We test for gender effects in the art market using auction prices for artists who graduated from the Yale School of Art. Yale’s female graduates have significantly fewer auction sales, controlling for their graduating year gender ratio. Conditioning upon sale, works by female artists obtained higher average prices. The results suggest that while institutions and career paths may condition on gender, the market may not.
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Interestingly, all three of our working papers appeared at about the same time, using different data and methodologies.
Galenson (2005) notes that “…during the past 5 decades the Yale School of Art has produced a series of graduates who have achieved great success commercially as well as critically.”
Cf. Goetzmann et al. (2016).
Cf. Jacobs (2005).
See Alper and Wassall (2006) for an excellent literature review.
To further address the issue of marital surname changes, we used these 643 name changes to test a potential instrument for probability of name change: length and fraction of vowels in a surname. We found no correlation.
The auction data are from blouinartinfo.com.
This separation is motivated by Rengers (2002)’s “winner-take-all” finding.
p value of 0.0003. Not reported in the table.
Not reported in the table.
As a robustness check, we also perform an OLS with log of average auction price as the dependent variable: the results are qualitatively similar but only significant at the 10% level. Available upon request.
See Fig. 9 in “Appendix” for citation gender ratio by year of citation.
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We thank Lesley Baier, Eric Greenleaf, Lisa Kahn, Sharon Oster, Judith Schiff, and all the participants of the Symposium on Art and Gender at Yale School of Management for their comments and suggestions.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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Cameron, L., Goetzmann, W.N. & Nozari, M. Art and gender: market bias or selection bias?. J Cult Econ 43, 279–307 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10824-019-09339-2
- Art market
- Gender economics