Advertisement

Motivation, satisfaction and loyalty in the case of a film festival: differences between local and non-local participants

  • 1346 Accesses

  • 6 Citations

Abstract

The last few years have seen a remarkable increase in the number of cultural events and festivals. The increasing competitiveness among them and the need to safeguard their future viability make it necessary to identify factors that not only attract and satisfy new participants, but also retain previous attendees. Accordingly, this article examines the relations between motivation, satisfaction and loyalty in the case of a cinema event the Valdivia International Film Festival (Chile), distinguishing, in turn, between local attendees and visitors. To achieve this goal, a structural equation modelling is performed based on the data obtained through a survey conducted among festival attendees. The results show there are different motivations for attending a festival (leisure, professional motives and cinema) and that some directly affect satisfaction and loyalty. Similarly, satisfaction is presented as an unquestionable antecedent of loyalty, the latter being measured by means of different concepts. Finally, the research highlights some significant differences between residents and tourists and seems to point to the existence of a kind of cultural tourism focused on an interest in the cinema, which contributes to the festival’s continuity and sustainability. All of this allows us to extract some implications for the managers of this type of event and for those responsible for the destination’s cultural and tourist policy.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Access options

Buy single article

Instant unlimited access to the full article PDF.

US$ 39.95

Price includes VAT for USA

Subscribe to journal

Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.

US$ 99

This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2

Notes

  1. 1.

    A review of the main studies on festival motivation and segmentation based on motivation in the case of festivals and events can be found in Lee et al. (2004), Li and Petrick (2006), Tkaczynski and Rundle-Thiele (2011) and Báez and Devesa (2014).

  2. 2.

    For a detailed review of the approaches and theories which explore satisfaction, see Yoon and Uysal (2005), Meng et al. (2006), Lee et al. (2012), or Chang et al. (2014), amongst others.

  3. 3.

    For a more detailed description of goodness-of-fit indexes and their cut-off points, see Hu and Bentler (1999), Schreiber et al. (2006) and Jackson (2007).

References

  1. Akhoondnejad, A. (2016). Tourist loyalty to a cultural event: The case of Turkmen handicrafts festival. Tourism Management, 52, 468–477.

  2. Anderson, E. W., Fornell, C., & Lehman, D. R. (1994). Customer satisfaction, market share and profitability: Findings from Sweden. Journal of Marketing, 58(3), 53–66.

  3. Báez, A., & Devesa, M. (2014). Segmenting and profiling attendees of a film festival. International Journal of Event and Festival Management, 5(2), 96–115.

  4. Bagozzi, R. P., & Yi, Y. (1988). On the evaluation of structural equation models. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 16(1), 74–94.

  5. Baker, D. A., & Crompton, J. L. (2000). Quality, satisfaction and behavioural intentions. Annals of Tourism Research, 27(3), 785–804.

  6. Barroso Castro, C., Martín Armario, E., & Martín Ruiz, D. (2007). The influence of market heterogeneity on the relationship between a destination’s image and tourists’ future behaviour. Tourism Management, 28(1), 175–187.

  7. Bentler, P. M. (1995). EQS structural equations program manual. Encino, CA: Multivariate Software.

  8. Bollen, K. A. (1989). Structural equations with latent variables. New York: John Wiley.

  9. Bowen, H. E., & Daniels, M. J. (2005). Does the music matter? Motivations for attending a music festival. Event Management, 9(3), 135–164.

  10. Brown, T. A. (2006). Confirmatory factor analysis for applied research. New York: Guilford Press.

  11. Castaño, J. M., Moreno, A., García, S., & Crego, A. (2003). Aproximación psicosocial a la motivación turística: Variables implicadas en la elección de Madrid como destino. Estudios Turísticos, 158, 5–41.

  12. Chang, S., Gibson, H., & Sisson, L. (2014). The loyalty process of residents and tourists in the festival context. Current Issues in Tourism, 17(9), 783–799.

