Skip to main content
Log in

Modeling of laser annealing

  • Published:
Journal of Computational Electronics Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

Processes inducing micro- and nano-structural modifications of materials play a crucial role in the advanced technology. In particular, laser irradiation attracts a great interest as a tool for the localized thermal treatment (laser thermal annealing) when the global heating of the sample could be detrimental. With the expansion of the application fields, a research effort is required to understand the kinetics in systems subjected to extreme transient excitations induced by the interaction with the laser light. Modeling and simulations cover a relevant part of this research effort. In this paper we review the current status of the laser annealing modeling. The theoretical analysis will be restricted to the heating stage of the irradiation, i.e. the ultrafast energy transfer from the electronic states to the lattice vibrations will not be considered. Therefore, the timescale of the process must be larger than ∼1 ns. Models, numerical methods and applications to the experiments will be presented to deal with different questions. Among them: the simulation of the thermal field when the heat absorption depends consistently on the temperature, the prediction of a phase change kinetics in a melting process including the redistribution of alloyed systems, the damage evolution in the transient non-uniform thermal field promoted by the irradiation induced kinetics, the related dopant activation kinetics. Numerical techniques include: continuum, kinetic Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics approaches.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13
Fig. 14
Fig. 15
Fig. 16
Fig. 17
Fig. 18
Fig. 19
Fig. 20
Fig. 21
Fig. 22
Fig. 23
Fig. 24

Similar content being viewed by others

Notes

  1. It is important to point up that the constraint imposed by Eq. (13) is not necessary to obtain phase-field equations that reduce to the desired free-boundary problem in the limit of a thin interface.

References

  1. White, C.W., Peercy, P.S. (eds.): Laser and Electron Beam Processing of Materials. Academic Press, San Diego (1980)

    Google Scholar 

  2. Ong, K.K., Pey, K.L., Lee, P.S., Wee, A.T.S., Chong, Y.F., Yeo, K.L., Wang, X.C.: Mater. Sci. Eng. B 114, 25 (2004)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Hernandez, M., Venturini, J., Berard, D., Kerrien, G., Sarnet, T., Debarre, D., Boulmer, J., Laviron, C., Camel, C., Santailler, J.L., Akhouayri, H.: Mater. Sci. Eng. B 114, 105 (2004)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Monakhov, E.V., Svensson, B.G., Linnarsson, M.K., La Magna, A., Italia, M., Privitera, V., Fortunato, G., Cuscunà, M., Mariucci, L.: Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(8), 081901 (2005). doi:10.1063/1.2032603

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Sabatier, C., Rack, S., Beseaucèle, H., Venturini, J., Hoffmann, T., Thomas, Y., Rosseel, E., Steenbergen, J.: In: Proceedings of the 16th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Thermal Processing of Semiconductors, Las Vegas, NV, pp. 177–181 (2008)

    Google Scholar 

  6. Huet, K., Fisicaro, G., Venturini, J., Besaucèle, H., La Magna, A.: Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(23), 231901 (2009). doi:10.1063/1.3268472

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Pilipovich, V.A., Ivlev, G.D., Morgun, Y.F., Nechaev, N.V., Osinskii, V.I., Peshko, A.Y.: Zh. Prikl. Spektrosk. 22, 324 (1975). doi:10.1007/BF00610077

    Google Scholar 

  8. Khaibulin, V.: 2061, 74 (1974)

  9. Sugioka, K., Meunier, M., Piqué, A.: In: Laser Precision Microfabrication. Springer Series in Materials Science. Springer, Berlin (2010)

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  10. Kodera, H.: Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 2(4), 212 (1963). doi:10.1143/JJAP.2.212

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. La Magna, A., Alippi, P., Privitera, V., Fortunato, G., Camalleri, M., Svensson, B.G.: J. Appl. Phys. 95, 4806 (2004)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Wheeler, A.A., Boettinger, W.J., McFadden, G.B.: Phys. Rev. A 45, 7424 (1992). doi:10.1103/PhysRevA.45.7424

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Ong, K.K., Pey, K.L., Lee, P.S., Wee, A.T.S., Wang, X.C., Chong, Y.F.: Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 172111 (2006). doi:10.1063/1.2364834

