Advertisement

Initial Urbanization and the Emergence of the State in Hierakonpolis (Nile Valley) and Monte Albán (Oaxaca Valley)

  • Marcelo Campagno
Article
  • 121 Downloads

Abstract

One of the main foci of comparative research on ancient societies deals with urban dynamics. Within this context, an interesting issue is the relationship between the processes of initial urbanization—i.e., the creation of the first cities—and the transformations that led to the emergence of state dynamics. Here, we will consider two historical situations in which both processes—urbanization and state origin—were, in broad terms, concomitant: Hierakonpolis, in the Nile Valley, towards the mid-4th millennium BC, and Monte Albán in the Valley of Oaxaca, in the second half of the 1st Millennium BC. We will address, first, the available evidence for both historical situations, which will be organized into four major areas—related to demographic dynamics, forms of functional specialization, social differentiation, and conflict—allowing us to see the main innovations that characterize these processes. And second, we will propose a reconsideration of the information that relates to a specific problem: the relationship between the concentration of population in urban contexts and the processes of social hierarchization that took place within urban centers as well as between these centers and the surrounding villages. In this sense, beyond the multiple differences between the states that, in the long run, would be consolidated in the Nile Valley and in the Oaxaca Valley, the beginnings of the urbanization processes that occurred in both regions have a common characteristic, which is fundamental for further transformations: the creation of a social context whose practices exceeded the limits related to the pre-existing logic of social organization.

Keywords

Hierakonpolis Monte Albán Egypt Oaxaca Early urbanization State origin 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This paper is a result of a research project benefited from a grant of the Commission Fulbright and the Argentina’s National Council of Research (CONICET) which allowed me to have a research stay at the University of Michigan. A second award given by The Dumbarton Oaks Library allowed me to finish this article in that wonderful library. I wish to thank very much these institutions and their staffs. I am particularly grateful to my supervisors in the two visits, Dr. Norman Yoffee (University of Michigan) and Dr. Colin McEwan (Dumbarton Oaks). I am also grateful to Lic. María Belén Daizo for her help in preparing maps, as well as to the three anonymous reviewers whose comments decidedly helped to improve this article.

References

  1. Adams, B. (1995). Ancient Nekhen. In Garstang in the City of Hierakonpolis, Egyptian Studies Association 3. New Malden: SIA Publishing.Google Scholar
  2. Baba, M. & Friedman R. F. (2016). Recent Excavations at HK11C, Hierakonpolis. In M. D. Adams (Ed.), Egypt at its Origins 4. Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference “Origin of the State. Predynastic and Early Dynastic Egypt”, New York, 26 th – 30 th July 2011 (pp. 179–206). Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta 252. Leuven: Peeters.Google Scholar
  3. Baba, M. Van Neer, W. & De Cupere, B. (2017). Industrial food production activities during the Naqada II period at HK11C, Hierakonpolis. In B. Midant-Reynes & Y. Tristant (Eds.), Egypt at its origins 5. Proceedings of the fifth international conference “Origin of the state. Predynastic and early dynastic Egypt”, Cairo, 13th–18th April 2014 (pp. 3–34). Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta 260. Leuven: Peeters.Google Scholar
  4. Balkansky, A. K. (1998). Origin and collapse of complex societies in Oaxaca (Mexico): Evaluating the era from 1965 to the present. Journal of World Prehistory, 12(4), 451–493.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barber, S. B., & Joyce, A. A. (2006). When is a house a palace? Elite residences in the valley of Oaxaca. In J. J. Christie & P. J. Sarro (Eds.), Palaces and power in the Americas. From Peru to the northwest coast (pp. 211–255). Austin: University of Texas Press.Google Scholar
  6. Batey, E. K. (2012). Population dynamics in Predynastic Upper Egypt: paleodemography of Cemetery HK43 at Hierakonpolis. PhD. dissertation, University of Arkansas. Ann Arbor: University Microfilms.Google Scholar
  7. Beck, R. A. (2003). Consolidation and hierarchy: Chiefdom variability in the Mississippian Southeast. American Antiquity, 68(4), 641–661.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Blanton, R. E. (1978). Monte Albán: settlement patterns at the Ancient Zapotec Capital. New York/London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  9. Blanton, R. E. (1983). The founding of Monte Albán. In K. V. Flannery & J. Marcus (Eds.), The cloud people. Divergent evolution of the Zapotec and Mixtec civilizations (pp. 83–87). New York: Percheron Press.Google Scholar