  13. Chen, C. F., & Chen, F. S. (2009). Experience quality, perceive value, satisfaction and behavioural intentions for heritage tourists. Tourism Management, 31(1), 29–35.

  14. Chen, P., & Kerstetter, D. (1999). International students’ image of rural Pennsylvania as a travel destination. Journal of Travel Research, 37(3), 256–266.

  15. Chen, C. F., & Tsai, D. (2007). How destination image and evaluative factors affect behavioural intentions? Tourism Management, 28(4), 1115–1122.

  16. Cheng, T. M., Chang, S. Y., & Dai, Z. P. (2015). The mediating effect of situation involvement of novelty seeking and satisfaction for Yanshuei Fireworks Festival in Taiwan. International Journal of Culture and Hospitality Research, 9(2), 145–167.

  17. Chi, C. G. Q., & Qu, H. (2008). Examining the structural relationships of destination image, tourist satisfaction and destination loyalty: An integrated approach. Tourism Management, 29(4), 624–636.

  18. Correia, A., Kozak, M., & Ferradeira, J. (2013). From tourist motivations to tourist satisfaction. International Journal of Culture and Hospitality Research, 7(4), 411–424.

  19. Crompton, J. L. (1979). Motivations for pleasure vacation. Annals of Tourism Research, 6(4), 408–424.

  20. Crompton, J. L., & McKay, S. L. (1997). Motives of visitors attending festival events. Annals of Tourism Research, 24(2), 425–439.

  21. Dann, G. M. S. (1981). Tourism motivation: an appraisal. Annals of Tourism Research, 8(2), 187–219.

  22. Del Barrio, M. J., Devesa, M., & Herrero, L. C. (2012). Evaluating intangible cultural heritage: The case of cultural festivals. City, Culture and Society, 3(4), 235–244.

  23. Del Chiappa, G., Andreu, L., & Gallarza, M. G. (2014). Emotions and visitors’ satisfaction at a museum. International Journal of Culture and Hospitality Research, 8(4), 420–431.

  24. Deng, J., & Pierskalla, C. (2011). Impact of past experience on perceived value, overall satisfaction, and destination loyalty: A comparison between visitor and resident attendees of a festival. Event Management, 15(2), 63–177.

  25. Devesa, M., Herrero, L. C., & Sanz, J. A. (2009). Análisis económico de la demanda de un festival cultural. Estudios de Economía Aplicada, 27(1), 139–159.

  26. Devesa, M., Laguna, M., & Palacios, A. (2010). The role of motivation in visitor satisfaction: Empirical evidence in rural tourism. Tourism Management, 31(4), 547–552.

  27. Devesa, M., Laguna, M., & Palacios, A. (2012). Motivation in the field of tourism: An analysis of its influence on consumer decisions and its implications for the planning of tourist services. In J. N. Franco & E. Svensgaard (Eds.), Handbook psychology and motivation: New research (pp. 3–45). New York: Nova Science Publishers.

  28. Dimache, F., & Havitz, M. E. (1994). Consumer behaviour and tourism: Review and extension of four study areas. Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing, 3(3), 37–58.

  29. Engel, J. F., Blackwell, R. D., & Miniard, P. W. (1990). Consumer behaviour (6th ed.). Chicago: The Dryden Press.

  30. Faulkner, B., Fredline, E., Larson, M., & Tomljenovic, R. (1999). A marketing analysis of Sweden’s Storsjöyran Musical Festival. Tourism Analysis, 4(3/4), 157–171.

  31. Fodness, D. (1994). Measuring tourist motivation. Annals of Tourism Research, 21(3), 555–581.

  32. Formica, S., & Uysal, M. (1998). Market segmentation of an international cultural-historical event in Italy. Journal of Travel Research, 36(1), 16–24.

  33. Getz, D. (2008). Event tourism; definition, evolution, and research. Tourism Management, 29(3), 403–428.

  34. Getz, D. (2012). Event studies: Discourse and future directions. Event Management, 16(2), 171–187.

  35. Grunwell, S., & Ha, I. (2008). Film festivals: An empirical study of factors of success. Event Management, 11(4), 201–210.

