Advertisement

Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory

, Volume 21, Issue 2, pp 364–384 | Cite as

Modeling Mechanisms of Cultural Diversity and Ethnicity in Hunter–Gatherers

  • F. del CastilloEmail author
  • J. A. Barceló
  • L. Mameli
  • F. Miguel
  • X. Vila
Article

Abstract

This paper aims to analyze the emergence of ethnicity and cultural differentiation in hunter–gatherer groups, using computer simulation methods. The existence of differences and similarities between populations has long been a major topic of investigation for archaeologists, who have traditionally used material culture as a means to identify different human groups. Today, this approach is perceived as being too simplistic. However, in the absence of satisfactory models, it often continues to be assumed as valid. In this paper, we present a preliminary model and its computer implementation to predict how hunter–gatherer societies interacted and built cultural identities as a consequence of the way they interacted. Our starting point for such analysis assumes the definition of ethnicity as the production and reproduction of group identity among members of a community, resulting from restricted cooperation flows. Results are compared with ongoing ethnoarchaeological research of Patagonian hunter–gatherers.

Keywords

Ethnicity Social simulation Hunter–gatherers Patagonia 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Special thanks are due to J.A. Cuesta (Universidad Carlos III-Madrid) and J.M. Galán and J. I. Santos (Universidad de Burgos) for their important contribution in designing parts of the algorithm and its computer implementation. This research has been funded by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation, through grant no. HAR2012-31036 awarded to J.A. Barceló and Project CSD2010-00034 «Social and environmental transitions: simulating the past to understand human behavior (SimulPast)» (CONSOLIDER-INGENIO 2010 program by Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation, see: http://www.simulpast.es). Vilà acknowledges financial support from grant ECO2008-04756 (Grupo Consolidado-C) from the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation and from grant SGR2009-0578 of the Generalitat de Catalunya. F. J. Miguel Quesada also acknowledges the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation financial support from grant no. CSO2012-31401 (R+D+i project). We acknowledge suggestions made by reviewers and these volume editors. In any case, authors are responsible for any mistakes or misunderstandings that may remain in the text.

