We examined whether Iranian American adolescents’ perceptions of parental support, parental knowledge, and parental psychological control relate to general self-efficacy directly, and indirectly through positive esteem and self-deprecation. To investigate this, self-report surveys were collected from 158 Iranian American adolescents attending Iranian American youth groups, Armenian private school, and one public school. Results indicated that positive esteem, self-deprecation, mother and father knowledge, and mother and father psychological control were directly related to general self-efficacy. Furthermore, the parenting variables were indirectly related to general self-efficacy through either positive esteem or self-deprecation.
This is a preview of subscription content,to check access.
Access this article
Similar content being viewed by others
Amato, P. R., & Fowler, F. (2002). Parenting practices, child adjustment, and family diversity. Journal of Marriage and Family, 64, 703–716. doi:10.1111/j.1741-3737.2002.00703.x.
Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: Freeman.
Bandura, A. (2005). Adolescent development from an agentic perspective. In F. Pajares & T. Urdan (Eds.), Self-efficacy beliefs of adolescents (pp. 1–43). Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing.
Barber, B. K. (2002). Re-introducing parental psychological. In B. K. Barber (Ed.), Intrusive parenting: How psychological control affects children and adolescents. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association Press.
Barber, B. K., & Harmon, E. L. (2002). Violating the self: Parental psychological control and youth problem behavior. In B. K. Barber (Ed.), Intrusive parenting: How psychological control affects children and adolescents (pp. 53–96). Washington, D.C: American Psychological Association. doi:10.1037/10422-002.
Barber, B. K., Maughan, S. L., & Olsen, J. A. (2005). Patterns of parenting across adolescence. New Directions in Child and Adolescent Development, 108, 5–16.
Bean, R. A., Bush, K. R., McKenry, P. C., & Wilson, S. M. (2003). The impact of parental support, behavioral control, and psychological control on the academic achievement and self-esteem of African American and European American adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Research, 18, 523–541.
Bentler, P. M. (2007). EQS for Windows (Version 6.1) [Computer software]. Encino, CA: Multivariate Software.
Boucher, H. C., Peng, K., Shi, J., & Wang, L. (2009). Culture and implicit self-esteem: Chinese are “good” and “bad” at the same time. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 40, 24–45. doi:10.1177/0022022108326195.
Bush, K. R., Peterson, G. W., Cobas, J. A., & Supple, A. J. (2002). Adolescents’ perceptions of parental behaviors as predictors of adolescent self-esteem in mainland China. Sociological Inquiry, 72, 503–526. doi:10.1111/1475-682X.00031.
Bush, K. R., Supple, A. J., & Lash, S. B. (2004). Mexican adolescents’ perceptions of parental behaviors and authority as predictors of their self-esteem and sense of familism. Marriage and Family Review, 36(1/2), 35–65. doi:10.1300/J002v36n01_03.
Chen, G., Gully, S. M., & Eden, D. (2004). General self-efficacy and self-esteem: Toward theoretical and empirical distinction between correlated self-evaluations. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 25, 375–395.
Chou, C., & Bentler, P. M. (1990). Model modification in covariance structure modeling: A comparison among likelihood ratio, Lagrange Multiplier, and Wald tests. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 25, 115–136.
Cooley, C. H. (1902). Human nature and the social order. New York: Scribner’s.
Coopersmith, S. A. (1967). The antecedents of self-esteem. San Francisco, CA: Freeman.
Crouter, A. C., & Head, M. R. (2002). Parental monitoring and knowledge of children. In M. Bornstein (Ed.), The handbook of parenting: Vol. 3. Being and becoming a parent (2nd ed., pp. 461–483). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Enger, J. M., Howerton, D. L., & Cobbs, C. R. (1994). Internal/external locus of control, self-esteem, and parental verbal interaction of at-risk Black male adolescents. The Journal of Social Psychology, 134(3), 269–274.