  36. Grunwell, S. S., Ha, I. S., & Martin, B. S. (2008). A comparative analysis of attendee profiles at two urban festivals. Journal of Convention & Event Tourism, 9(1), 1–14.

  37. Herrero, L. C., Sanz, J. A., Bedate, A., & Del Barrio, M. J. (2012). Who pays more for a cultural festival, tourists or locals? A certainty analysis of contingent valuation application. International Journal of Tourism Research, 14(2), 495–512.

  38. Hu, L. T., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indices in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 6(1), 1–55.

  39. Hume, M., & Mort, G. S. (2010). The consequence of appraisal emotion, service quality, perceived value and customer satisfaction on purchase intent in the performing arts. Journal of Services Marketing, 24(2), 170–182.

  40. Iso-Ahola, S. E. (1982). Toward a social psychological theory of tourism motivation: A rejoinder. Annals of Tourism Research, 9(2), 256–262.

  41. Jackson, D. L. (2007). The effect of the number of observations per parameter in misspecified confirmatory factor analytic models. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 14(1), 48–76.

  42. Jang, S., & Feng, R. (2007). Temporal destination revisit intention: The effects of novelty seeking and satisfaction. Tourism Management, 28(2), 580–590.

  43. Jani, D., & Han, H. (2014). Personality, satisfaction, image, and loyalty: Testing their relationships in the hotel industry. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 37, 11–20.

  44. Kaiser, H. F. (1974). An index of factorial simplicity. Psychometrika, 39(1), 31–36.

  45. Kim, K. (2008a). Analysis of structural equation model for the student pleasure travel market: motivation, involvement, satisfaction, and destination loyalty. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 24(4), 297–313.

  46. Kim, K. (2008b). Travel motivations and satisfaction: a case of national cultural-goers in Korea. Tourism Review International, 11(4), 395–406.

  47. Kim, H., Borges, M. C., & Chon, J. (2006). Impacts of environmental values on tourism motivation: The case of FICA. Brazil. Tourism Management, 27(5), 957–967.

  48. Kim, Y. H., Kim, M., Ruetzler, T., & Taylor, J. (2010). An examination of festival attendees’ behavior using SEM. International Journal of Event and Festival Management, 1(1), 86–95.

  49. Kline, R. B. (2010). Principles and practice of structural equation modelling (3rd ed.). New York: Guilford Press.

  50. Kozak, M. (2002). Comparative analysis of tourism motivations by nationality and destinations. Tourism Management, 23(3), 221–232.

  51. Kozak, M., & Rimmington, M. (2000). Tourist satisfaction with Mallorca, Spain, as an off-season holiday destination. Journal of Travel Research, 38(3), 260–269.

  52. Laguna, M., & Palacios, A. (2009). La calidad percibida como determinante de tipologías de clientes y su relación con la satisfacción: Aplicación a los servicios hoteleros. Revista Europea de Dirección y Economía de la Empresa, 18(3), 189–212.

  53. Lee, T. H. (2009). A structural model to examine how destination image, attitude and motivation affect the future behaviour of tourists. Leisure Sciences, 31(3), 215–236.

  54. Lee, J., & Beeler, C. (2009). An investigation of predictors of satisfaction and future intention: Links to motivation, involvement and service quality in a local festival. Event Management, 13(1), 17–29.

  55. Lee, T. H., & Hsu, F. Y. (2013). Examining how attending motivation and satisfaction affects the loyalty for attendees at aboriginal festivals. International Journal of Tourism Research, 15(1), 18–34.

  56. Lee, J. L., Kyle, G., & Scott, D. (2012). The mediating effect of place attachment on the relationship between festival satisfaction and loyalty to the festival hosting detination. Journal of Travel Research, 51(2), 178–190.

