (1989). Biological and social contributions to negative affect in young adolescent girls. Child Development, 60, 40–55. doi:10.2307/1131069.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Buck, R. (1991). Temperament, social skills, and the communication of emotion: A developmental-interactionist view. In D. G. Gilbert & J. J. Connolly (Eds.), Personality, social skills, and psychopathology: An individual differences approach. Perspectives on individual differences (pp. 85–105). New York, NY: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  9. Buckley, M., & Saarni, C. (2006). Skills of emotional competence: Developmental implications. In J. Ciarrochi, J. P. Forgas, & J. D. Mayer (Eds.), Emotional intelligence in everyday life (2nd ed., pp. 51–76). New York: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  10. Burnett, S., Thompson, S., Bird, G., & Blakemore, S. J. (2011). Pubertal development of the understanding of social emotions: Implications for education. Learning and Individual Differences, 21, 681–689. doi:10.1016/j.lindif.2010.05.007.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Carthy, T., Horesh, N., Apter, A., & Gross, J. (2010). Patterns of emotional reactivity and regulation in children with anxiety disorders. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 32, 23–36. doi:10.1007/s10862-009-9167-8.Google Scholar
  12. Carver, C. S., Scheier, M. F., & Weintraub, J. K. (1989). Assessing coping strategies: A theoretically based approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56, 267–283. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.56.2.267.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Chen, J., Xu, T., Jing, J., & Chan, R. C. K. (2011). Alexithymia and emotional regulation: A cluster analytical approach. BMC Psychiatry, 11, 1–6. doi:10.1186/1471-244X-11-33.Google Scholar
  14. Cicchetti, D., Ackerman, B. P., & Izard, C. E. (1995). Emotions and emotion regulation in developmental psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology. Special Issue: Emotions in Developmental Psychopathology, 7, 1–10. doi:10.1017/S0954579400006301.Google Scholar
  15. Clark, L. A., & Watson, D. (1991). Tripartite model of anxiety and depression: Psychometric evidence and taxonomic implications. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100, 316–336. doi:10.1037/0021-843X.100.3.316.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Cole, P. M., Michel, M. K., & Teti, L. O. (1994). The development of emotion regulation and dysregulation: A clinical perspective. Monographs of the Society for Research on Child Development, 59, 73–100. doi:10.2307/1166139.Google Scholar
  17. Collins, W. A. (1990). Parent-child relationships in the transition to adolescence: Continuity and change in interaction, affect, and cognition. In R. Montemayor, G. R. Adams, & T. P. Gullotta (Eds.), From childhood to adolescence: A transitional period? (pp. 85–106). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.Google Scholar
  18. Collins, W. A., & Russell, G. (1991). Mother-child and father-child relationships in middle childhood and adolescence: A developmental analysis. Developmental Review, 11, 99–136. doi:10.1016/0273-2297(91)90004-8.Google Scholar
  19. Costello, E. J., Mustillo, S., Erkani, A., Keeler, G., & Angold, A. (2003). Prevalence and development of psychiatric disorders in childhood and adolescence. Archives of General Psychiatry, 60, 837–844. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.60.8.837.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Craighead, W. E., Curry, J. F., & Ilardi, S. S. (1995). Relationship of children’s depression inventory factors to major depression among adolescents. Psychological Assessment, 7, 171–176. doi:10.1037/1040-3590.7.2.171.Google Scholar
  21. Crick, N. R., & Dodge, K. A. (1994). A review and reformulation of social information processing mechanisms in children’s social adjustment. Psychological Bulletin, 115, 74–101. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.115.1.74.Google Scholar
