Explaining AI Decisions Using Efficient Methods for Learning Sparse Boolean Formulae

Abstract

In this paper, we consider the problem of learning Boolean formulae from examples obtained by actively querying an oracle that can label these examples as either positive or negative. This problem has received attention in both machine learning as well as formal methods communities, and it has been shown to have exponential worst-case complexity in the general case as well as for many restrictions. In this paper, we focus on learning sparse Boolean formulae which depend on only a small (but unknown) subset of the overall vocabulary of atomic propositions. We propose two algorithms—first, based on binary search in the Hamming space, and the second, based on random walk on the Boolean hypercube, to learn these sparse Boolean formulae with a given confidence. This assumption of sparsity is motivated by the problem of mining explanations for decisions made by artificially intelligent (AI) algorithms, where the explanation of individual decisions may depend on a small but unknown subset of all the inputs to the algorithm. We demonstrate the use of these algorithms in automatically generating explanations of these decisions. These explanations will make intelligent systems more understandable and accountable to human users, facilitate easier audits and provide diagnostic information in the case of failure. The proposed approach treats the AI algorithm as a black-box oracle; hence, it is broadly applicable and agnostic to the specific AI algorithm. We show that the number of examples needed for both proposed algorithms only grows logarithmically with the size of the vocabulary of atomic propositions. We illustrate the practical effectiveness of our approach on a diverse set of case studies.

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Acknowledgements

The authors acknowledge support from the National Science Foundation(NSF) Cyber-Physical Systems #1740079 Project, NSF Software & Hardware Foundation #1750009 Project, and US ARL Cooperative Agreement W911NF-17-2-0196 on Internet of Battle Things (IoBT).

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Correspondence to Susmit Jha.

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Jha, S., Sahai, T., Raman, V. et al. Explaining AI Decisions Using Efficient Methods for Learning Sparse Boolean Formulae. J Autom Reasoning 63, 1055–1075 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10817-018-9499-8

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Keywords

  • Explainable AI
  • Boolean formula learning
  • Machine learning
  • Formal methods
  • Interpretable AI
  • Sparse learning