  57. Lee, Y. K., Lee, C. K., Lee, S. K., & Babin, B. J. (2008). Festivalscapes and patrons’ emotions, satisfaction, and loyalty. Journal of Business Research, 61(1), 56–64.

  58. Lee, C. K., Lee, Y. K., & Wicks, B. (2004). Segmentation of festival motivation by nationality and satisfaction. Tourism Management, 25(1), 61–70.

  59. Lee, C. K., Yoon, Y. S., & Lee, S. K. (2007). Investigating the relationships among perceived value, satisfaction, and recommendations: The case of the Korean DMZ. Tourism Management, 28(1), 204–214.

  60. Lévy-Mangin, J. P. (1999). Modelización con ecuaciones estructurales y variables latentes. Madrid: Erica (editado en CD Rom).

  61. Li, X., & Petrick, J. F. (2006). A review of festival and event motivation studies. Event Management, 9(4), 239–245.

  62. Manthiou, A., Lee, S., Tang, L., & Chiang, L. (2014). The experience economy approach to festival marketing: vivid memory and attendee loyalty. Journal of Services Marketing, 28(1), 22–35.

  63. McDowall, S. (2010a). The festival in my hometown: The relationships among performance quality, satisfaction, and behavioral intentions. International Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Administration, 12(4), 269–288.

  64. McDowall, S. (2010b). A comparison between Thai residents and non-residents in their motivations, performance evaluations, and overall satisfaction with a domestic festival. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 10, 217–233.

  65. Meng, F., Tepanon, Y., & Uysal, M. (2006). Measuring tourist satisfaction by attribute and motivation: The case of a nature-based resort. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 14(1), 41–56.

  66. Oh, H. (1999). Service quality, customer satisfaction, and consumer value: A holistic perspective. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 18(1), 67–82.

  67. Oh, H. (2000). The effects brand class, brand awareness, and price on customer value and behavioural intentions. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Research, 24(2), 136–162.

  68. Oh, H., & Parks, S. C. (1997). Customer satisfaction and service quality: A critical review of the literature and research implications for the hospitality industry. Hospitality Research Journal, 20(3), 35–64.

  69. Oliver, R. L. (1997). Satisfaction: A behavioural perspective on the consumer. New York: McGraw-Hill.

  70. Oliver, R. L. (1999). Whence consumer loyalty? Journal of Marketing, 63(1), 33–44.

  71. Oppermann, M. (2000). Tourism destination loyalty. Journal of Travel Research, 39(1), 78–84.

  72. Park, J., Lee, G., & Park, M. (2011). Service quality dimensions perceived by film festivals visitors. Event Management, 15(1), 49–61.

  73. Pearce, P. (1993). Fundamentals of tourist motivation. In D. Pearce & R. Butler (Eds.), Tourism research: Critiques and challenges (pp. 113–134). London: Routledge.

  74. Prebensen, N., Skallerud, K., & Chen, J. S. (2010). Tourist motivation with sun and sand destinations: satisfaction and the WOM-effect. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 27(8), 858–873.

  75. Prebensen, N. K., Woo, E., Chen, J. S., & Uysal, M. (2012). Motivation and involvement as antecedents of the perceived value of the destination experience. Journal of Travel Research, 52(2), 253–264.

  76. Quinn, B. (2005). Arts festivals and the city. Urban Studies, 42(5–6), 927–943.

  77. Rial, A., Varela, J., & Abalo, J. (2006). El Análisis Factorial Confirmatorio. In J. Lévy & J. Varela (Eds.), Modelización con Estructuras de Covarianzas en Ciencias Sociales: Temas Esenciales, Avanzados y Aportaciones Especiales (pp. 119–154). Oleiros: Editorial Netbiblo.

  78. Rodríguez del Bosque, I. A., San Martín, H., & Collado, J. (2006). The role of expectation in the consumer satisfaction formation process: Empirical evidence in the travel agency sector. Tourism Management, 27(3), 410–419.