Farruggia, S. P., Chen, C., Greenberger, E., Dmitrieva, J., & Macek, P. (2004). Adolescent self-esteem in cross-cultural perspective: Testing measurement equivalence and a mediation model. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 35, 719–733. doi:10.1177/0022022104270114.
Felson, R. B., & Zielinski, M. A. (1989). Children’s self-esteem and parental support. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 51, 727–735. doi:10.2307/352171.
Gecas, V., & Schwalbe, M. L. (1983). Beyond the looking-glass self: Social structure and efficacy-based self-esteem. Social Psychology Quarterly, 46(2), 77–88.
Gecas, V., & Schwalbe, M. L. (1986). Parental behavior and adolescent self-esteem. Journal of Marriage and Family, 48, 37–46.
Greenberger, E., Chen, C., Dmitrieva, J., & Farruggia, S. P. (2003). Item-wording and the dimensionality of the Rosenberg self-esteem scale: Do they matter? Personality and Individual Differences, 35, 1241–1254. doi:10.1016/S0191-8869(02)00331-8.
Griffore, R. J., Kallen, D. J., Popovich, S., & Powell, V. (1990). Gender differences in correlates of college students’ self-esteem. College Student Journal, 24, 287–291.
Hakimzadeh, S., & Dixon, D. (2006). US in focus: Spotlight on the Iranian foreign born. Washington, DC: Migration Policy Institute. Retrieved from http://www.migrationinformation.org/USfocus/display.cfm?ID=404#8.
Harter, S., Waters, P., & Whitesell, N. R. (1998). Relational self-worth: Differences in perceived worth as a person across interpersonal contexts among adolescents. Child Development, 69(3), 756–766. doi:10.2307/1132202.
Hojat, M., Shapurian, R., Nayerahmadi, H., Farzaneh, M., Foroughi, D., Parsi, M., et al. (1999). Premarital sexual, child rearing, and family attitudes of Iranian men and women in the United States and in Iran. The Journal of Psychology, 133(1), 19–31.
Jalali, B. (2005). Iranian families. In N. Garcia-Preto, J. Giordano, & M. McGoldrick (Eds.), Ethnicity & family therapy (pp. 451–467). New York, NY: The Guilford Press.
Judge, T. A., Erez, A., Bono, J. E., & Thoresen, C. J. (2002). Are measures of self-esteem, neuroticism, locus of control, and generalized self-efficacy indicators of a common core construct? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83, 693–710. doi:10.1037/0022-35220.127.116.113.
Kerr, M., & Stattin, H. (2000). What parents know, how they know it, and several forms of adolescent adjustment: Further support for a reinterpretation of monitoring. Developmental Psychology, 36, 1–15.
Luszczynska, A., Gutiérrez-Doña, B., & Schwarzer, R. (2005). General self-efficacy in various domains of human functioning: Evidence from five countries. International Journal of Psychology, 40(2), 80–89. doi:10.1080/00207590444000041.
Mostashari, A., & Khodamhosseini, A. (2004). An overview of socioeconomic characteristics of the Iranian-American community based on the 2000 Census. Cambridge, MA: Iranian Studies Group at MIT. Retrieved from http://isgmit.org/publications/?cat=reports.
Owens, T. J. (1994). Two dimensions of self-esteem: Reciprocal effects of positive self worth and self-deprecation on adolescent problems. American Sociological Review, 59, 391–407. doi:10.2307/2095940.
Peterson, G. W. (2005). Family influences on adolescent development. In T. P. Gullotta & G. R. Adams (Eds.), Handbook of adolescent behavioral problems: Evidence-based approaches to prevention and treatment (pp. 27–55). New York: Springer.
Peterson, G. W., & Hann, D. (1999). Socializing children and parents in families. In M. B. Sussman, S. K. Steinmetz, & G. W. Peterson (Eds.), Handbook of marriage and the family (2nd ed., pp. 327–370). New York: Plenum.