  10. Blanton, R. E., Kowalewski, S. A., Feinman, G. M., & Appel, J. (Eds.) (1982). Monte Albán’s Hinterland, part 1: prehispanic settlement patterns of the central and southern parts of the Valley of Oaxaca, México, Memoirs of the University of Michigan Museum of Anthropology 15. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan.Google Scholar
  11. Blanton, R. E., Feinman, G. M., Kowalewski, S. A., & Peregrine, P. (1996). A dual-processual theory for the evolution of Mesoamerican civilization. Current Anthropology, 37(1), 1–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Blanton, R. E., Feinman, G. M., Kowalewski, S. A., & Nicholas, L. M. (1999). Ancient Oaxaca. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bourdieu, P. (1990). The logic of practice. Translated by R. Nice. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Brumfiel, E. M. (1989). Factional competition in complex society. In D. Miller, M. Rowlands, & C. Tilley (Eds.), One world archaeology. 3. Domination and resistance (pp. 127–139). London: Unwyn Hyman.Google Scholar
  15. Brumfiel, E. M. (1994). Factional competition and political development in the new world: An introduction. In E. M. Brumfiel & J. Fox (Eds.), Factional competition and political development in the new world (pp. 3–13). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Brumfiel, E. M., & Earle, T. K. (1987). Specialization, exchange, and complex societies: An introduction. In E. M. Brumfiel & T. K. Earle (Eds.), Specialization, exchange, and complex societies (pp. 1–9). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  17. Buchez, N. (2011). Adaïma (Upper Egypt): The stages of state development from the point of view of a ‘village community’. In R. F. Friedman, & P. N. Fiske (Eds.), Egypt at its origins 3. Proceedings of the Third International Conference ‘Origin of the State: Predynastic and Early Dynastic Egypt’, London, 27 th July – 1 st August 2008 (pp. 31–40). Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta 205. Leuven: Peeters.Google Scholar
  18. Bujra, J. M. (1973). The dynamics of political action: A new look at factionalism. American Anthropologist, 75(1), 132–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Campagno, M. (2002). De los jefes-parientes a los reyes-dioses. Surgimiento y consolidación del Estado en el antiguo Egipto, Aula Ægyptiaca-Studia 3. Barcelona: Aula Ægyptiaca.Google Scholar
  20. Campagno, M. (2003). Space and Shape. Considerations on pre- and proto-State funerary practices in Ancient Egypt. In S. Bickel & A. Loprieno (Eds.), Basel Egyptology Prize 1. Junior Research in Egyptian History, Archaeology and Philology (pp. 15–28). Aegyptiaca Helvetica 17). Basel: Schwabe & Co. AG Verlag.Google Scholar
  21. Campagno, M. (2004). In the Beginning was the War. Conflict and the Emergence of the Egyptian State. In: S. Hendrickx, R. F. Friedman, K. M. Ciałowicz, & M. Chłodnicki (Eds.), Egypt at its Origins. Studies in Memory of Barbara Adams (Proceedings of the International Conference “Origin of the State. Predynastic and Early Dynastic Egypt”, Krakow, 28 th August – 1 st September 2002) (pp. 689–703). Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta 138. Leuven: Peeters.Google Scholar
  22. Campagno, M. (2006). De los modos de organización social en el Antiguo Egipto: Lógica de parentesco, lógica de Estado. In M. Campagno (Ed.), Estudios sobre parentesco y Estado en el antiguo Egipto (pp. 15–50). Buenos Aires: Universidad de Buenos Aires / Ediciones del Signo.Google Scholar
  23. Campagno, M. (2011). En los umbrales. Intersticios del parentesco y condiciones para el surgimiento del Estado en el valle del Nilo. In M. Campagno, J. Gallego, & C. G. García Mac Gaw (Eds.), El Estado en el Mediterráneo Antiguo. Egipto, Grecia, Roma (pp. 45–79). Miño y Dávila: Buenos Aires.Google Scholar
  24. Campagno, M. (2016). Kinship, sacred leadership, and conditions for the Emergence of the Egyptian State. In: M. D. Adams (Ed.), Egypt at its Origins 4. Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference “Origin of the State. Predynastic and Early Dynastic Egypt”, New York, 26 th – 30 th July 2011 (pp. 493–504). Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta 252. Leuven: Peeters.Google Scholar
  25. Caso, A. (1965). Sculpture and mural painting of Oaxaca. In R. Wauchope & G. R. Willey (Eds.), Handbook of middle American Indians vol. 3: Archaeology of Southern America, part 2 (pp. 849–870). Austin: University of Texas Press.Google Scholar
  26. Caso, A., & Bernal, I. (1965). Ceramics of Oaxaca. In R. Wauchope & G. R. Willey (Eds.), Handbook of middle American Indians, vol. 3: Archaeology of Southern America, part 2 (pp. 871–895). Austin: University of Texas Press.Google Scholar