  22. Denham, S. A. (1998). Emotional development in young children. The Guilford series on social and emotional development. New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  23. Dimberg, U., Thunberg, M., & Elmehed, K. (2000). Unconscious facial reactions to emotional facial expressions. Psychological Science, 11, 86–89. doi:10.1111/1467-9280.00221.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Dolan, R. J., & Vuilleumier, P. (2003). Amygdala automaticity in emotional processing. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 985, 348–355. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2003.tb07093.x.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Esteves, F., Dimberg, U., & Ohman, A. (1994). Automatically elicited fear: Conditioned skin conductance responses to masked facial expressions. Cognition and Emotion, 8, 393–413. doi:10.1080/02699939408408949.Google Scholar
  26. Feldman Barrett, L., Gross, J., Christensen, T. C., & Benvenuto, M. (2001). Knowing what you’re feeling and knowing what to do about it: Mapping the relation between emotion differentiation and emotion regulation. Cognition and Emotion, 15, 713–724. doi:10.1080/02699930143000239.Google Scholar
  27. Fine, S. E., Izard, C. E., Mostow, A. J., Trentacosta, C. J., & Ackerman, B. P. (2003). First grade emotion knowledge as a predictor of fifth grade self-reported internalizing behaviors in children from economically disadvantaged families. Development and Psychopathology, 15, 331–342. doi:10.1017/S095457940300018X.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Friedman, H. S., & Miller-Herringer, T. (1991). Nonverbal display of emotion in public and in private: Self-monitoring, personality, and expressive cues. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61, 766–775. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.61.5.766.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Fritz, M. S., & MacKinnon, D. P. (2007). Required sample size to detect the mediated effect. Psychological Science, 18, 233–239. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9280.2007.01882.x.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Galambos, N. L., Leadbeater, B. J., & Barker, E. T. (2004). Gender differences in and risk factors for depression in adolescence: A 4-year longitudinal study. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 28, 16–25. doi:10.1080/01650250344000235.Google Scholar
  31. Garber, J., Braafladt, N., & Weiss, B. (1995). Affect regulation in depressed and nondepressed children and young adolescents. Development and Psychopathology. Special Issue: Emotions in Developmental Psychopathology, 7, 93–115. doi:10.1017/S0954579400006362.Google Scholar
  32. Gottman, J. M., Katz, L. F., & Hooven, C. (1997). Meta-emotion: How families communicate emotionally. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.Google Scholar
  33. Gratz, K. L., & Roemer, L. (2004). Multidimensional assessment of emotion regulation and dysregulation: Development, factor structure, and initial validation of the difficulties in emotion regulation scale. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 26, 41–53. doi:10.1023/B:JOBA.0000007455.08539.94.Google Scholar
  34. Greenberg, L. S. (2002). Emotion-focused therapy: Coaching clients to work through their feelings. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  35. Gross, J. J. (1998a). Antecedent- and response-focused emotion regulation: Divergent consequences for experience, expression, and physiology. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 224–237. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.74.1.224.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Gross, J. J. (1998b). The emerging field of emotion regulation: An integrative review. Review of General Psychology: Special Issue: New directions in research on emotion, 2, 271–299. doi:10.1037/1089-2680.2.3.271.Google Scholar
  37. Gross, J. J. (2001). Emotion regulation in adulthood: Timing is everything. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 10, 214–219. doi:10.1111/1467-8721.00152.Google Scholar
  38. Gross, J. J. (2007). Handbook of emotion regulation. New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  39. Gross, J. J., & John, O. P. (2003). Individual differences in two different emotion regulation processes: Implications for affect, relationships, and well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85, 348–362. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.85.2.348.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Gross, J. J., & Levenson, R. W. (1997). Hiding feelings: The acute effects of inhibiting negative and positive emotion. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 106, 95–103. doi:10.1037/0021-843X.106.1.95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Gross, J. J., Richards, J. M., & John, O. P. (2006). Emotion regulation in everyday life. In D. K. Snyder, J. Simpson, & J. N. Hughes (Eds.), Emotion regulation in couples and families: Pathways to dysfunction and health (pp. 13–35). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  42. Gross, J. J., & Thompson, R. A. (2007). Emotion regulation: Conceptual foundations. New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  43. Gullone, E., Hughes, E. K., King, N. J., & Tonge, B. (2010). The normative development of emotion regulation strategy use in children and adolescents: A 2-year follow-up study. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 51(5), 567–574. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2009.02183.x.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Halberstadt, A. G., Denham, S. A., & Dunsmore, J. C. (2001). Affective social competence. Social Development, 10, 79–119. doi:10.1111/1467-9507.00150.Google Scholar
  45. Harris, C. R. (2001). Cardiovascular responses of embarrassment and effects of emotional suppression in a social setting. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81, 886–897. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.81.5.886.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Hayes, A. F. (2009). Beyond Baron and Kenny: Statistical mediation analysis in the new millennium. Communication Monographs, 76, 408–420. doi:10.1080/03637750903310360.Google Scholar
  47. Hesse, P., & Cicchetti, D. (1982). Perspectives on an integrated theory of emotional development. New Direction for Child Development, 16, 3–48. doi:10.1002/cd.23219821603.Google Scholar
  48. Hubbard, J. A., & Coie, J. D. (1994). Emotional correlates of social competence in children’s peer relationships. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly: Journal of Developmental Psychology. Special Issue: Children’s Emotions and Social Competence, 40, 1–20. Retrieved from http://www.asu.edu/clas/ssfd/mpq/.
  49. Izard, C. E. (2002). Translating emotion theory and research into preventive interventions. Psychological Bulletin, 128, 796–824. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.128.5.796.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Izard, C. E., Woodburn, E. M., Finlon, K. J., Krauthamer-Ewing, E. S., Grossman, S. R., & Seidenfeld, A. (2011). Emotion knowledge, emotion utilization, and emotion regulation. Emotion Review, 3, 44–52. doi:10.1177/1754073910380972.Google Scholar
  51. John, O. P., & Gross, J. J. (2004). Healthy and unhealthy emotion regulation: Personality processes, individual differences, and life span development. Journal of Personality, 72, 1301–1333. doi:10.1111/j.1467-6494.2004.00298.x.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Johnson-Laird, P. N., Mancini, F., & Gangemi, A. (2006). A hyper-emotion theory of psychological illnesses. Psychological Review, 113, 822–841. doi:10.1037/0033-295X.113.4.822.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Joormann, J., & D’Avanzato, C. (2010). Emotion regulation in depression: Examining the role of cognitive processes. Cognition and Emotion, 24, 913–939. doi:10.1080/02699931003784939.Google Scholar
  54. Kessler, R. C., Avenevoli, S., & Merikangas, K. R. (2001). Mood disorders in children and adolescents: An epidemiologic perspective. Biological Psychiatry, 49, 1002–1014. doi:10.1016/S0006-3223(01)01129-5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Kovacs, M. (1992). Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI). New York: Multi-health Systems, Inc.Google Scholar
  56. Kring, A. M., & Bachorowski, J. (1999). Emotions and psychopathology. Cognition and Emotion, 13, 575–599. doi:10.1080/026999399379195.Google Scholar
  57. Lahaye, M., Luminet, O., Broeck, N., Bodart, E., & Mikolajczak, M. (2010). Psychometric properties of the emotion awareness questionnaire for children in a French-speaking population. Journal of Personality Assessment, 92, 317–326. doi:10.1080/00223891.2010.482003.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Lambie, J. A., & Marcel, A. J. (2002). Consciousness and the varieties of emotion experience: A theoretical framework. Psychological Review, 109, 219–259. doi:10.1037/0033-295X.109.2.219.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Lane, R. D., & Schwartz, G. E. (1987). Levels of emotional awareness: A cognitive-developmental theory and its application to psychopathology. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 144, 133–143. Retrieved from http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/journal.aspx?journalid=13.