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. La Magna, A., Alippi, P., Privitera, V., Scalese, S., Pannitteri, S., Fortunato, G., Camalleri, M.: Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4738 (2004)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. La Magna, A., Alippi, P., Privitera, V., Fortunato, G.: Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 161905 (2005)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Caginalp, G.: Phys. Rev. A 39, 5887 (1989). doi:10.1103/PhysRevA.39.5887

    Article  MATH  MathSciNet  Google Scholar 

  17. Ahamd, N.A., Wheeler, A.A., Boettinger, W.J., McFadden, G.B.: Phys. Rev. E 58, 3436 (1998). doi:10.1103/PhysRevE.58.3436

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. La Magna, A., Privitera, V., Fortunato, G., Cuscunà, M., Svensson, B.G., Monakhov, E., Kuitunen, K., Slotte, J., Tuomisto, F.: Phys. Rev. B 75, 235201 (2007). doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.75.235201

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. La Magna, A., Fisicaro, G., Mannino, G., Privitera, V., Piccitto, G., Svensson, B.G., Vines, L.: Mater. Sci. Eng. B 154–155, 35 (2008). doi:10.1016/j.mseb.2008.08.008

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Fisicaro, G., Huet, K., Negru, R., Hackenberg, M., Pichler, P., Taleb, N., La Magna, A.: Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 117801 (2013). doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.117801

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Fisicaro, G., Italia, M., Privitera, V., Piccitto, G., Huet, K., Venturini, J., La Magna, A.: Phys. Status Solidi C 8(3), 940 (2011). doi:10.1002/pssc.201000252

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Fisicaro, G., Italia, M., Privitera, V., Piccitto, G., Huet, K., Venturini, J., La Magna, A.: J. Appl. Phys. 109, 113513 (2011). doi:10.1063/1.3592262

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Anisimov, S.I., Kapeliovich, B.L., Perel’man, T.L.: Sov. Phys. JETP 39, 375 (1974)

    Google Scholar 

  24. Rappaz, M.: Int. Mater. Rev. 34, 93 (1989)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Hsiao, J.S.: Numer. Heat Transf. 8, 653 (1985)

    Google Scholar 

  26. Date, A.W.: Int. J. Heat Mass Transf. 34, 2231 (1991)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Kim, S., Anghaie, S.: Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transf. 28, 733 (2001)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Voller, V.R., Swaminathan, C.: Int. J. Numer. Methods Eng. 30, 875 (1990)

    Article  MATH  Google Scholar 

  29. Wheeler, A.A., Boettinger, W.J., McFadden, G.B.: Phys. Rev. E 47(3), 1893 (1993). doi:10.1103/PhysRevE.47.1893

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Karma, A., Rappel, W.J.: Phys. Rev. E 57(4), 4323 (1998)

    Article  MATH  Google Scholar 

  31. Stiffler, S.R., Evans, P.V., Greer, A.L.: Acta Metall. Mater. 40(7), 1617 (1992). doi:10.1016/0956-7151(92)90103-L

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Caginalp, G., Xie, W.: Phys. Rev. E 48, 1897 (1993). doi:10.1103/PhysRevE.48.1897

    Article  MathSciNet  Google Scholar 

  33. Allen, M.P., Tildesley, D.J.: Computer Simulation of Liquids. Oxford Science Publications. Oxford University Press, Oxford (1989). http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/redirect?tag=citeulike07-20&path=ASIN/0198556454

    Google Scholar 

  34. Motooka, T., Nishihira, K., Oshima, R., Nishizawa, H., Hori, F.: Phys. Rev. B 65, 081304 (2002). doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.65.081304

    Article  Google Scholar 

  35. Kamiyama, E., Sueoka, K., Vanhellemont, J.: J. Appl. Phys. 111(8), 083507 (2012). doi:10.1063/1.4703911

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. Jackson, K.A., Gilmer, G.H., Temkin, D.E.: Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 2530 (1995). doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.75.2530

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. Woodraska, D.L., Jaszczak, J.A.: Surf. Sci. 374(1–3), 319 (1997). doi:10.1016/S0039-6028(96)01201-0

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. Marqués, L.A., Pelaz, L., Hernández, J., Barbolla, J., Gilmer, G.H.: Phys. Rev. B 64, 045214 (2001). doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.64.045214