  27. Childe, V. G. (1950). The urban revolution. Town Planning Review, 21(1), 3–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Clastres, P. (1980). Recherches d’anthropologie politique. Paris: Seuil.Google Scholar
  29. Cowgill, G. L. (2004). Origins and development of urbanism: Archaeological perspectives. Annual Review of Anthropology, 33(1), 525–549.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Dougherty, S. P. & Friedman, R. F. (2008). Sacred or mundane: Scalping and decapitation at Predynastic Hierakonpolis. In: B. Midant-Reynes & Y. Tristant (Eds.), Egypt at its origins 2. Proceedings of the international conference ‘Origin of the State: Predynastic and Early Dynastic Egypt’, Toulouse (France), 5th–8th September 2005 (pp. 311–338). Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta 172. Leuven: Peeters.Google Scholar
  31. Drennan, R. D., & Flannery, K. M. (1983). The growth of site hierarchies in the valley of Oaxaca: Part II. In K. V. Flannery & J. Marcus (Eds.), The Cloud People. Divergent evolution of the Zapotec and Mixtec civilizations (pp. 65–71). New York: Percheron Press.Google Scholar
  32. Eisenstadt, S. N., & Roniger, L. (1984). Patrons, clients, and friends. Interpersonal relations and the structure of trust in society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Elam, J. M. (1989). Defensible and Fortified Sites. In S. A. Kowalewski, G. M. Feinman, L. Finsten, R. E. Blanton, & L. M. Nicholas (Eds.), Monte Albán’s Hinterland, part 2: Prehispanic Settlement Patterns in Tlacolula, Etla, and Ocotlán, the Valley of Oaxaca, México (pp. 385–407). Memoirs of the University of Michigan Museum of Anthropology 23. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan.Google Scholar
  34. Elson, C. M., & Sherman, R. J. (2007). Crema ware and elite power at Monte Albán: Ceramic production and iconography in the Oaxaca Valley, Mexico. Journal of Field Archaeology, 32(3), 265–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Feinman, G. (1982). Patterns in Ceramic Production and Distribution, periods Early I to V. In R. E. Blanton, S. A. Kowalewski, G. M. Feinman, & J. Appel (Eds.), Monte Albán’s Hinterland, part 1: Prehispanic Settlement Patterns of the Central and Southern Parts of the Valley of Oaxaca, México (pp. 181–206). Memoirs of the University of Michigan Museum of Anthropology 15). Ann Arbor: University of Michigan.Google Scholar
  36. Feinman, G. M., & Marcus, J. (Eds.). (1998). Archaic states. Santa Fe: School of American Research Press.Google Scholar
  37. Feinman, G. M., Blanton, R. E., & Kowalewski, S. A. (1984). Market system development in the Prehispanic Valley of Oaxaca, Mexico. In K. G. Hirth (Ed.), Trade and exchange in early Mesoamerica (pp. 157–178). Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.Google Scholar
  38. Figueiredo, A. (2004). Locality HK6 at Hierakonpolis: Results of the 2000 Field Season. In S. Hendrickx, R. F. Friedman, K. M. Ciałowicz, & M. Chłodnicki (Eds.), Egypt at its Origins. Studies in Memory of Barbara Adams (Proceedings of the International Conference “Origin of the State. Predynastic and Early Dynastic Egypt”, Krakow, 28 th August – 1 st September 2002) (pp. 1–23). Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta 138. Leuven: Peeters.Google Scholar
  39. Flannery, K. M., & Marcus, J. (1983a). The growth of site hierarchies in the valley of Oaxaca: Part I. In K. V. Flannery & J. Marcus (Eds.), The cloud people. Divergent evolution of the Zapotec and Mixtec civilizations (pp. 53–65). New York: Percheron Press.Google Scholar
  40. Flannery, K. M., & Marcus, J. (1983b). The Rosario phase and the origins of Monte Albán I. In K. V. Flannery & J. Marcus (Eds.), The cloud people. Divergent evolution of the Zapotec and Mixtec civilizations (pp. 74–76). New York: Percheron Press.Google Scholar
  41. Flannery, K. M., & Marcus, J. (1983c). The earliest public buildings, tombs, and monuments of Monte Albán, with notes on the internal chronology of period I. In K. V. Flannery & J. Marcus (Eds.), The cloud people. Divergent evolution of the Zapotec and Mixtec civilizations (pp. 87–91). New York: Percheron Press.Google Scholar
  42. Flannery, K. M., & Marcus, J. (2005). Excavations at San José Mogote 1. The Household Archaeology. Memoirs of the University of Michigan Museum of Anthropology 40. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan.Google Scholar
  43. Flannery, K. M., & Marcus, J. (2015). Excavations at San José Mogote 2. The Cognitive Archaeology. Memoirs of the University of Michigan Museum of Anthropology 58. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan.Google Scholar