References

  1. Ball, P. (2007). Social Science Goes Virtual. Nature, Vol 448/9 August.Google Scholar
  2. Barceló, J. A., Del Castillo, F., Mameli, L., Moreno, E., & Videla, B. (2009). Where does the south begin? Social variability at the southern top of the world. Arctic Anthropology, 45(2), 46–71.Google Scholar
  3. Barceló, J. A., Del Castillo, F., Mameli, L., Moreno, E., & Saez, A. (2011). Patagonia: Del Presente Etnográfico al Pasado Arqueológico. Revista de Arqueología Iberoamericana, 9(1), 6–39.Google Scholar
  4. Barth, F. (1969). Ethnic groups and boundaries: the social organization of cultural difference. Londres: Allen and Unwin.Google Scholar
  5. Bellón Ruiz, J. P., & García Fernández, F. J. (2009). Pueblos, culturas e identidades étnicas en la investigación protohistórica de Andalucía (I). In F. Wulff & M. Álvarez (Eds.), Identidades, culturas y territorios en la Andalucía prerromana (pp. 51–74). Málaga: Universidad de Málaga.Google Scholar
  6. Binford, L. (2001). Constructing frames of reference. An analytical method for archaeological theory building using ethnographic and environmental data sets. Berkley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  7. Boero, R. & F. Squazzoni (2005). Does empirical embeddedness matter? Methodological issues on agent-based models for analytical social science. Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, 8(4).Google Scholar
  8. Borgerhoff-Mulder, M., Nunn, C. L., & Towner, M. C. (2006). Cultural macroevolution and the transmission of traits. Evolutionary Anthropology, 15, 52–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Boschín, M. T. (2001). Original peoples. Archaeology of northern Patagonia. In M. T. Boschín & R. Casamiquela (Eds.), Patagonia, 13,000 years of history. Leleque Museum (pp. 63–84). Buenos Aires: Emecé Editores.Google Scholar
  10. Casella, E. C., & Fowler, C. (2005). The archaeology of plural and changing identities: beyond identification. USA: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cohen, R. (1978). Ethnicity: problem and focus in anthropology. Annual Review of Anthropology, 7, 379–403.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Comaroff, J., & Comaroff, J. (1992). Ethnography and the historical imagination. Westview: Boulder.Google Scholar
  13. Conte, R. (2009). From simulation to theory (and backward). In F. Squazzoni (Ed.), Epistemological Aspects of Computer Simulation in the Social Sciences (pp. 29–47). Berlin: Springer. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-01109-2_3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cook, R. A., & Szumal, J. L. (1993). Measuring normative beliefs and shared behavioral expectations in organizations: the reliability and validity of the organizational culture inventory. Psychological Reports, 72, 1299–1330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dawkins, R. (1976). The selfish gene. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  16. Del Castillo, F., Mameli, L., & Barceló, J. A. (2011). La arqueología patagónica y la reconstrucción de la historia indígena. Revista Española de Antropología Americana, 41(1), 27–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Demoule, J. P. (1999). Ethnicity, culture and identity: French archaeologists and historians. Theory in French Archaeology. Antiquity, 73(279), 190–198.Google Scholar
  18. Dietler, M. (1994). Our ancestors the gauls: archaeology, ethnic nationalism, and the manipulation of Celtic identity in modern Europe. American Anthropologist, 96(3), 584–605.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Eerkens, J., & Lipo, C. (2005). Cultural transmission, copying errors, and the generation of variation in material culture and the archaeological record. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 24(4), 316–334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Emberling, G. (1997). Ethnicity in complex societies: archaeological perspectives. Journal of Archaeological Research, 5(4), 295–344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Epstein, J. (2005). Remarks on the Foundations of Agent-Based Generative Social Science. CSED Working Paper 41, USA: Brookings Institute.Google Scholar
  22. Epstein, J. (2006). Generative social science. Studies in agent-based computational modeling. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  23. Epstein, J. (2008). Why model? Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, 11(4), 12.Google Scholar
  24. Escalada, F. A. (1949). El complejo Tehuelche. Estudios de Etnografía Patagónica. Buenos Aires: Coni.Google Scholar
  25. Fernández Götz, M. A. (2008). La construcción arqueológica de la etnicidad. Serie Keltia, 42. Noia: Editorial Toxosoutos.Google Scholar
  26. Fried, M. H. (1967). The evolution of political society an essay in political anthropology. New York: Random House studies in anthropology, AS 7.Google Scholar
  27. García, F. J., & Bellón, J. P. (2009). Pueblos, culturas e identidades étnicas en la investigación protohistórica de Andalucía (ii): de la posguerra al cambio de siglo. In F. Wulff & M. Álvarez (Eds.), Identidades, culturas y territorios en la Andalucía prerromana (pp. 75–132). Málaga: Universidad de Málaga.Google Scholar
  28. Gassiot, E., & Estévez, J. (2004). El cambio en sociedades cazadoras litorales: tres casos comparativos. Revista Atlántica-Mediterránea de Prehistoria y Arqueología Social, 5, 43–85.Google Scholar
  29. González-José, R. (2003). El Poblamiento de la Patagonia. Análisis de la variación craneofacial en el contexto del poblamiento americano. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Barcelona, Barcelona.Google Scholar
  30. Grimm, V., & Railsback, S. F. (2005). Individual-based modeling and ecology. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  31. Grüner-Yanoff, T. (2009). The explanatory potential of artificial societies. Synthese, 169, 539–555.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hall, S. (1997). Representation: cultural representations and signifying practices. London: SAGE Publications Ltd.Google Scholar
