Journal of Child and Family Studies

, Volume 19, Issue 2, pp 203–217 | Cite as

Changing Parent’s Mindfulness, Child Management Skills and Relationship Quality With Their Youth: Results From a Randomized Pilot Intervention Trial

  • J. Douglas Coatsworth
  • Larissa G. Duncan
  • Mark T. Greenberg
  • Robert L. Nix
Original Paper

Abstract

We evaluated the efficacy of a mindful parenting program for changing parents’ mindfulness, child management practices, and relationships with their early adolescent youth and tested whether changes in parents’ mindfulness mediated changes in other domains. We conducted a pilot randomized trial with 65 families and tested an adapted version of the Strengthening Families Program: For Parent and Youth 10–14 that infused mindfulness principles and practices against the original program and a delayed intervention control group. Results of pre-post analyses of mother and youth-report data showed that the mindful parenting program generally demonstrated comparable effects to the original program on measures of child management practices and stronger effects on measures of mindful parenting and parent–youth relationship qualities. Moreover, mediation analyses indicated that the mindful parenting program operated indirectly on the quality of parent–youth relationships through changes in mindful parenting. Overall, the findings suggest that infusing mindful parenting activities into existing empirically validated parenting programs can enhance their effects on family risk and protection during the transition to adolescence.

Keywords

Mindfulness Parenting Intervention Efficacy Adolescence 

References

  1. Altmaier, E., & Maloney, R. (2007). An initial evaluation of a mindful parenting program. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 63, 1231–1238.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Baer, R. A. (2007). Mindfulness, assessment, and transdiagnostic processes. Psychological Inquiry, 18, 238–242.Google Scholar
  3. Baldwin, S. A., Murray, D. M., & Shadish, W. R. (2005). Empirically supported treatments or type I errors? Problems with the analysis of data from group-administered treatments. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73, 924–935.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Barnes, S., Brown, K. W., Krusemark, E., Campbell, W. K., & Rogge, R. D. (2007). The role of mindfulness in romantic relationship satisfaction and responses to relationship stress. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 33, 482–500.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator–mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 1173–1182.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bauer, D. J., Sterba, S. K., & Hallfors, D. D. (2008). Evaluating group-based interventions when control participants are ungrouped. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 43, 210–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Block-Lerner, J., Adair, C., Plumb, J., Rhatigan, D., & Orsillo, S. (2007). The case for mindfulness-based approaches in the cultivation of empathy: Does nonjudgemental, present-moment awareness increase capacity for perspective-taking and empathic concern. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 33, 501–516.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Brown, K. W., & Ryan, R. M. (2004). Perils and promise in defining and measuring mindfulness: Observations from experience. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 11, 242–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bugental, D. B., & Happaney, K. (2002). Parental attributions. In M. H. Bornstein (Ed.), Handbook of parenting vol 3: Status and social conditions of parenting (2nd ed., pp. 509–535). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  10. Carson, J. W., Carson, K. M., Gil, K. M., & Baucom, D. H. (2004). Mindfulness-based relationship enhancement. Behavior Therapy, 35, 471–494.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cohen, J. (1968). Multiple regression as a general data-analytic system. Psychological Bulletin, 70, 426–443.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analyses for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  13. Dawe, S., & Harnett, P. (2007). Reducing potential for child abuse among methadone-maintained parents: Results from a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 32, 381–390.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Dearing, E., & Hamilton, L. C. (2006). Contemporary advances and classic advice for analyzing mediating and moderating variables. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 71, 88–104.Google Scholar
  15. Dishion, T. J., Burraston, B., & Li, F. (2003). A multimethod and multitrait analysis of family management practices: Convergent and predictive validity. In B. Bukoski & Z. Amsel (Eds.), Handbook for drug abuse prevention theory, science, and practice (pp. 587–607). New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  16. Dishion, T. J., Capaldi, D. M., & Yoerger, K. (1999). Middle childhood antecedents to progressions in male adolescent substance use: An ecological analysis of risk and protection. Journal of Adolescent Research, 14, 175–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dishion, T. J., Nelson, S. E., & Bullock, B. M. (2004). Premature adolescent autonomy: Parent disengagement and deviant peer process in the amplification of problem behaviour. Journal of Adolescence. Special Issue: Families, peers and contexts as multiple determinants of adolescent problem behavior, 27, 515–530.Google Scholar
  18. Dix, T. (1991). The affective organization of parenting: Adaptive and maladaptive processes. Psychological Bulletin, 110, 3–25.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Dumas, J. E. (2005). Mindfulness-based parent training: Strategies to lessen the grip of automaticity in families with disruptive children. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 34, 779–791.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Duncan, L. G. (2007). Assessment of mindful parenting among parents of early adolescents: Development and validation of the Interpersonal Mindfulness in Parenting scale. Unpublished dissertation. Google Scholar
