Journal of Child and Family Studies

, Volume 22, Issue 6, pp 844–853 | Cite as

Parental Practices and Theory of Mind Development

  • Gabriela Pavarini
  • Debora de Hollanda Souza
  • Carol Kozak Hawk
Review Paper

Abstract

In the past three decades, psychologists have become increasingly interested in the study of theory of mind. This ability involves an understanding of different components of the mind (e.g., emotions, thoughts, beliefs) and of how they are related to human behavior. Several parents’ characteristics (e.g., attachment, mental-state talk) have been associated to children’s theory-of-mind development, but the variables and methods adopted are diverse and at times lead to inconsistent findings. The goal of the present paper, therefore, is to provide a literature review that can point both to possible ways in which discrepancies might be overcome and to promising research directions. Our review covers 78 research reports published in English between 1980 and 2011. Only empirical studies, using children as participants, were included in the review. Three main suggestions are offered for researchers, parents and practitioners on how to nurture young children’s understanding of mind: (a) to treat children as intentional agents, acting in a sensitive and responsive fashion to their mental states; (b) to speak to children about mental states in an elaborate and connected way, pointing out their causes and consequences, and explaining that these may be different for different people; and (c) to expose children to a wide range of emotions while being careful to not express over-frequent and inconsistent negative affect. One limitation of the present review, however, is that we do not look into how parental practices interact with certain individual characteristics of the child (e.g., personality, IQ and language skills). Future research should explore the multifaceted nature of these relationships and interactions.