  79. Ross, E. L., & Iso-Ahola, S. E. (1991). Sightseeing tourists’ motivation and satisfaction. Annals of Tourism Research, 18(2), 226–237.

  80. Rust, R. T., & Oliver, R. L. (1994). Service quality. Insights and managerial implications from the frontier. In R. T. Rust & R. L. Oliver (Eds.), Service quality: New directions in theory and practice (pp. 1–19). SAGE: California.

  81. Satorra, A., & Bentler, P. M. (2001). A scaled difference Chi square test statistic for moment structure analysis. Psychometrika, 66, 507–514.

  82. Satorra, A., & Bentler, P. M. (2008). Ensuring positiveness of the scaled difference Chi square test statistic. Department of Statistics, UCLA Department of Statistics Preprint. http://repositories.cdlib.org/uclastat/papers/2008010905 Accessed 15 March 2016.

  83. Savinovic, A., Kim, S., & Long, P. (2012). Audience members’ motivation, satisfaction, and intention to re-visit an ethnic minority cultural festival. Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing, 29(7), 682–694.

  84. Schreiber, J. B., Stage, F. K., King, J., Nora, A., & Barlow, E. A. (2006). Reporting structural equation modeling and confirmatory factor analysis results: A review. The Journal of Education Research, 99(6), 323–337.

  85. Scott, D. (1996). A comparison of visitors’ motivations to attend three urban festivals. Festival Management & Event Tourism, 3(3), 121–128.

  86. Severt, D., Wang, Y., Chen, P., & Breiter, D. (2007). Examining the motivation, perceived performance, and behavioural intentions of convention attendees: Evidence from a regional conference. Tourism Management, 28(2), 399–408.

  87. Tam, J. L. M. (2004). Customer satisfaction, service quality and perceived value. Journal of Marketing Management, 20(7/8), 21–35.

  88. Tandford, S., Montgomery, R., & Hertzman, J. (2012). Towards a model of wine event loyalty. Journal of Convention & Event Tourism, 13(1), 77–99.

  89. Thomson, K., & Schofield, P. (2009). Segmenting and profiling visitors to the Ulaanbaatar Naadam Festival by motivation. Event Management, 13(1), 1–15.

  90. Thrane, C. (2002). Music quality, satisfaction, and behavioural intentions within a jazz festival context. Event Management, 7(3), 143–150.

  91. Tkaczynski, A., & Rundle-Thiele, S. R. (2011). Event segmentation: A review and research agenda. Tourism Management, 32(2), 426–434.

  92. Yolal, M., Cetinel, F., & Uysal, M. (2009). An examination of festival motivation and perceived benefits relationship: Eskisehir International Festival. Journal of Convention & Event Tourism, 10(4), 276–291.

  93. Yoon, Y. S., Lee, J. S., & Lee, C. K. (2010). Measuring festival quality and value affecting visitors’ satisfaction and loyalty using a structural approach. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 29(2), 335–342.

  94. Yoon, Y., & Uysal, M. (2005). An examination of the effects of motivation and satisfaction on destination loyalty: a structural model. Tourism Management, 26(1), 45–56.

  95. Yuksel, A., Yuksel, F., & Bilim, Y. (2009). Destination attachment: Effects on customer satisfaction and cognitive, affective and conative loyalty. Tourism Management, 31(2), 274–284.

  96. Zabkar, V., Brencic, M. M., & Dmitrovic, T. (2010). Modelling perceived quality, visitor satisfaction and behavioural intentions at the destination level. Tourism Management, 31(4), 537–546.

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to Andrea Báez-Montenegro.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Báez-Montenegro, A., Devesa-Fernández, M. Motivation, satisfaction and loyalty in the case of a film festival: differences between local and non-local participants. J Cult Econ 41, 173–195 (2017) doi:10.1007/s10824-017-9292-2

Download citation

Keywords

  • Film festival
  • Motivation
  • Satisfaction
  • Loyalty
  • Structural equation model
  • Residents
  • Visitors