  21. Duncan, L. G., Coatsworth, J. D., & Greenberg, M. T. (2008). Mindful parenting and adolescent adjustment: Direct and indirect links with adolescent goal setting and problem behaviors. Unpublished Manuscript. Google Scholar
  22. Duncan, L. G., Coatsworth, J. D., & Greenberg, M. T. (2009a). A model of mindful parenting: Implications for parent–child relationships and prevention research. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 12, 255–270.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Duncan, L. G., Coatsworth, J. D., & Greenberg, M. T. (2009b). Pilot study to gauge acceptability of a mindfulness-based, family-focused preventive intervention. Journal of Primary Prevention, 30, 605–618.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Eliott, D. S., & Mihalic, S. (2004). Issues in disseminating and replicating effective prevention programs. Prevention Science, 5, 47–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Goodnow, J. J. (2002). Parents’ knowledge and expectations: Using what we know. In M. H. Bornstein (Ed.), Handbook of parenting vol 3: Status and social conditions of parenting (2nd ed., pp. 439–460). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  26. Hayes, S. C. (2004). Acceptance and commitment therapy and the new behavior therapies: Mindfulness, acceptance, and relationship. In S. C. Hayes, V. M. Follette, & M. M. Linehan (Eds.), Mindfulness and acceptance: Expanding the cognitive-behavioral tradition (pp. 1–29). New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  27. Holden, G. W., & Buck, M. J. (2002). Parental attitudes toward childrearing. In M. H. Bornstein (Ed.), Handbook of parenting vol 3: Status and social conditions of parenting (2nd ed., pp. 537–562). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  28. Kabat-Zinn, J. (1990). Full catastrophe living: Using the wisdom of your mind to face stress, pain and illness. New York: Dell Publishing.Google Scholar
  29. Kabat-Zinn, J. (2003). Mindfulness-based interventions in context: Past, present, and future. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 10, 144–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kabat-Zinn, M., & Kabat-Zinn, J. (1997). Everyday blessings: The inner work of mindful parenting. New York: Hyperion.Google Scholar
  31. Kabat-Zinn, J., Massion, A. O., Kristeller, J., Peterson, L. G., Fletcher, K., Pbert, L., et al. (1992). Effectiveness of a meditation-based stress reduction program in the treatment of anxiety disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry, 149, 936–943.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Kaminski, J. W., Valle, L. A., Filene, J. H., & Boyle, C. L. (2008). A meta-analytic review of components associated with parent training program effectiveness. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 36, 567–589.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Kim, K. J., Conger, R. D., Lorenz, F. O., & Elder, G. H., Jr. (2001). Parent-adolescent reciprocity in negative affect and its relation to early adult social development. Developmental Psychology, 37, 775–790.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Krull, J. L., & MacKinnon, D. P. (1999). Multilevel mediation modeling in group-based intervention studies. Evaluation Review, 23, 418–444.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Kumpfer, K. L., & Alvarado, R. (2003). Family-strengthening approaches for the prevention of youth problem behaviors. American Psychologist, 58, 457–465.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Larson, R. W., Richards, M. H., Moneta, G., Holmbeck, G., & Duckett, E. (1996). Changes in adolescents’ daily interactions with their families from ages 10 to 18: Disengagement and transformation. Developmental Psychology, 32, 744–754.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Laursen, B., & Williams, V. A. (1997). Perceptions of interdependence and closeness in family and peer relationships among adolescents with and without romantic partners. In S. Shulman & W. A. Collins (Eds.), Romantic relationships in adolescence: Developmental perspectives (pp. 3–20). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  38. Lochman, J., & Van den Steenhoven, A. (2002). Family-based approaches to substance abuse prevention. The Journal of Primary Prevention, 23, 49–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Loeber, R., & Dishion, T. J. (1983). Early predictors of male delinquency: A review. Psychological Bulletin, 93, 68–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. MacKinnon, D. P., Fritz, M. S., Williams, J., & Lockwood, C. M. (2007). Distribution of the product confidence limits for the indirect effect: Program PRODCLIN. Behavior Research Methods, 39, 384–389.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. MacKinnon, D. P., Lockwood, C. M., Hoffman, J. M., West, S. G., & Sheets, V. (2002). A comparison of methods to test mediation and other intervening variable effects. Psychological Methods, 7, 83–104.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Marlatt, G. A., Witkiewitz, K., Dillworth, T., Bowen, S. W., Parks, G., Macpherson, L. M., et al. (2004). Vipassana meditation as a treatment for alcohol and drug use disorders. In S. C. Hayes, V. M. Follette, & M. M. Linehan (Eds.), Mindfulness and acceptance: Expanding the cognitive-behavioral tradition. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  43. Masten, A. S., & Coatsworth, J. D. (1998). The development of competence in favorable and unfavorable environments: Lessons from research on successful children. American Psychologist, 53, 205–220.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Molgaard, V., Kumpfer, K. L., & Fleming, E. (2001). The strengthening families program: For parents and youth 10–14; A video-based curriculum. Ames, IA: Iowa State University Extension.Google Scholar
  45. Molgaard, V. K., Spoth, R. L., & Redmond, C. (2000). Competency training: The strengthening families program for youth 10–14. Bulletin. Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.Google Scholar
  46. Patterson, G. R., Reid, J. B., & Dishion, T. J. (1992). A social interactional approach. In Antisocial boys (Vol. 4). Eugene, OR: Castalia.Google Scholar