Keywords

Parental practices Theory of mind Emotion understanding 

References

  1. Adrián, J. E., Clemente, R. A., Villanueva, L., & Rieffe, C. (2005). Parent-child picture-book reading, mothers’ mental state language and children’s theory of mind. Journal of Child Language, 32, 673–686.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arranz, E., Artamedi, J., Olabarrieta, F., & Martín, J. (2002). Family context and theory of mind development. Early Child Development and Care, 172, 9–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baron-Cohen, S., Leslie, A., & Frith, U. (1985). Does the autistic child have a “theory of mind”? Cognition, 21, 37–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bates, J. E., & McFadyen-Ketchum, S. (2001). Temperament and parent-child relations as interacting factors in children’s behavioral adjustment. In V. J. Molfese & D. L. Molfese (Eds.), Temperament and personality development across the life span (pp. 141–176). Mahwah: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  5. Baumrind, D. (1971). Current patterns of parental authority. Developmental Psychology Monographs, 4, 1–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bennett, D. S., Bendersky, M., & Lewis, M. (2005). Antecedents of emotion knowledge: Predictors of individual differences in young children. Cognition and Emotion, 19, 375–396.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Blissett, J. (2011). Relationships between parenting style, feeding style and feeding practices and fruit and vegetable consumption in early childhood. Appetite, 57, 826–831.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bornstein, M. H., Arterberry, M. E., Mash, C., & Manian, N. (2011). Discrimination of facial expression by 5-month-old infants of nondepressed and clinically depressed mothers. Infant Behavior and Development, 34, 100–106.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brown, L., & Iyengar, S. (2008). Parenting styles: The impact on student achievement. Marriage & Family Review, 43, 14–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Carlson, S. M., & Moses, L. (2001). Individual differences in inhibitory control and children’s theory of mind. Child Development, 72, 1032–1053.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Carpendale, J., & Lewis, C. (2006). How children develop social understanding. Malden: Blackwell Publishing.Google Scholar
  12. Carrick, N., Quas, J. A., & Lyon, T. D. (2010). Maltreated and nonmaltreated children’s evaluations of emotional fantasy. Child Abuse and Neglect, 34, 129–134.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cassano, M., Perry-Parrish, C., & Zeman, J. (2007). Influence of gender on parental socialization of children’s sadness regulation. Social Development, 16, 2010–2231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cassidy, J., Parke, R. D., Butkovsky, L., & Braungart, J. M. (1992). Family-peer connections: The roles of emotional expressiveness within the family and children’s understanding of emotions. Child Development, 63, 603–618.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chaplin, T. M., Casey, J., Sinha, R., & Mayes, L. C. (2010). Gender differences in caregiver emotion socialization of low-income toddlers. In A. Kennedy Root & S. Denham (Eds.), The role of gender in the socialization of emotion: Key concepts and critical issues. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, (Vol. 128, pp. 11–27). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  16. Charman, T., Baron-Cohen, S., Swettenham, J., Baird, G., Cox, A., & Drew, A. (2000). Testing joint attention, imitation, and play as infancy precursors to language and theory of mind. Cognitive Development, 15, 481–498.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cicchetti, D., Rogosch, F. A., Maughan, A., Toth, S. L., & Bruce, J. (2003). False belief understanding in maltreated children. Development and Psychopathology, 15, 1067–1091.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Cole, K., & Mitchell, P. (1998). Family background in relation to deceptive ability and understanding of the mind. Social Development, 7, 181–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. de Rosnay, M., & Harris, P. (2002). Individual differences in children’s understanding of emotion: The roles of attachment and language. Attachment & Human Development, 4, 39–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. de Rosnay, M., & Hughes, C. (2006). Conversation and theory of mind: Do children talk their way to socio-cognitive understanding? British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 24, 7–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Denham, S. (1986). Social cognition, prosocial behavior, and emotion in preschoolers: Contextual validation. Child Development, 57, 194–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Denham, S. A., Bassett, H. H., & Wyatt, T. M. (2010). Gender differences in the socialization of preschoolers’ emotional competence. In A. Kennedy Root & S. Denham (Eds.), The role of gender in the socialization of emotion: Key concepts and critical issues. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development (Vol. 128, pp. 29–49). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  23. Denham, S., McKinley, M., Couchoud, E., & Holt, R. (1990). Emotional and behavioral predictors of preschool peer ratings. Child Development, 61, 1145–1152.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Denham, S. A., Mitchell-Copeland, J., Strandberg, K., Auerbach, S., & Blair, K. (1997). Parental contributions to preschoolers emotional competence: Direct and indirect effects. Motivation and Emotion, 21, 65–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Denham, S. A., Zoller, D., & Couchoud, E. A. (1994). Socialization of preschoolers’ emotion understanding. Developmental Psychology, 30, 928–936.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Dunn, J., Brown, J., & Beardsall, L. (1991a). Family talk about feeling states and children’s later understanding of others’ emotions. Child Development, 27, 448–455.Google Scholar
