Journal of Child and Family Studies

, Volume 14, Issue 3, pp 325–341 | Cite as

Classification of Antisocial Behaviors Along Severity and Frequency Parameters

  • Héctor R. Bird
  • Mark Davies
  • Glorisa Canino
  • Rolf Loeber
  • Maritza Rubio-Stipec
  • Sa Shen


Antisocial behaviors were systematically classified along a hierarchy of seriousness or severity that also accounted for frequency of occurrence and heterogeneity of behaviors. Items from the CD and ODD schedules of the NIMH DISC-IV and from the Elliot Delinquency Scales were listed at specified frequencies. Nine mental health clinicians rated the level of seriousness of each alternative on a scale from 0 (trivial) to 5 (very serious). Reliability of the ratings was assessed. Over two thirds of the items showed excellent agreement among the raters, 8% showed poor agreement and 21% showed fair to moderate agreement. The overall reliability of a single rater’s score was 0.56 and the reliability of the average was 0.84. The classification meets high psychometric standards for reliability and has face validity. The final output provides a classification along a spectrum that takes into account severity, frequency of occurrence during the previous year, and presence of multiple behaviors. It is useful for classification purposes and for longitudinal tracking of antisocial behavior.


developmental psychopathology antisocial behaviors classification psychometrics longitudinal measures 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, Inc. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Héctor R. Bird
    • 1
    • 7
  • Mark Davies
    • 2
  • Glorisa Canino
    • 3
  • Rolf Loeber
    • 4
  • Maritza Rubio-Stipec
    • 5
  • Sa Shen
    • 6
  1. 1.College of Physicians and SurgeonsColumbia UniversityNew York
  2. 2.New York State Psychiatric Institute, Mailman School of Public HealthColumbia UniversityNew York
  3. 3.Department of PediatricsUniversity of Puerto Rico School of MedicineSan Juan
  4. 4.Department of PsychiatryWestern Psychiatric Institute and ClinicPittsburgh
  5. 5.Department of EconomicsUniversity of Puerto RicoSan Juan
  6. 6.College of Physicians and SurgeonsColumbia UniversityNew York
  7. 7.New York State Psychiatric Institute (Unit 78)New York

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