    Article  Google Scholar 

  39. Mattoni, A., Colombo, L.: Phys. Rev. B 69, 045204 (2004). doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.69.045204

    Article  Google Scholar 

  40. Lampin, E., Krzeminski, C.: J. Appl. Phys. 106(6), 063519 (2009). doi:10.1063/1.3211972

    Article  Google Scholar 

  41. Beatty, K., Jackson, K.: J. Cryst. Growth 174(1–4), 28 (1997). doi:10.1016/S0022-0248(96)01057-3

    Article  Google Scholar 

  42. Aziz, M.J.: J. Appl. Phys. 53(2), 1158 (1982). doi:10.1063/1.329867

    Article  Google Scholar 

  43. Narayan, J., White, C.W., Aziz, M.J., Stritzker, B., Walthuis, A.: J. Appl. Phys. 57(2), 564 (1985). doi:10.1063/1.334738

    Article  Google Scholar 

  44. Aziz, M.J., Tsao, J.Y., Thompson, M.O., Peercy, P.S., White, C.W.: Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 2489 (1986). doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.56.2489

    Article  Google Scholar 

  45. Tsao, J.Y., Aziz, M.J., Thompson, M.O., Peercy, P.S.: Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 2712 (1986). doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.56.2712

    Article  Google Scholar 

  46. Boettinger, W., Aziz, M.: Acta Metall. 37(12), 3379 (1989). doi:10.1016/0001-6160(89)90210-1

    Article  Google Scholar 

  47. Sanders, P.G., Aziz, M.J.: J. Appl. Phys. 86(8), 4258 (1999). doi:10.1063/1.371354

    Article  Google Scholar 

  48. Reitano, R., Smith, P.M., Aziz, M.J.: J. Appl. Phys. 76(3), 1518 (1994). doi:10.1063/1.357728

    Article  Google Scholar 

  49. Kittl, J., Sanders, P., Aziz, M., Brunco, D., Thompson, M.: Acta Mater. 48(20), 4797 (2000). doi:10.1016/S1359-6454(00)00276-7

    Article  Google Scholar 

  50. Fahey, P.M., Griffin, P.B., Plummer, J.D.: Rev. Mod. Phys. 61, 289 (1989). doi:10.1103/RevModPhys.61.289

    Article  Google Scholar 

  51. Monakhov, E.V., Svensson, B.G., Linnarsson, M.K., La Magna, A., Italia, M., Privitera, V., Fortunato, G., Cuscunà, M., Mariucci, L.: Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 192109 (2005). doi:10.1063/1.2126144

    Article  Google Scholar 

  52. Hackenberg, M., Huet, K., Negru, R., Venturini, J., Fisicaro, G., La Magna, A., Pichler, P.: AIP Conf. Proc. 1496(1), 241 (2012). doi:10.1063/1.4766533

    Article  Google Scholar 

  53. Štich, I., Car, R., Parrinello, M.: Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 2240 (1989). doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.63.2240

    Article  Google Scholar 

  54. Okada, J.T., Sit, P.H.L., Watanabe, Y., Wang, Y.J., Barbiellini, B., Ishikawa, T., Itou, M., Sakurai, Y., Bansil, A., Ishikawa, R., Hamaishi, M., Masaki, T., Paradis, P.F., Kimura, K., Ishikawa, T., Nanao, S.: Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 067402 (2012). doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.108.067402

    Article  Google Scholar 

  55. Jakse, N., Pasturel, A.: Phys. Rev. B 79, 144206 (2009). doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.79.144206

    Article  Google Scholar 

  56. Mannino, G., Spinella, C., Ruggeri, R., La Magna, A., Fisicaro, G., Fazio, E., Neri, F., Privitera, V.: Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(2), 022107 (2010). doi:10.1063/1.3459959

    Article  Google Scholar 

  57. La Magna, A., Alippi, P., Deretzis, I., Privitera, V., Fortunato, G., Mariucci, L., Magrì, A., Monakhov, E., Svensson, B.: Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. B, Beam Interact. Mater. Atoms 253(1–2), 1 (2006). doi:10.1016/j.nimb.2006.10.004