  60. Larson, R., & Ham, M. (1993). Stress and “storm and stress” in early adolescence: The relationship of negative events with dysphoric affect. Developmental Psychology, 29, 130–140. doi:10.1037/0012-1649.29.1.130.Google Scholar
  61. Laurenceau, J., Barrett, L. F., & Pietromonaco, P. R. (1998). Intimacy as an interpersonal process: The importance of self-disclosure and partner disclosure, and perceived partner responsiveness in interpersonal exchanges. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 1238–1251. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.74.5.1238.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. LeDoux, J. E. (2000). Emotion circuits in the brain. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 23, 155–184. doi:10.1146/annurev.neuro.23.1.155.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Lewinsohn, P. M., Gotlib, I. H., Lewinsohn, M., Seeley, J. R., & Allen, N. B. (1998). Gender differences in anxiety disorders and anxiety symptoms in adolescents. Abnormal Psychology, 107, 109–117. doi:10.1037/0021-843X.107.1.109.Google Scholar
  64. Lewinsohn, P. M., Hops, H., Roberts, R. E., Seeley, J. R., & Andrews, J. A. (1993). Adolescent psychopathology: I. Prevalence and incidence of depression and other DSM-III-R disorders in high school students. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 102, 133–144. doi:10.1037/0021-843X.102.1.133.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Lewinsohn, P. M., Petit, J., Joiner, T. E., Jr., & Seeley, J. R. (2003). The symptomatic expression of major depressive disorder in adolescents and young adults. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 112, 244–252. doi:10.1037/0021-843X.112.2.244.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. MacKinnon, D. P., Lockwood, C. M., & Williams, J. (2004). Confidence limits for the indirect effect: Distribution of the product and resampling methods. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 39, 99–128. doi:10.1207/s15327906mbr3901_4.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. MacPhee, A. R., & Andrews, J. J. W. (2006). Risk factors for depression in early adolescence. Adolescence, 41, 435–466. Retrieved from: http://www.vjf.cnrs.fr/clt/php/va/Page_revue.php?ValCodeRev=ADO.
  68. Mallet, P., & Rodriguez-Tome, G. (1999). Social anxiety with peers in 9- to 14-year-olds. Developmental process and relations with self-consciousness and perceived peer acceptance. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 14, 387–402. doi:10.1007/BF03173122.Google Scholar
  69. Mayer, J. D., & Salovey, P. (1997). What is emotional intelligence? In P. Salovey & D. J. Sluyter (Eds.), Emotional development and emotional intelligence: Educational implications (pp. 3–34). New York, NY: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  70. Mayer, J. D., Salovey, P., & Caruso, D. R. (2004). Emotional intelligence: Theory, findings, and implications. Psychological Inquiry, 15, 197–215. doi:10.1207/s15327965pli1503_02.Google Scholar
  71. Mayer, J. D., Salovey, P., Caruso, D. R., & Sitarenios, G. (2001). Emotional intelligence as a standard intelligence. Emotion, 1, 232–242. doi:10.1037/1528-3542.1.3.232.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Mennin, D., & Farach, F. (2007). Emotion and evolving treatments for adult psychopathology. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 14, 329–352. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2850.2007.00094.x.Google Scholar
  73. Mezulis, A. H., Abramson, L. Y., & Hyde, J. S. (2002). Domain specificity of gender differences in rumination. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 16, 421–434. doi:10.1891/jcop.16.4.421.52524.Google Scholar
  74. Myers, M. G., Stein, M. B., & Aarons, G. A. (2002). Cross validation of the social anxiety scale for adolescents in a high school sample. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 16, 221–232. doi:10.1016/S0887-6185(02)00098-1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (1991). Responses to depression and their effects on the duration of depressive episodes. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100, 569–582. doi:10.1037/0021-843X.100.4.569.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Nolen-Hoeksema, S., & Girgus, J. S. (1994). The emergence of gender differences in depression during adolescence. Psychological Bulletin, 115, 424–443. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.115.3.424.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Nolen-Hoeksema, S., Morrow, J., & Fredrickson, B. L. (1993). Response styles and the duration of episodes of depressed mood. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 102, 20–28. doi:10.1037/0021-843X.102.1.20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Nolen-Hoeksema, S., Parker, L. E., & Larson, J. (1994). Ruminative coping with depressed mood following loss. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 92–104. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.67.1.92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Nolen-Hoeksema, S., Wisco, B. E., & Lyubomirsky, S. (2008). Rethinking rumination. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 3, 400–424. doi:10.1111/j.1745-6924.2008.00088.x.Google Scholar