  44. Fox, J. (1994). Conclusions: Moietal opposition, segmentation, and factionalism in new word political arenas. In E. M. Brumfiel & J. Fox (Eds.), Factional competition and political development in the new world (pp. 199–206). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Fried, M. (1968). On the evolution of social stratification and the state. In M. Fried (Ed.), Readings in anthropology II (pp. 462–478). New York: Th. Crowell.Google Scholar
  46. Friedman, R. F. (1994). Predynastic settlement ceramics of Upper Egypt: A comparative study of the ceramics of Hemamieh, Nagada and Hierakonpolis, PhD. dissertation, University of California, Berkeley. Ann Arbor: University Microfilms.Google Scholar
  47. Friedman, R. F. (1996). The ceremonial Centre at Hierakonpolis: Locality HK29A. In J. Spencer (Ed.), Aspects of early Egypt (pp. 16–35). London: British Museum.Google Scholar
  48. Friedman, R.F. (2004). Elephants at Hierakonpolis. In: S. Hendrickx, R. F. Friedman, K. M. Ciałowicz, & M. Chłodnicki (Eds.), Egypt at its Origins. Studies in Memory of Barbara Adams (Proceedings of the International Conference “Origin of the State. Predynastic and Early Dynastic Egypt”, Krakow, 28 th August – 1 st September 2002) (pp. 131–168). Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta 138. Leuven: Peeters.Google Scholar
  49. Friedman, R. F. (2005). Hiérakonpolis. Berceau de la royauté. Dossiers d’Archéologie, 307, 62–73.Google Scholar
  50. Friedman, R. F. (2008a). The cemeteries of Hierakonpolis. Archéo-Nil, 18, 8–29.Google Scholar
  51. Friedman, R. F. (2008b). Excavating Egypt’s Early Kings: Recent Discoveries in the elite cemetery at Hierakonpolis. In B. Midant-Reynes, & Y. Tristant (Eds.), Egypt at its origins 2. Proceedings of the international conference ‘Origin of the State: Predynastic and Early Dynastic Egypt’, Toulouse (France), 5th–8th September 2005 (pp. 1157–1194). Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta 172. Leuven: Peeters.Google Scholar
  52. Friedman, R. F. (2009a). Hierakonpolis locality HK29A: The Predynastic ceremonial center revisited. Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt, 45, 79–103.Google Scholar
  53. Friedman, R. F. (2009b). A tour of the palace. Nekhen News, 21, 4–6.Google Scholar
  54. Friedman, R. F., Maish, A., Fahmy, A. G., Darnell, J. C., & Johnson, E. D. (1999). Preliminary report on field work at Hierakonpolis: 1996-1998. Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt, 36, 1–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Friedman, R. F., Van Neer, W. & Linseele, V. (2011). The elite Predynastic cemetery at Hierakonpolis: 2009–2010 update. In R. F. Friedman, & P. N. Fiske (Eds.), Egypt at its origins 3. Proceedings of the Third International Conference ‘Origin of the State: Predynastic and Early Dynastic Egypt’, London, 27 th July – 1 st August 2008 (pp. 157–191). Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta 205. Leuven: Peeters.Google Scholar
  56. Friedman, R. F., Van Neer, W., De Cupere, B. & Droux, X. (2017). The elite Predynastic cemetery at Hierakonpolis HK6: 2011–2015 progress report (appendix: Demographic survey of HK6, by A. Pieri, S. P. Dougherty & D. Antoine). In B. Midant-Reynes & Y. Tristant (Eds.), Egypt at its Origins 5. Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference “Origin of the State. Predynastic and Early Dynastic Egypt”, Cairo, 13th – 18th April 2014 (pp. 231–289). Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta 260. Leuven: Peeters.Google Scholar
  57. Geller, J. (1989). Recent excavations at Hierakonpolis and their relevance to Predynastic production and settlement. Cahiers de Recherches de l’Institut de Papyrologie et d’Egyptologie de Lille, 11, 41–52.Google Scholar
  58. Geller, J. (1992). From Prehistory to History: Beer in Egypt. In R. F. Friedman & B. Adams (Eds.), The Followers of Horus. Studies dedicated to Michael Allen Hoffman (pp. 19–26). Oxbow Monograph 20). Oxford: Oxbow Books.Google Scholar
  59. Gellner, E., & Waterbury, J. (1977). Patrons and clients in Mediterranean societies. London: Duckworth.Google Scholar
  60. Gilbert, G. P. (2004). Weapons, Warriors and Warfare in Early Egypt, British archaeological reports international series 1208. Oxford: Archaeopress.Google Scholar
  61. Harlan, F. J. (1985). Predynastic settlement patterns: A view from Hierakonpolis, PhD. dissertation, Washington University, Saint Louis. University Microfilms, Ann Arbor.Google Scholar
  62. Harrington, N. (2004). Human representation in the Predynastic period: the Locality HK6 statue in context. In S. Hendrickx, R. F. Friedman, K. M. Ciałowicz, & M. Chłodnicki (Eds.), Egypt at its Origins. Studies in Memory of Barbara Adams (Proceedings of the International Conference “Origin of the State. Predynastic and Early Dynastic Egypt”, Krakow, 28 th August – 1 st September 2002) (pp. 25–43). Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta 138. Leuven: Peeters.Google Scholar
