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Table 3 Summary of winner and other candidate cities

From: Evaluating three decades of the European Capital of Culture programme: a difference-in-differences approach

Year of event Year of announcement Winner Other candidate cities
1985 1984 Athens  
1986 1985 Florence  
1987 1985 Amsterdam  
1988 1985 Berlin Bonn, Munich
1989 1986 Paris  
1990 1986 Glasgow Bath, Bristol, Cardiff, Cambridge, Leeds, Liverpool, Swansee, Edinburgh
1991 1989 Dublin Cork
1992 1988 Madrid  
1993 1988 Antwerp Liège
1994 1989 Lisbon  
1995 1989 Luxembourg  
1996 1989 Copenhagen  
1997 1992 Thessaloniki Estambul, Budapest
1998 1993 Stockholm Prague
1999 1993 Weimar Nüremberg
2000 1995 Avignon  
2000 1995 Bergen  
2000 1995 Bologna  
2000 1995 Brussels  
2000 1995 Helsinki  
2000 1995 Krakow  
2000 1995 Reykjavik  
2000 1995 Prague  
2000 1995 Santiago de Compostela  
2001 1998 Porto  
2001 1998 Rotterdam  
2002 1998 Bruges Mons
2002 1998 Salamanca Granada, Barcelona, Valencia
2003 1998 Graz  
2004 1998 Genoa  
2004 1998 Lille  
2005 2001 Cork Galway, Limerick, Waterford
2006 2002 Patras  
2007 2004 Luxembourg  
2007 2004 Sibiu  
2008 2004 Liverpool Birmingham, Bristol, Cardiff, Newcastle, Oxford, Belfast, Bradford, Brighton, Canterbury, Inverness and the Highlands, Norwich
2008 2004 Stavanger  
2009 2005 Linz  
2009 2005 Vilnius  
2010 2006 Essen Görlitz–Zgorzelec, Bremen
2010 2006 Istanbul Kiev
2010 2006 Pécs Budapest, Debrecen, Miskolc, Gyór, Kaposvár, Kecskemét, Sopron, Székesfehérvár, Veszprém
2011 2007 Turku Jyväskylä, Lahti, Mänttä, Oulu, Rovaniemi, Tampere
2011 2007 Tallinn Tartu, Haapsalu, Pärnu, Rakvere
2012 2008 Maribor Celje, Koper, Ljubljana
2012 2008 Guimarães  
2013 2008 Marseille Amiens, Lyon, Saint-Etienne, Strasbourg, Bordeaux, Nice, Toulouse
2013 2008 Košice Bratislava, Nitra, Trencin, Banska Bystrica, Martin, Trnava, Dolny Kubin, Presov
2014 2009 Riga Cesis, Liepaja, Jurmala
2014 2009 Umea Lund, Gavle, Uppsala
2015 2010 Mons  
2015 2010 Plzeň Ostrava, Hradec Králové,
2016 2011 San Sebastián Córdoba, Alcalá de Henares, Burgos, Cáceres, Cuenca, Málaga, Murcia, Oviedo, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Pamplona, Santander, Segovia, Tarragona y Zaragoza
2016 2011 Wrocław Białystok, Bydgoszcz, Gdańsk, Katowice, Lublin, Łódź, Poznań, Szczecin, Toruń, Warszawa
2017 2012 Aarhus Sønderborg
2017 2012 Paphos Nicosia, Limassol
2018 2012 Leeuwarden Eindhoven, Maastricht
2018 2013 Valletta  
  1. In bold are the cities identified as close runners-up