  27. Dunn, J., Brown, J., Slomkowski, C., Tesla, C., & Youngblade, L. (1991b). Young children’s understanding of other people’s feelings and beliefs: Individual differences and their antecedents. Child Development, 62, 1352–1366.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Edwards, A., Shipman, K., & Brown, A. (2005). The socialization of emotional understanding: A comparison of neglectful and nonneglectful mothers and their children. Child Maltreatment, 10, 293–304.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Ensor, R., & Hughes, C. (2008). Content or connectedness? Mother-child talk and early social understanding. Child Development, 79, 201–216.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ensor, R., Spencer, D., & Hughes, C. (2011). ‘You feel sad?’ Emotion understanding mediates effects of verbal ability and mother-child mutuality on prosocial behaviors: Findings from 2 years to 4 years. Social Development, 20, 93–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ereky-Stevens, K. (2008). Associations between mothers’ sensitivity to their infants’ internal states and children’s later understanding of mind and emotion. Infant and Child Development, 17, 527–543.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Fabes, R., Poulin, R., Eisenberg, N., & Madden-Derdich, D. (2002). The coping with children’s negative emotions scale (CCNES): Psychometric properties and relations with children’s emotional competence. Marriage and Family Review, 34, 285–310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Farrant, B. M., Devine, T. A. J., Maybery, M. T., & Fletcher, J. (2011). Empathy, perspective taking and prosocial behaviour: The importance of parenting practices. Infant and Child Development, 21, 175–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Fonagy, P., Redfern, S., & Charman, T. (1997). The relationship between belief-desire reasoning and a projective measure of attachment security (SAT). British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 15, 51–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Garner, P. W., Jones, D. C., Gaddy, G., & Rennie, K. M. (1997). Low-income mothers’ conversations about emotions and their children’s emotional competence. Social Development, 9, 29–48.Google Scholar
  36. Garner, P. W., Jones, D. C., & Miner, J. L. (1994). Social competence among low-income preschoolers: Emotion socialization practices and social cognitive correlates. Child Development, 65, 622–637.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Garner, P. W., & Power, T. G. (1996). Preschoolers’ emotional control in the disappointment paradigm and its relation to temperament, emotional knowledge, and family expressiveness. Child Development, 67, 1406–1419.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Gotlib, I. H., & Goodman, S. H. (1999). Children of parents with depression. In W. K. Silverman & T. H. Ollendick (Eds.), Developmental issues in the clinical treatment of children and adolescents (pp. 415–432). New York: Allyn & Bacon.Google Scholar
  39. Greig, A., & Howe, D. (2001). Social understanding, attachment security of preschool children and maternal mental health. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 19, 381–393.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Guajardo, N. R., Snyder, G., & Petersen, R. (2009). Relationships among parenting practices, parental stress, child behaviour, and children’s social-cognitive development. Infant and Child Development, 18, 37–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Halberstadt, A. G., Crisp, V. W., & Eaton, K. L. (1999). Family expressiveness: A retrospective and new directions for research. In P. Philippot, R. S. Feldman, & E. J. Coats (Eds.), The social context of nonverbal behavior (pp. 109–155). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  42. Happé, F. (1995). The role of age and verbal ability in the theory of mind task performance of subjects with autism. Child Development, 66, 843–855.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Harris, P. L., Donnelly, K., Guz, G. R., & Pitt-Watson, R. (1986). Children’s understanding of the distinction between real and apparent emotion. Child Development, 57, 895–909.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hughes, C. (2011). Social understanding and social lives: From toddlerhood through to the transition to school. New York: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  45. Hughes, C., Deater-Deckard, K., & Cutting, A. L. (1999). ‘Speak roughly to your little boy?’ Sex differences in the relations between parenting and preschoolers’ understanding of mind. Social Development, 8, 143–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hughes, C., Dunn, J., & White, A. (1998). Trick or treat? Uneven understanding of mind and emotion and executive dysfunction in “hard-to-manage” preschoolers. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 39, 981–994.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hughes, C., & Ensor, R. (2009). Independence and interplay between maternal and child risk factors for preschool problem behaviors. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 33, 1–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hughes, C., & Plomin, R. (2000). Individual differences in early understanding of mind: Genes, nonshared environment and modularity. In P. Carruthers & A. Chamberlain (Eds.), Evolution and the human mind: Language, modularity and social cognition (pp. 47–61). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Johnson, W., McGue, M., & Iacono, W. G. (2007). How parents influence school grades: Hints from a sample of adoptive and biological families. Learning and Individual Differences, 17, 201–219.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kawabata, Y., Alink, L. R. A., Tseng, W. L., Van IJzendoorn, M. H., & Crick, N. R. (2011). Maternal and paternal parenting styles associated with relational aggression in children and adolescents: A conceptual analysis and meta-analytic review. Developmental Review, 31, 240–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Kristen, S., Sodian, B., Thoermer, C., & Perst, H. (2011). Infants’ joint attention skills predict toddlers’ emerging mental state language. Developmental Psychology, 47, 1207–1219.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. LaBounty, J., Wellman, H. M., Olson, S., Lagattuta, L., & Liu, D. (2008). Mothers’ and fathers’ use of internal state talk with their young children. Social Development, 17, 757–775.