Plunkett, S. W., Henry, C. S., Robinson, L. C., Behnke, A., & Falcon, P. C., III (2007a). Adolescent perceptions of parental behaviors, adolescent self-esteem, and adolescent depressed mood. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 16, 760–772. doi:10.1007/s10826-006-9123-0.
Plunkett, S. W., Williams, S., Schock, A., & Sands, T. (2007b). Parenting and adolescent self-esteem in Latino intact families, stepfather families, and single-mother families. Journal of Divorce and Remarriage, 47(3/4), 1–20. doi:10.1300/J087v47n03_01.
Quilty, L. C., Oakman, J. M., & Risko, T. (2006). Correlates of the Rosenberg self esteem scale methods effects. Structural Equation Modeling, 13, 99–117. doi:10.1207/s15328007sem1301_5.
Rosenberg, M. (1979). Conceiving the self. New York: Basic Books.
Safizadeh, F. (1999). Children of the Revolution: Transnational Identity Among Young Iranians in Northern California. In P. Karim & M. M. Khorrami (Eds.), A World Between: Poems, Short Stories, and Essays by Iranian-Americans (pp. 255–276). New York: George Braziller.
Sayyedi, M. (2009). Psychotherapy with a 17-year-old Iranian American female: therapeutic guidelines. In M. E. Gallardo & B. W. McNeill (Eds.), Intersections of multiple identities: A casebook of evidence-based practices with diverse populations (pp. 239–276). New York, NY: Taylor & Francis Group.
Schaefer, E. W. (1965). Children’s reports of parental behavior: An inventory. Child Development, 36, 413–424. doi:10.2307/1126465.
Schunk, D. H., & Meece, J. L. (2005). Self-efficacy development in adolescence. In F. Pajares & T. Urdan (Eds.), Self-efficacy beliefs of adolescents (pp. 71–96). Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing.
Schwarzer, R. (1994). Optimism, vulnerability, and self-beliefs as health-related cognitions: A systematic overview. Psychology and Health: An International Journal, 9, 161–180. doi:10.1080/08870449408407475.
Sherer, M., & Adams, C. H. (1983). Construct validation of the self-efficacy scale. Psychological Reports, 53(3), 899–902.
Sherer, M., Maddux, J. E., Mercadante, B., Prentice-Dunn, S., Jacobs, B., & Rogers, R. W. (1982). The self-efficacy scale: Construction and validation. Psychological Reports, 51, 663–671.
Stanley, K. D., & Murphy, M. R. (1997). A comparison of general self-efficacy with self-esteem. Genetic, Social, and General Psychology Monographs, 123(1), 79–99.
Steinberg, L. (2005). Psychological control: style or substance? New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 108, 71–78.
Steinberg, L., Dornbusch, S. M., & Brown, B. B. (1992). Ethnic differences in adolescent achievement. American Psychologist, 47, 723–729. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.47.6.723.
SW, P. A. (2009). PASW for Macintosh (Version 17.03) [Computer software]. Chicago, IL: SPSS Inc.
Swensen, R. R., & Prelow, H. M. (2005). Ethnic identity, self-esteem, and perceived efficacy as mediators of the relation of supportive parenting to psychosocial outcomes among urban adolescents. Journal of Adolescence, 28, 465–477. doi:10.1016/j.adolescence.2004.09.005.
Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2007). Using multivariate statistics (5th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
Tong, T., & Song, S. (2004). A study on general self-efficacy and subjective well-being of low SES college students in a Chinese university. College Student Journal, 38(4), 637–642.
Zimmerman, B. J., & Cleary, T. J. (2005). Adolescents’ development of personal agency: The role of self-efficacy beliefs and self-regulatory skill. In F. Pajares & T. Urdan (Eds.), Self-efficacy beliefs of adolescents (pp. 45–69). Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing.
About this article
Cite this article
Frank, G., Plunkett, S.W. & Otten, M.P. Perceived Parenting, Self-Esteem, and General Self-Efficacy of Iranian American Adolescents. J Child Fam Stud 19, 738–746 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-010-9363-x