  63. Hartmann, R. (2011). The chronology of Naqada I tombs in the Predynastic Cemetery U at Abydos. In R. F. Friedman, & P. N. Fiske (Eds.), Egypt at its origins 3. Proceedings of the Third International Conference ‘Origin of the State: Predynastic and Early Dynastic Egypt’, London, 27 th July – 1 st August 2008 (pp. 917–938). Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta 205. Leuven: Peeters.Google Scholar
  64. Hassan, F. A. (1988). The Predynastic of Egypt. Journal of World Prehistory, 2(2), 135–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Hassan, F. A., van Wetering, J., & Tassie, G. (2017). Urban Development at Nubt, Naqada Region, Upper Egypt, during the Predynastic – Protodynastic Period. In B. Midant-Reynes, & Y. Tristant (Eds.), Egypt at its Origins 5. Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference “Origin of the State. Predynastic and Early Dynastic Egypt”, Cairo, 13 th – 18 th April 2014 (pp. 81–128). Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta 260. Leuven: Peeters.Google Scholar
  66. Hendrickx, S. (2008). Rough ware as an element of symbolism and craft specialisation at Hierakonpolis’ elite cemetery HK6. In B. Midant-Reynes, & Y. Tristant (Eds.), Egypt at its origins 2. Proceedings of the international conference ‘Origin of the State: Predynastic and Early Dynastic Egypt’, Toulouse (France), 5th–8th September 2005 (pp. 61–86). Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta 172. Leuven: Peeters.Google Scholar
  67. Hendrickx, S., & Friedman, R. F. (2003). Gebel Tjauti rock inscription 1 and the relationship between Abydos and Hierakonpolis during the early Naqada III period. Göttinger Miszellen, 196, 95–109.Google Scholar
  68. Hendrickx, S., & van den Brink, E. C. M. (2002). Inventory of Predynastic and Early Dynastic Cemetery and Settlement Sites in the Egyptian Nile Valley. In E. C. M. van den Brink & T. E. Levy (Eds.), Egypt and the Levant. Interrelations from the 4th through the Early 3rd Millennium B.C.E (pp. 346–399). London/New York: Leicester University Press.Google Scholar
  69. Hikade, T., Pyke, G., & O’Neill, D. (2008). Excavations at Hierakonpolis HK29B and HK25: The campaigns of 2005/2006. Mitteilungen des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts Kairo, 64, 153–188.Google Scholar
  70. Hoffman, M. A. (1982). The Predynastic of Hierakonpolis: An interim report, Egyptian studies association 1. Giza/Macomb: Cairo University Herbarium.Google Scholar
  71. Hoffman, M. A. (1984). Predynastic cultural ecology and patterns of settlement in Upper Egypt as viewed from Hierakonpolis. In L. Krzyzaniak & M. Kobusiewicz (Eds.), Origin and early development of food-producing cultures in Northeastern Africa, studies in African archaeology, 1 (pp. 235–245). Poznań: Poznań Archaeological Museum.Google Scholar
  72. Hoffman, M. A. (1987). A regional perspective of the Predynastic cemeteries of Hierakonpolis. In B. Adams (Ed.), The Fort Cemetery at Hierakonpolis (Excavated by John Garstang) (pp. 187–202). London/New York: Kegan Paul International.Google Scholar
  73. Hoffman, M. A., Hamroush, H. A., & Allen, R. O. (1986). A model of urban development for the Hierakonpolis region from Predynastic through old kingdom times. Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt, 23, 175–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Holmes, D. L. (1992). Chipped stone-working craftsmen, Hierakonpolis and the rise of civilization in Egypt. In R. F. Friedman & B. Adams (Eds.), The Followers of Horus. Studies dedicated to Michael Allen Hoffman (pp. 37–44). Oxbow Monograph 20). Oxford: Oxbow Books.Google Scholar
  75. Hutson, S. R. (2002). Built space and bad subjects: Domination and resistance at Monte Albán, Oaxaca, México. Journal of Social Archaeology, 2(1), 53–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Jaeschke, H. F. (2004). The HK6 statue fragments. In S. Hendrickx, R. F. Friedman, K. M. Ciałowicz, & M. Chłodnicki (Eds.), Egypt at its Origins. Studies in Memory of Barbara Adams (Proceedings of the International Conference “Origin of the State. Predynastic and Early Dynastic Egypt”, Krakow, 28 th August – 1 st September 2002) (pp. 45–65). Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta 138. Leuven: Peeters.Google Scholar
  77. Jennings, J., & Earle, T. (2016). Urbanization, state formation, and cooperation. A reappraisal. Current Anthropology, 57(4), 474–493.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Joyce, A. A. (2004). Sacred space and social relations in the valley of Oaxaca. In M. K. Brown & T. M. Stanton (Eds.), Mesoamerican archaeology (pp. 192–216). Walnut Creek: Alta Mira Press.Google Scholar
  79. Joyce, A. A. (2010). Mixtecs, Zapotecs, and Chatinos. Ancient peoples of southern Mexico. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar
  80. Joyce, A. A., & Winter, M. (1996). Ideology, power, and urban society in prehispanic Oaxaca. Current Anthropology, 37(1), 33–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Kemp, B. J. (2006). Ancient Egypt. Anatomy of a Civilization (2nd ed.). London/New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  82. Köhler, E. C. (2010). Theories of state formation. In W. Wendrich (Ed.), Egyptian archaeology (pp. 36–54). Blackwell studies in global archaeology). Chichester/Malden: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar
  83. Kopytoff, I. (1999). Permutations in patrimonialism and populism: The Aghem chiefdoms of Western Cameroon. In S. K. McIntosh (Ed.), Beyond Chiefdoms. Pathways to Complexity in Africa (pp. 88–96). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Kowalewski, S. A., Feinman, G. M., Finsten, L., Blanton, R. E., & Nicholas, L. M. (1989). Monte Albán’s hinterland, part 2: Prehispanic settlement patterns in Tlacolula, Etla, and Ocotlán, the Valley of Oaxaca, México. Memoirs of the University of Michigan Museum of Anthropology 23. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan.Google Scholar
  85. Lemche, N. P. (1995). From patronage society to patronage society. In V. Fritz & P. Davies (Eds.), The origins of the ancient Israelite states (pp. 106–120). Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press.Google Scholar
  86. Linseele, V., Van Neer, W., & Friedman, R. F. (2009). Special animals from a special place? The fauna from HK29A at Predynastic Hierakonpolis. Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt, 45, 105–136.Google Scholar
  87. Maisels, C. K. (1987). Models of social evolution: Trajectories from the Neolithic to the state. Man (N.S.), 22(2), 331–359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Maisels, C. K. (1999). Early civilizations of the world. The formative histories of Egypt, the Levant, Mesopotamia, India and China. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  89. Marcus, J. (1976). The iconography of militarism at Monte Albán and neighboring sites in the valley of Oaxaca. In H. Nicholson (Ed.), Origins of religious art and iconography in Preclassic Mesoamerica (pp. 125–139). Los Angeles: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  90. Marcus, J. (1983). The first appearance of Zapotec writing and Calendrics. In K. V. Flannery & J. Marcus (Eds.), The cloud people. Divergent evolution of the Zapotec and Mixtec civilizations (pp. 91–96). New York: Percheron Press.Google Scholar
  91. Marcus, J. (2008). Monte Albán. México: El Colegio de México / Fondo de Cultura Económica.Google Scholar
  92. Marcus, J., & Flannery, K. V. (1996). Zapotec civilization. How urban society evolved in Mexico’s Oaxaca Valley. London: Thames and Hudson.Google Scholar
  93. Marcus, J., & Sabloff, J. A. (Eds.). (2008). The Ancient City. New perspectives on urbanism in the old and the new world. Santa Fe: School for Advanced Research Press.Google Scholar
  94. Martínez López, C., & Markens, R. (2004). Análisis de la función político-económica del Conjunto Plataforma Norte Lado Poniente de la Plaza Principal de Monte Albán. In N. M. Robles García (Ed.), Estructuras políticas en el Oaxaca antiguo. Memoria de la Tercera Mesa Redonda de Monte Albán (pp. 75–99). Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia: México.Google Scholar
  95. Martínez López, C., Winter, M., & Juárez, P. A. (1995). Entierros humanos del proyecto especial Monte Albán 1992–1994. In M. Winter (Ed.), Entierros Humanos de Monte Albán: Dos Estudios (pp. 79–247). Oaxaca: Centro INAH Oaxaca.Google Scholar
  96. Martínez López, C., Winter, M., & Markens, R. (2014). Muerte y vida entre los zapotecos de Monte Albán. In Estudios Oaxaqueños 5. Oaxaca: Centro INAH Oaxaca.Google Scholar
  97. Midant-Reynes, B. (2003). Aux origines de l’Égypte. Du Néolithique à l’émergence de l’État. Paris: Fayard.Google Scholar
  98. Minc, L. D., Sherman, R. J., Elson, C., Winter, M., Redmond, E. M., & Spencer, C. S. (2016). Ceramic provenance and the regional organization of pottery production during the later formative periods in the Valley of Oaxaca, Mexico: Results of trace-element and mineralogical analyses. Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports, 8, 28–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Moeller, N. (2016). The archaeology of urbanism in ancient Egypt. From the Predynastic period to the end of the middle kingdom. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Nicholas, L. M. (1989). Land use in prehispanic Oaxaca. In S. A. Kowalewski, G. M. Feinman, L. Finsten, R. E. Blanton, & L. M. Nicholas (Eds.), Monte Albán’s Hinterland, part 2: Prehispanic Settlement Patterns in Tlacolula, Etla, and Ocotlán, the Valley of Oaxaca, México (pp. 449–505). Memoirs of the University of Michigan Museum of Anthropology 23). Ann Arbor: University of Michigan.Google Scholar