    Article  Google Scholar 

  58. Mannino, G., Spinella, C., Bongiorno, C., Nicotra, G., Mercorillo, F., Privitera, V., Franzò, G., Piro, A.M., Grimaldi, M., Stefano, M.A.D., Marco, S.D.: J. Appl. Phys. 107(2), 023703 (2010). doi:10.1063/1.3282660

    Article  Google Scholar 

  59. Ruggeri, R., Privitera, V., Spinella, C., Fazio, E., Neri, F., De Bastiani, R., Grimaldi, M.G., Di Stefano, M.A., Di Marco, S., Mannino, G.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 158, H25 (2011). doi:10.1149/1.3504217

    Article  Google Scholar 

  60. Ruggeri, R., Neri, F., Sciuto, A., Privitera, V., Spinella, C., Mannino, G.: Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(4), 042104 (2012). doi:10.1063/1.3679395

    Article  Google Scholar 

  61. Kelton, K.F., Greer, A.L., Thompson, C.V.: J. Chem. Phys. 79(12), 6261 (1983). doi:10.1063/1.445731

    Article  Google Scholar 

  62. Spinella, C., Lombardo, S., Priolo, F.: J. Appl. Phys. 84, 5383 (1998)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  63. Privitera, V., La Magna, A., Fortunato, G., Mariucci, L., Cuscunà, M., Camalleri, M., Magri, A., Svensson, B.G., Simon, F.: IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 54, 852 (2007)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  64. Fisicaro, G., La Magna, A., Piccitto, G., Privitera, V.: Microelectron. Eng. 88(4), 488 (2011). doi:10.1016/j.mee.2010.09.014

    Article  Google Scholar 

  65. Fortunato, G., Privitera, V., La Magna, A., Mariucci, L., Cuscunà, M., Svensson, B., Monakhov, E., Camalleri, M., Magrì, A., Salinas, D., Simon, F.: Thin Solid Films 504(1–2), 2 (2006). doi:10.1016/j.tsf.2005.09.017

    Article  Google Scholar 

  66. Ong, C.Y., Pey, K.L., Li, X., Wang, X.C., Ng, C.M., Chan, L.: Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041112 (2008). doi:10.1063/1.2962991

    Article  Google Scholar 

  67. Gosálvez, M.A., Xing, Y., Sato, K., Nieminen, R.M.: J. Micromech. Microeng. 18(5), 055029 (2008). http://stacks.iop.org/0960-1317/18/i=5/a=055029

    Article  Google Scholar 

  68. Camarda, M., La Magna, A., Via, F.L.: J. Comput. Phys. 227(2), 1075 (2007). doi:10.1016/j.jcp.2007.08.036

    Article  MATH  MathSciNet  Google Scholar 

  69. Osano, Y., Ono, K.: J. Vac. Sci. Technol., B Microelectron. Nanometer Struct. Process. Meas. Phenom. 26(4), 1425 (2008). doi:10.1116/1.2958240

    Article  Google Scholar 

  70. Chiaramonte, L., Colombo, R., Fazio, G., Garozzo, G., La Magna, A.: Comput. Mater. Sci. 54(0), 227 (2012). doi:10.1016/j.commatsci.2011.10.027

    Article  Google Scholar 

  71. La Magna, A., Camarda, M., Deretzis, I., Fisicaro, G., Coffa, S.: Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(13), 134104 (2012). doi:10.1063/1.3697733

    Article  Google Scholar 

  72. Fisicaro, G., Pelaz, L., Lopez, P., La Magna, A.: Phys. Rev. E 86, 036705 (2012). doi:10.1103/PhysRevE.86.036705

    Article  Google Scholar 

  73. Jaraiz, M., Gilmer, G.H., Poate, J.M., de la Rubia, T.D.: Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(3), 409 (1996). doi:10.1063/1.116701

    Article  Google Scholar 

  74. Pelaz, L., Jaraiz, M., Gilmer, G.H., Gossmann, H.J., Rafferty, C.S., Eaglesham, D.J., Poate, J.M.: Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(17), 2285 (1997). doi:10.1063/1.118839

    Article  Google Scholar 

  75. Pelaz, L., Gilmer, G.H., Gossmann, H.J., Rafferty, C.S., Jaraiz, M., Barbolla, J.: Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(24), 3657 (1999). doi:10.1063/1.123213