  80. Osofsky, J. D. (1992). Affective development and early relationships: Clinical implications. In J. W. Barron, M. N. Eagle, & D. L. Wolitzky (Eds.), Interface of psychoanalysis and psychology (pp. 233–244). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  81. Peled, M., & Moretti, M. M. (2007). Rumination on anger and sadness in adolescence: Fueling of fury and deepening of despair. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 36, 66–75. doi:10.1207/s15374424jccp3601_7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Penza-Clyve, S., & Zeman, J. (2002). Initial validation of the emotion expression scale for children (EESC). Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 31, 540–547. doi:10.1207/153744202320802205.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Preacher, K. J., & Hayes, A. F. (2008). Asymptotic and resampling strategies for assessing and comparing indirect effects in multiple mediator models. Behavior Research Methods, 40, 879–891. doi:10.3758/BRM.40.3.879.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Quigley, K. S., & Feldman Barrett, L. (1999). Emotional learning and mechanisms of intentional psychological change. In J. Brandtstadter & R. M. Lerner (Eds.), Action and development: Origins and functions of intentional self-development (pp. 435–464). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  85. Rankin, J. L., Lane, D. J., Gibbons, F. X., & Gerrard, M. (2004). Adolescent self-consciousness: Longitudinal age changes and gender differences in two cohorts. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 14, 1–21. doi:10.1111/j.1532-7795.2004.01401001.x.Google Scholar
  86. Reis, H. T., & Shaver, P. (1988). Intimacy as an interpersonal process. In S. W. Duck (Ed.), Handbook of personal relationships (pp. 367–389). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  87. Rieffe, C., & De Rooij, M. (2012). The longitudinal relationship between emotion awareness and internalising symptoms during late childhood. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 21, 349–356. doi:10.1007/s00787-012-0267-8.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Riggio, R. E., & Friedman, H. S. (1986). Impression formation: The role of expressive behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50, 421–427. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.50.2.421.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Ruys, K. I., Stapel, D. A., & Aarts, H. (2011). From (unconscious) perception to emotion: A global-to-specific unfolding view of emotional responding. In I. Nyklicek, A. Vingerhoets, & M. Zeelenberg (Eds.), Emotion regulation and well-being (pp. 49–65). New York, NY: Springer Science.Google Scholar
  90. Ryff, C. D., & Keyes, C. L. M. (1995). The structure of psychological well-being revisited. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, 719–727. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.69.4.719.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Saarni, C. (1999). The development of emotional competence. The Guildford series on social and emotional development. New York, NY: Guildford Press.Google Scholar
  92. Saarni, C. (2000). Emotional competence: A developmental perspective. In R. Bar-On & J. D. A. Parker (Eds.), The handbook of emotional intelligence: Theory, development, assessment, and application at home, school, and in the workplace (pp. 68–91). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  93. Saylor, C. F., Finch, A. J., Spirito, A., & Bennett, B. (1984). The children’s depression inventory: A systematic evaluation of psychometric properties. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 52, 955–967. doi:10.1037/0022-006X.52.6.955.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Schwarz, N., & Clore, G. L. (1996). Feelings and phenomenal experiences. In E. T. Higgins & A. Kruglanski (Eds.), Social psychology: Handbook of basic principles (pp. 433–465). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  95. Sheppes, G., & Gross, J. J. (2011). Is timing everything? Temporal considerations in emotion regulation. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 15, 319–331. doi:10.1177/1088868310395778.