  101. O’Brien, M. J., Mason, R. D., Lewarch, D. E., & Neely, J. A. (1982). A Late Formative irrigation settlement below Monte Albán: Survey and excavation on the Xoxocotlán piedmont, Oaxaca, México. Austin: University of Texas Press.Google Scholar
  102. Paddock, J. (Ed.). (1966). Ancient Oaxaca: Discoveries in Mexican archaeology and history. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  103. Possehl, G. L. (1990). Revolution in the urban revolution: The emergence of Indus urbanism. Annual Review of Anthropology, 19(1), 261–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Redmond, E. M. (1983). A Fuego y Sangre. In Early Zapotec Imperialism in the Cuicatlán Cañada, Oaxaca, Memoirs of the University of Michigan Museum of Anthropology 16. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan.Google Scholar
  105. Redmond, E. M., & Spencer, C. S. (2006). From raiding to conquest: Warfare strategies and early state development in Oaxaca, Mexico. In E. N. Arkush & M. W. Allen (Eds.), The archaeology of warfare: Prehistories of raiding and conquest (pp. 336–393). Gainesville: University Press of Florida.Google Scholar
  106. Redmond, E. M., & Spencer, C. S. (2017). Ancient palace complex (300–100 BC) discovered in the Valley of Oaxaca, Mexico. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 114(15), 3805–3814.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Sahlins, M. (1971). Tribal Economics. In G. Dalton (Ed.), Economic development and social change: Modernization of village communities (pp. 43–61). New York: Natural History Press.Google Scholar
  108. Sahlins, M. (2011). What kinship is (part one). Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute (N.S.), 17(1), 2–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Scott, J. F. (1978). The Danzantes of Monte Albán, 2 vols. Studies in Pre-Columbian art and archaeology 19. Washington DC: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection.Google Scholar
  110. Sherman, R. J., Balkansky, A. K., Spencer, C. S., & Nicholls, B. D. (2010). Expansionary dynamics of the nascent Monte Albán state. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 29(3), 278–301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Smith, M. L. (Ed.). (2003a). The social construction of ancient cities. Washington/London: Smithsonian Books.Google Scholar
  112. Smith, M. L. (2003b). Introduction: The social construction of ancient cities. In M. L. Smith (Ed.), The Social Construction of Ancient Cities (pp. 1–36). Washington/London: Smithsonian Books.Google Scholar
  113. Smith, M. E. (Ed.). (2012). The comparative archaeology of complex societies. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  114. Smith, M. E., & Peregrine, P. (2012). Approaches to comparative analysis in archaeology. In M. E. Smith (Ed.), The comparative archaeology of complex societies (pp. 4–20). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  115. Spencer, C. S. (1982). The Cuicatlan Cañada and Monte Albán: A study of primary state formation. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  116. Spencer, C. S. (1990). On the tempo and mode of state formation: Neoevolutionism reconsidered. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 9(1), 1–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Spencer, C. S., & Redmond, E. M. (1997). Archaeology of the Cañada de Cuicatlán. In Anthropological papers of the American Museum of Natural History 80. New York: American Museum of Natural History.Google Scholar
  118. Spencer, C. S., & Redmond, E. M. (2001). Multilevel selection and political evolution in the valley of Oaxaca, 500−100 B.C. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 20(2), 195–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Spencer, C. S., & Redmond, E. M. (2003). Militarism, resistance, and early state development in Oaxaca, Mexico. Social Evolution & History, 1, 25–70.Google Scholar
  120. Stevenson, A. (2016). The Egyptian Predynastic and state formation. Journal of Archaeological Research, 24(4), 421–468.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Storey, G. R. (Ed.). (2006). Urbanism in the preindustrial world. Cross-cultural approaches. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press.Google Scholar
  122. Takamiya, I. H. (2004). Development of specialisation in the Nile Valley during the 4th millennium BC. In S. Hendrickx, R. F. Friedman, K. M. Ciałowicz, & M. Chłodnicki (Eds.), Egypt at its Origins. Studies in Memory of Barbara Adams (Proceedings of the International Conference “Origin of the State. Predynastic and Early Dynastic Egypt”, Krakow, 28 th August – 1 st September 2002) (pp. 1027–1039). Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta 138. Leuven: Peeters.Google Scholar