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Laible, D. (2004a). Mother-child discourse surrounding a child’s past behavior at 30 months: Links to emotional understanding and early conscience development at 36 months. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 50, 159–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Laible, D. (2004b). Mother-child discourse in two contexts: Links with child temperament, attachment security, and socioemotional competence. Developmental Psychology, 40, 979–992.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Laible, D. J., & Thompson, R. A. (1998). Attachment and emotional understanding in preschool children. Developmental Psychology, 34, 1038–1045.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Laranjo, J., Bernier, A., Meins, E., & Carlson, S. (2010). Early manifestations of children’s theory of mind: The role of mind-mindedness and infant security of attachment. Infancy, 15, 300–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Legerstee, M. (2005). Infants’ sense of people: Precursors to a theory of mind. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Masten, C. L., Guyer, A. E., Hodgdon, H. B., McClure, E. B., Charney, D. S., Ernst, M., et al. (2008). Recognition of facial emotions among maltreated children with high rates of post-traumatic stress disorder. Child Abuse and Neglect, 32, 139–153.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. McElwain, N. L., & Volling, B. L. (2004). Attachment security and parental sensitivity during infancy: Associations with friendship quality and false-belief understanding at age 4. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 21, 639–667.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Mcquaid, N., Bigelow, A. E., McLaughlin, J., & MacLean, K. (2008). Maternal mental state language and preschool children’s attachment security: Relation to children’s mental state language and expressions of emotional understanding. Social Development, 17, 61–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Meins, E., Fernyhough, C., Russell, J., & Clark-Carter, D. (1998). Security of attachment as a predictor of symbolic and metalising abilities: A longitudinal study. Social Development, 7, 1–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Meins, E., Fernyhough, C., Wainwright, R., Das Gupta, M., Fradley, E., & Tuckey, M. (2002). Maternal mind-mindedness and attachment security as predictors of theory of mind understanding. Child Development, 73, 1715–1726.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Misailidi, P. (2006). Young children’s display rule knowledge: Understanding the distinction between apparent and real emotions and the motives underlying the use of display rules. Social Behavior and Personality, 34, 1285–1296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Nelson, J. A., O’Brien, M., Calkins, S. D., Leerkes, E. M., Marcovitch, S., & Blankson, A. N. (2011) Maternal expressive style and children’s emotional development. Infant and Child Development. Advance online publication. doi:10.1002/icd.748.
  65. Olson, S. L., Lopez-Duran, N., Lunkenheimer, E. S., Chang, H., & Sameroff, A. J. (2011). Individual differences in the development of early peer aggression: Integrating contributions of self-regulation, theory of mind and parenting. Development and Psychopathology, 23, 253–266.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Olson, J., & Masur, E. F. (2011). Infants’ gestures influence mothers’ provision of object action and internal state labels. Journal of Child Language, 38, 1028–1054.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Ontai, L. L., & Thompson, R. A. (2008). Attachment, parent-child discourse and theory-of-mind development. Social Development, 17(1), 47–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Pears, K. C., & Moses, L. J. (2003). Demographics, parenting and theory of mind in preschool children. Social Development, 12, 1–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Perlman, S., Camras, L. A., & Pelphrey, K. (2008a). A. Physiology and functioning: Parents’ vagal tone, emotion socialization, and children’s emotion knowledge. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 100, 308–315.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Perlman, S. B., Kalish, C. W., & Pollak, S. D. (2008b). The role of maltreatment experience in children’s understanding of the antecedents of emotion. Cognition and Emotion, 22, 651–670.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Peterson, C., & Slaughter, V. (2003). Opening windows into the mind: Mothers’ preferences for mental state explanations and children’s theory of mind. Cognitive Development, 18, 399–429.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Pinderhughes, E. E., Dodge, K. A., Bates, J. E., Pettit, G. S., & Zelli, A. (2000). Determinants of discipline decisions: Family background characteristics, stress, social support and parent cognitive/emotional processes. Journal of Family Psychology, 14, 380–400.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Pollak, S. D., Cicchetti, D., Hornung, K., & Reed, A. (2000). Recognizing emotion in faces: Developmental effects of child abuse and neglect. Developmental Psychology, 36, 679–688.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Pollak, S. D., Cicchetti, D., Klorman, R., & Brumaghim, J. (1997). Cognitive brain event-related potentials and emotion processing in maltreated children. Child Development, 68, 773–787.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Pollak, S. D., Klorman, R., Thatcher, J. E., & Cicchetti, D. (2001). P3b reflects maltreated children’s reactions to facial displays of emotion. Psychophysiology, 38, 267–274.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Pollak, S. D., & Sinha, P. (2002). Effects of early experience on children’s recognition of facial displays of emotion. Developmental Psychology, 38, 784–791.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Pollak, S. D., & Tolley-Schell, S. A. (2003). Selective attention to facial emotion in physically abused children. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 112, 323–338.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Racine, T. P., Carpendale, J. I. M., & Turnbull, W. (2007). Parent-child talk and children’s understanding of beliefs and emotions. Cognition and Emotion, 21, 480–494.