    Article  Google Scholar 

  76. Pelaz, L., Marqués, L.A., Aboy, M., López, P., Santos, I.: Eur. Phys. J. B 72(3), 323 (2009). doi:10.1140/epjb/e2009-00378-9

    Article  Google Scholar 

  77. Bracht, H.: Phys. Rev. B 75(3), 035210 (2007). doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.75.035210

    Article  Google Scholar 

  78. Caliste, D., Pochet, P.: Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(13), 135901 (2006). doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.97.135901

    Article  Google Scholar 

  79. Giles, L.F., Colombeau, B., Cowern, N., Molzer, W., Schaefer, H., Bach, K.H., Haibach, P., Roozeboom, F.: Solid-State Electron. 49(4), 618 (2005). doi:10.1016/j.sse.2004.12.007

    Article  Google Scholar 

  80. Rafferty, C.S., Gilmer, G.H., Jaraiz, M., Eaglesham, D., Gossmann, H.J.: Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(17), 2395 (1996). doi:10.1063/1.116145

    Article  Google Scholar 

  81. Falster, R., Voronkov, V., Quast, F.: Phys. Status Solidi B, Basic Solid State Phys. 222(1), 219 (2000). doi:10.1002/1521-3951(200011)222:1<219::AID-PSSB219>3.0.CO;2-U

    Article  Google Scholar 

  82. Bracht, H., Stolwijk, N.A., Mehrer, H.: Phys. Rev. B 52(23), 16542 (1995). doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.52.16542

    Article  Google Scholar 

  83. Venezia, V.C., Pelaz, L., Gossmann, H.J.L., Haynes, T.E., Rafferty, C.S.: Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1273 (2001)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  84. Jaraiz, M., Gilmer, G.H., Poate, J.M., de la Rubia, T.D.: Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 409 (1996)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  85. La Magna, A., Coffa, S., Colombo, L.: Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1720 (1999). doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.82.1720

    Article  Google Scholar 

  86. La Magna, A., Coffa, S., Colombo, L.: Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 148(1–4), 262 (1999). doi:10.1016/S0168-583X(98)00798-8

    Article  Google Scholar 

  87. Stolk, P.A., Gossmann, H.J., Eaglesham, D.J., Jacobson, D.C., Rafferty, C.S., Gilmer, G.H., Jaraiz, M., Poate, J.M., Luftman, H.S., Haynes, T.E.: J. Appl. Phys. 81, 6031 (1997)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  88. Ortiz, C.J., Pichler, P., Faeuhner, T., Cristiano, F., Claverie, A., Colombeau, B.: J. Appl. Phys. 96, 4866 (2004)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  89. Schroer, E., Uematsu, M.: Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 7 (1999)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  90. Skorupa, W., Gebel, T., Yankov, R.A., Paul, S., Lerch, W., Downey, D.F., Arevalo, E.A.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 152(6), G436 (2005). doi:10.1149/1.1899268

    Article  Google Scholar 

  91. Mannino, G., La Magna, A., Privitera, V., Christensen, J.S., Vines, L., Svensson, B.G.: J. Electrochem. Soc. 155(8), H603 (2008). doi:10.1149/1.2939129

    Article  Google Scholar 

  92. Nichols, C.S., Van de Walle, C.G., Pantelides, S.T.: Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 1049 (1989). doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.62.1049

    Article  Google Scholar 

  93. Sahli, B., Vollenweider, K., Zographos, N., Zechner, C.: Mater. Sci. Eng. B 154–155, 193 (2008). doi:10.1016/j.mseb.2008.09.047

    Article  Google Scholar 

  94. Fortunato, G., Mariucci, L., La Magna, A., Alippi, P., Italia, M., Privitera, V., Svensson, B., Monakhov, E.: Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2268 (2004). doi:10.1063/1.1793352

    Article  Google Scholar 

  95. Uematsu, M.: Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 6188 (1999). doi:10.1143/JJAP.38.6188

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

The authors acknowledge Prof. E. Rimini and Prof. G. Piccitto for useful discussions. The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under the grant agreement no. 258547 ATEMOX (Advanced Technology Modeling for Extra-Functionality Devices).

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to G. Fisicaro.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Fisicaro, G., La Magna, A. Modeling of laser annealing. J Comput Electron 13, 70–94 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10825-013-0545-9

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10825-013-0545-9

Keywords

Navigation