  47. Perrino, T., González-Soldevilla, A., Pantin, H., & Szapocznik, J. (2000). The role of families in adolescent HIV prevention: A review. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 3, 81–96.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Redmond, C., Spoth, R. L., Shin, C., & Lepper, H. (1999). Modeling long-term parent outcomes of two universal family-focused preventive interventions: One year follow-up results. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 67, 975–984.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Safran, J. D., & Segal, Z. V. (1990). Interpersonal process in cognitive therapy. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  50. Sanders, M. R., Pidgeon, A. M., Gravestock, F., Connors, M. D., Brown, S., & Young, R. W. (2004). Does parental attributional retraining and anger management enhance the effects of the triple P–positive parenting program with parents at risk of child maltreatment. Behavior Therapy, 35, 513–535.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Schafer, J. L. (1997). Analysis of incomplete multivariate data. London: Chapman and Hall/CRC Press.Google Scholar
  52. Segal, Z. V., Williams, J. M. G., & Teasdale, J. D. (2002). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for depression. New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  53. Shapiro, S., Carlson, L. E., Astin, J. A., & Freedman, B. (2006). Mechanisms of mindfulness. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 62, 373–386.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Sigel, I. E., & McGillicuddy-DeLisi, A. V. (2002). Parent beliefs are cognitions: The dynamic belief systems model. In M. H. Bornstein (Ed.), Handbook of parenting vol 3: Being and becoming a parent (2nd ed., pp. 485–508). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  55. Singh, N. N., Lancioni, G. E., Winton, A. S. W., Fisher, B. C., Wahler, R. G., McAleavey, K., et al. (2006). Mindful parenting decreases aggression, noncompliance, and self-injury in children with autism. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 14, 169–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Singh, N. N., Lancioni, G. E., Winton, A. S. W., Singh, J., Curtis, W. J., Wahler, R. G., et al. (2007). Mindful parenting decreases aggression and increases social behavior in children with developmental disabilities. Behavior Modification, 31, 749–771.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Singh, N. N., Lancioni, G. E., Winton, A. S. W., Wahler, R. G., Singh, J., & Sage, M. (2004). Mindful caregiving increases happiness among individuals with profound multiple disabilities. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 25, 207–218.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Smetana, J. G., Metzger, A., Gettman, D. C., & Campione-Barr, N. (2006). Disclosure and secrecy in adolescent-parent relationships. Child Development, 77, 201–217.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Spoth, R. L., Clair, S., Shin, C., & Redmond, C. (2006). Long-term effects of universal preventive interventions on methamphetamine use among adolescents. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 160, 876–882.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Spoth, R. L., Guyll, M., Lillehoj, C. J., Redmond, C., & Greenberg, M. T. (2007). PROSPER study of evidence-based intervention implementation quality by community–University partnerships. Journal of Community Psychology, 35, 981–999.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Spoth, R. L., Redmond, C., & Shin, C. (1998). Direct and indirect latent variable parenting outcomes of two universal family-focused preventive interventions: Extending a public health-oriented research base. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66, 385–399.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Spoth, R. L., Redmond, C., Shin, C., & Azevedo, K. (2004). Brief family intervention effects on adolescent substance initiation: School-level growth curve analyses 6 years following baseline. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 72, 535–542.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Spoth, R., Redmond, C., Shin, C., & Huck, S. (1999). A protective process model of parent–child affective quality and child mastery effects on oppositional behaviors: A test and replication. Journal of School Psychology, 37, 49–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Statin, H., & Kerr, M. (2000). Parental monitoring: A reinterpretation. Child Development, 71, 1072–1085.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Steinberg, L. (2004). The 10 basic principles of good parenting. New York: Simon & Schuster.Google Scholar
  66. Stout, R. L., Wirtz, P. W., Carbonari, J. P., & Del Boca, F. K. (1996). Ensuring balanced distribution of prognostic factors in treatment outcome research. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 57, 70–75.Google Scholar
  67. Thompson, R. A., & Meyer, S. (2007). Socialization of emotion regulation in the family. In J. J. Gross (Ed.), Handbook of emotion regulation (pp. 249–268). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  68. Wachs, K., & Cordova, J. (2007). Mindful relating: Exploring mindfulness and emotion repertoires in intimate relationships. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 33, 464–481.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Wampold, B. E., & Serlin, R. C. (2000). The consequence of ignoring a nested factor on measures of effect size in analysis of variance. Psychological Methods, 5, 425–433.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Widaman, K. F. (2006). Missing data: What to do with or without them. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 71, 42–64.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Douglas Coatsworth
    • 1
  • Larissa G. Duncan
    • 2
  • Mark T. Greenberg
    • 1
  • Robert L. Nix
    • 1
  1. 1.Prevention Research Center for the Promotion of Human DevelopmentThe Pennsylvania State UniversityUniversity ParkUSA
  2. 2.Osher Center for Integrative MedicineUniversity of California, San FranciscoSan FranciscoUSA

Personalised recommendations