Journal of Child and Family Studies

, Volume 22, Issue 5, pp 707–718 | Cite as

Confirmatory and Exploratory Factor Analyses of Parental Authority Questionnaire in Urban India

  • Vaishali V. RavalEmail author
  • Rose Marie Ward
  • Pratiksha H. Raval
  • Shwetang S. Trivedi
Original Paper


The present study examined the factor structure of a widely used measure of parenting style in three samples from Northwestern India. College Students (n = 195) completed Parental Authority Questionnaire (PAQ; Buri in J Pers Assess 57:110–119, 1991), and mothers of children attending high-school (n = 275), and middle-school (n = 145) completed its parent-report version Parental Authority Questionnaire-Revised (PAQ-R; Reitman et al. in J Psychopathol Behav Assess 24:119–127, 2002). Preliminary findings revealed that across three samples Cronbach’s alpha values ranged from poor to acceptable, with permissive parenting subscale of the PAQ/PAQ-R having the lowest value, whereas the authoritarian parenting had the highest value. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that none of the models achieved satisfactory fit (i.e., CFI > .90). Exploratory factor analysis revealed that a two factor structure (with first component consisting of authoritative and permissive items, and the second component consisting of authoritarian items) rendered Cronbach’s alpha in the acceptable range. Only PAQ/PAQ-R authoritarian scale was correlated with youth adjustment problems across all three samples, while findings concerning authoritative and permissive scales were mixed. The findings suggest that only PAQ/PAQ-R authoritarian scale is reliable and valid in urban, middle-class, educated families in India, and encourage researchers to develop culturally relevant measures of parenting for this population.


Parenting style Factor analysis Culture 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vaishali V. Raval
    • 1
    Email author
  • Rose Marie Ward
    • 2
  • Pratiksha H. Raval
    • 3
  • Shwetang S. Trivedi
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyMiami UniversityOxfordUSA
  2. 2.Miami UniversityOxfordUSA
  3. 3.Gujarat UniversityAhmedabadIndia
  4. 4.H. K. Arts CollegeAhmedabadIndia

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