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Sim, L., & Zeman, J. (2004). Emotion awareness and identification skills in adolescent girls with bulimia nervosa. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 33, 760–771. doi:10.1207/s15374424jccp3304_11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Smucker, M. R., Craighead, W. E., Craighead, L. W., & Green, B. J. (1986). Normative and reliability data for the children’s depression inventory. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 14, 25–39. doi:10.1007/BF00917219.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Stegge, H., & Terwogt, M. M. (2007). Awareness and regulation of emotion in typical and atypical development. In J. J. Gross (Ed.), Handbook of emotion regulation (pp. 269–286). New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  99. Steinberg, L. (2008). A social neuroscience perspective on adolescent risk-taking. Developmental Review, 28, 78–106. doi:10.1016/j.dr.2007.08.002.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Swart, M., Kortekaas, R., & Aleman, A. (2009). Dealing with feelings: Characterization of trait alexithymia on emotion regulation strategies and cognitive emotional processing. PLoS ONE, 4, e5751. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0005751.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Thompson, R. A. (1990). Emotion and self-regulation. Nebraska Symposium on Motivation, 1988: Socioemotional development. Current theory and research in motivation (Vol. 36, pp. 367–467). Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.Google Scholar
  102. Watson, E. B. (2007). Emotion regulation in affluent adolescents: Investigating the relationship between regulation and functioning. Doctoral dissertation. Available from ProQuest Information and Learning Company (UMI No. 3285 193).Google Scholar
  103. Watson, D., Clark, L. A., & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: The PANAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 1063–1070. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.54.6.1063.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Watson, D., Weber, K., Assenheimer, J. S., Clark, L. A., Strauss, M. E., & McCormick, R. A. (1995). Testing a tripartite model: I. Evaluating the convergent and discriminant validity of anxiety and depression symptom scales. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 104, 3–14. doi:10.1037/0021-843X.104.1.3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Weinberg, A., & Klonsky, E. D. (2009). Measurement of emotion dysregulation in adolescents. Psychological Assessment, 21, 616–621.Google Scholar
  106. Weiss, B., Weisz, J. R., Politano, M., Carey, M., Nelson, W. M., & Finch, A. J. (1991). Developmental differences in the factor structure of the children’s depression inventory. Psychological Assessment: A Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 3, 38–45. doi:10.1037/1040-3590.3.1.38.Google Scholar
  107. Westenberg, P. M., Drewes, M. J., Goedhart, A. W., Siebelink, B. M., & Treffers, P. D. A. (2004). A developmental analysis of self-reported fears in late childhood through mid-adolescence: Social-evaluative fears on the rise? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45, 481–495. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2004.00239.x.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Williams, J., & MacKinnon, D. P. (2008). Resampling and distribution of the product methods for testing indirect effects in complex models. Structural Equation Modeling, 15, 23–51. doi:10.1080/10705510701758166.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Yap, M. B., Allen, N. B., & Sheeber, L. (2007). Using an emotion regulation framework to understand the role of temperament and family processes in risk for adolescent depressive disorders. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 10, 180–196. doi:10.1007/s10567-006-0014-0.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Zajonc, R. B. (1980). Feeling and thinking: Preferences need no inferences. American Psychologist, 35, 151–175. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.35.2.151.Google Scholar
  111. Zeman, J., Shipman, K., & Suveg, C. (2002). Anger and sadness regulation: Predictions to internalizing and externalizing symptoms in children. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 31, 393–398. doi:10.1207/153744202760082658.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jennifer M. Eastabrook
    • 1
  • Jessica J. Flynn
    • 2
  • Tom Hollenstein
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyQueen’s UniversityKingstonCanada
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyKent StateKentUSA

Personalised recommendations