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Raikes, H. A., & Thompson, R. A. (2006). Family emotional climate, attachment security, and young children’s emotion knowledge in a high-risk sample. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 24, 89–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Repacholi, B., & Trapolini, T. (2004). Attachment and preschool children’s understanding of maternal versus non-maternal psychological states. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 22, 395–415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Rieffe, C., Terwogt, M. M., Koops, W., Stegge, H., & Oomen, A. (2001). Preschoolers’ appreciation of uncommon desires and subsequent emotions. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 19, 259–274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Rohrer, L. M., Cicchetti, D., Rogosch, F. A., Toth, S. L., & Maughan, A. (2011). Effects of maternal negativity and of early and recent recurrent depressive disorder on children’s false belief understanding. Developmental Psychology, 47, 170–181.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Root, A. K., & Denham, S. (2010). Focus on gender: Parent and child contributions to the socialization of emotion [Special issue]. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 128, 1–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Ruffman, T., Perner, J., & Parkin, L. (1999). How parenting style affects false belief understanding. Social Development, 8, 395–441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Ruffman, T., Slade, L., & Crowe, E. (2002). The relation between children’s and mothers’ mental state language and theory-of-mind understanding. Child Development, 73, 734–751.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Ruffman, T., Slade, L., Devitt, K., & Crowe, E. (2006). What mothers say and what they do: The relationship between parenting, theory of mind, language and conflict/cooperation. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 24, 105–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Sabbagh, M. A., & Seamans, E. L. (2008). Intergenerational transmission of theory-of-mind. Developmental Science, 11, 354–360.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Salmon, C. A., & Shackelford, T. K. (Eds.). (2007). Family relationships: An evolutionary perspective. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  89. Shackman, J. E., Shackman, A. J., & Pollak, S. D. (2007). Physical abuse amplifies attention to threat and increases anxiety in children. Emotion, 7, 838–852.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Shipman, K., Edwards, A., Brown, A., Swisher, L., & Jennings, E. (2005). Managing emotion in a maltreating context: A pilot study examining child neglect. Child Abuse and Neglect, 29, 1015–1029.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Slaughter, V., Peterson, C. C., & Carpenter, M. (2008). Maternal talk about mental states and the emergence of joint visual attention. Infancy, 13, 640–659.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Slaughter, V., Peterson, C. C., & Mackintosh, E. (2007). Mind what mother says: Narrative input and theory of mind in typical children and those on the autism spectrum. Child Development, 78, 839–858.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Spera, C. (2005). A review of the relationship among parenting practices, parenting styles, and adolescent school achievement. Educational Psychology Review, 17, 125–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Steele, M., Steele, H., Croft, C., & Fonagy, P. (1999). Infant mother attachment at one year predicts children’s understanding of mixed emotions at 6 years. Social Development, 8, 161–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Stevenson, O. (2007). Neglected children and their families. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Sullivan, M. W., Bennett, D. E., Carpenter, K., & Lewis, M. (2008). Emotional knowledge in young neglected children. Child Maltreatment, 13, 301–306.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Sullivan, M. W., Carmody, D. P., & Lewis, M. (2010). How neglect and punitiveness influence emotion knowledge. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 41, 285–298.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Symons, D. K., & Clark, S. E. (2000). A longitudinal study of mother–child relationships and theory of mind in the preschool period. Social Development, 9, 3–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Symons, D., Fossum, K., & Collins, K. (2006). A longitudinal study of belief and desire state discourse during mother–child play and later false belief understanding. Social Development, 15, 676–691.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Taumoepeau, M., & Ruffman, T. (2006). Mother and infant talk about mental states relates to desire language and emotion understanding. Child Development, 77, 465–481.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Turnbull, W., Carpendale, J. I. M., & Racine, T. P. (2009). Talk and children’s understanding of mind. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 16, 140–166.Google Scholar
  102. Van Bergen, P., Salmon, K., Dadds, M. R., & Allen, J. (2009). The effect of mother training in emotion-rich, elaborative reminiscing on children’s shared recall and emotion knowledge. Journal of Cognition and Development, 10, 162–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Vinden, P. (2001). Parenting attitudes and children’s understanding of mind: A comparison of Korean-American and Anglo-American families. Cognitive Development, 16, 793–809.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Wellman, H. M., Lane, J. D., LaBounty, J., & Olson, S. L. (2011). Observant, nonaggressive temperament predicts theory-of-mind development. Developmental Science, 14, 319–326.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Wimmer, H., & Perner, J. (1983). Beliefs about beliefs: Representation and constraining function of wrong beliefs in young children’s understanding of deception. Cognition, 13, 103–128.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gabriela Pavarini
    • 1
  • Debora de Hollanda Souza
    • 2
  • Carol Kozak Hawk
    • 3
  1. 1.University of CambridgeCambridgeUK
  2. 2.Universidade Federal de São CarlosSão CarlosBrazil
  3. 3.Austin Community CollegeAustinUSA

Personalised recommendations