  123. Takamiya, I. H. (2008). Firing installations and specialization: A view from recent excavations at Hierakonpolis Locality 11C In B. Midant-Reynes, & Y. Tristant (Eds.), Egypt at its origins 2. Proceedings of the international conference ‘Origin of the State: Predynastic and Early Dynastic Egypt’, Toulouse (France), 5th–8th September 2005 (pp. 187–202). Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta 172. Leuven: Peeters.Google Scholar
  124. Trigger, B. G. (2003). Understanding early civilizations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Urcid, J. (2011). Los oráculos y la guerra: el papel de las narrativas pictóricas en el desarrollo temprano de Monte Albán (500 a.C.–200 d.C.) In N. M. Robles García & A. I. Rivera Guzmán (Eds.), Monte Albán en la encrucijada regional y disciplinaria. Memoria de la Quinta Mesa Redonda de Monte Albán (pp. 163–237). Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia: México.Google Scholar
  126. Urcid, J., & Joyce, A. A. (2014). Early transformations of Monte Albán’s main plaza and their political implications, 500 BC–AD 200. In K. Tsukamoto & T. Inomata (Eds.), Mesoamerican plazas. Arenas of community and power (pp. 149–167). Tucson: University of Arizona Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Van Neer, W., Linseele, V., & Friedman, R. F. (2004). Animal burials and food offerings at the elite Cemetery HK6 of Hierakonpolis. In S. Hendrickx, R. F. Friedman, K. M. Ciałowicz, & M. Chłodnicki (Eds.), Egypt at its Origins. Studies in Memory of Barbara Adams (Proceedings of the International Conference “Origin of the State. Predynastic and Early Dynastic Egypt”, Krakow, 28 th August – 1 st September 2002) (pp. 67–130). Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta 138. Leuven: Peeters.Google Scholar
  128. Webster, D. (1975). Warfare and the evolution of the state: A reconsideration. American Antiquity, 40(04), 464–470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Webster, G. (1990). Labor control and emergent stratification in prehistoric Europe. Current Anthropology, 31(4), 337–366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Wengrow, D. (2006). The archaeology of Early Egypt. Social transformations in North-East Africa, 10,000 to 2650 BC. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  131. Whalen, M. E. (1988). Small community organization during the Late Formative period in Oaxaca. Journal of Field Archaeology, 15, 291–306.Google Scholar
  132. Wilson, J. A. (1960). Egypt through the new kingdom: Civilization without cities. In C. H. Kraeling & R. M. C. Adams (Eds.), City invincible (pp. 124–164). Chicago: Chicago University Press.Google Scholar
  133. Winter, M. (1974). Residential patterns at Monte Albán, Oaxaca, Mexico. Science, 186(4168), 981–987.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Winter, M. (1984). Exchange in Formative Highland Oaxaca. In K. G. Hirth (Ed.), Trade and exchange in early Mesoamerica (pp. 179–214). Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.Google Scholar
  135. Winter, M. (1989). Oaxaca. The archaeological record. México: Minutiae Mexicana.Google Scholar
  136. Winter, M. (1994). El Proyecto Especial Monte Albán 1992–1994: Antecedentes, intervenciones y perspectivas. In M. Winter (Ed.), Monte Albán: Estudios Recientes (pp. 1–24). Oaxaca: Proyecto Especial Monte Albán 1992–1994.Google Scholar
  137. Winter, M. (2001). Palacios, templos y 1300 años de vida urbana en Monte Albán. In A. Ciudad Ruiz, M. J. Iglesias Ponce de León, & M. C. Martínez Martínez (Eds.), Reconstruyendo la ciudad Maya: El urbanismo en las sociedades antiguas (pp. 253–301). Madrid: Sociedad Española de Estudios Mayas.Google Scholar
  138. Winter, M. (2004). Monte Albán: su organización e impacto político. In N. M. Robles García (Ed.), Estructuras políticas en el Oaxaca antiguo. Memoria de la Tercera Mesa Redonda de Monte Albán (pp. 27–59). Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia: México.Google Scholar
  139. Winter, M. (2006). La fundación de Monte Albán y los orígenes del urbanismo temprano en los altos de Oaxaca. In M. J. Iglesias Ponce de León, R. Valencia Rivera, & A. Ciudad Ruiz (Eds.), Nuevas ciudades, nuevas patrias. Fundación y relocalización de ciudades en Mesoamérica y el Mediterráneo antiguo (pp. 209–239). Madrid: Sociedad Española de Estudios Mayas.Google Scholar
  140. Yoffee, N. (2005). Myths of the archaic state. Evolution of the earliest cities, states, and civilizations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Yoffee, N. (Ed.). (2015). Early cities in comparative perspective (4000 BCE–1200 CE), The Cambridge World History, 3. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.CONICET (Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas)Instituto Multidisciplinario de Historia y Ciencias HumanasBuenos AiresArgentina
  2. 2.Universidad de Buenos Aires, Facultad de Filosofía y LetrasInstituto de Historia Antigua Oriental “Dr. Abraham Rosenvasser”Buenos AiresArgentina

Personalised recommendations