  33. Hirschman, C. A. (2004). The origins and demise of the concept of race. Population and Development Review, 30, 385–415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hudson, B. (2006). The Origins of Bagan: The Archaeological Landscape of Upper Burma to AD 1300. http://ses.library.usyd.edu.au/handle/2123/638 . Accessed 10 June 2011.
  35. Hutchinson, J., & Smith, A. (Eds.). (1996). Ethnicity. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  36. Jones, S. (1997). The archaeology of ethnicity: constructing identities in the past and present. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  37. Lalueza Fox, C., Hernández, M., & García Moro, C. (1996). Craniometric analysis in groups from Tierra del Fuego/Patagonia and the peopling of the south extreme of the Americas. Human Evolution, 11, 217–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Lucy, S. (2005). Ethnic and cultural identities. In M. Díaz-Andreu et al. (Eds.), The archaeology of identity: approaches to gender, age, status, ethnicity and religion (pp. 86–109). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  39. Lyman, R. L., & O’Brien, M. J. (2003). Cultural traits: units of analysis in early twentieth-century anthropology. Journal of Anthropological Research, 59, 225–250.Google Scholar
  40. Mace, R., & Pagel, M. (1994). The comparative method in anthropology. Current Anthropology, 35(5), 549–564.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Mameli, L. (2003). Gestión del recurso avifaunístico por las poblaciones canoeras del archipiélago fueguino. Ph.D. dissertation, Autonomous Universtiy of Barcelona, Barcelona.Google Scholar
  42. Martinic, M., 1995, Los Aónikenk, Historia y Cultura. Punta Arenas (Chile). Ediciones de la Universidad de Magallanes.Google Scholar
  43. Meskell, L. (2002). The intersections of identity and politics in archaeology. Annual Reviews in Anthropology, 31, 279–301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Milke, W. (1949). The quantitative distribution of cultural similarities and their cartographic representation. American Anthropologist, 51, 237–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Murdock, G. P. (1957). World ethnographic sample. American Anthropologist, 59, 664–687.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Nacuzzi, L. R. (1998). Identidades impuestas. Tehuelches, Auca y Pampas en el Norte de la Patagonia. Buenos Aires: SAA.Google Scholar
  47. Naroll, R. (1964). On ethnic unit classification. Current Anthropology, 5 (4).Google Scholar
  48. Norval, A. (1999). Rethinking ethnicity: identification, hybridity and democracy. In P. Yeros (Ed.), Ethnicity and nationalism in Africa. Constructivist reflections and contemporary politics (pp. 81–100). Nueva York: St. Martin’s.Google Scholar
  49. O’Brien, M. J., Lyman, R. L., Mesoudi, A., & VanPool, T. L. (2010). Cultural traits as units of analysis. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 365, 3797–3806.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Pérez, I., Bernal, V., & González, P. (2007). Morphological differentiation of aboriginal human populations from Tierra del Fuego (Patagonia): implications for South American peopling. American Journal of Physical Anthorpology, 133(4), 1067–1079.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Pocklington, R., & Best, M. L. (1997). Cultural evolution and units of selection in replicating text. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 188, 79–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Prates, L. (2006). Arqueología del valle medio del Río Negro (Provincia de Río Negro. Ph.D. dissertation, National University of La Plata, Argentina.Google Scholar
  53. Ragin, C. (2000). Fuzzy-set social science. Harvester Wheatsheaf: Hempstead.Google Scholar
  54. Railsback, S. F. (2001). Concepts from complex adaptive systems as a framework for individual-based modelling. Ecological Modelling, 139, 47–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Schelling, T. (1978). Micromotives and macrobehavior. London: Norton.Google Scholar
  56. Shennan, S. J. (Ed.). (1989). Archaeological approaches to cultural identity. London: Unwin Hyman.Google Scholar
  57. Smith, F., & Crano, W. (1977). Cultural dimensions reconsidered: global and regional analyses of the ethnographic Atlas. American Anthropologist, 79(2), 364–387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Vezub, J. (2005). Valentín Saygüeque y la ‘Gobernación Indígena de las Manzanas’. Poder y etnicidad en Patagonia noroccidental (1860-1881). Ph.D. dissertation, National University of the Center of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina.Google Scholar
  59. Vezub, J. (2006). Lenguas, territorialidad y etnicidad en la correspondencia de Valentín Saygüeque hacia 1880. Intersecciones en Antropología, 7, 24–28.Google Scholar
  60. Viega Barros, J. P. (2005). Voces en el viento. Raíces lingüísticas de la Patagonia. Buenos Aires: Mondragón.Google Scholar
  61. Watkins, T. (2008). Supra-regional networks in the Neolithic of Southwest Asia. Journal of World Prehistory, 21(2), 139–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Weber, M. (1909-1979). Economía y sociedad. México: Fondo de Cultura Económica.Google Scholar
  63. Windrum, P., Fagiolo, G. & Moneta, A., (2007). Empirical Validation of Agent-Based Models: Alternatives and Prospects. Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation 10(2)8 <http://jasss.soc.surrey.ac.uk/10/2/8.html>.
  64. Wolf, E. R. (1982). Europe and the people without history. Los Angeles: UCLA Press.Google Scholar
  65. Yeros, P. (1999). Introduction: on the uses and implications of constructivism. In P. Yeros (Ed.), Ethnicity and Nationalism in Africa. Constructivist Reflections and Contemporary Politics (pp. 7–38). New York: St. Martin’s.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • F. del Castillo
    • 1
    Email author
  • J. A. Barceló
    • 1
  • L. Mameli
    • 2
  • F. Miguel
    • 3
  • X. Vila
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of PrehistoryUniversitat Autònoma de BarcelonaCerdanyola del VallèsSpain
  2. 2.Department of PhysicsUniversity of GironaGironaSpain
  3. 3.Department of SociologyUniversitat Autònoma de BarcelonaCerdanyola del VallèsSpain
  4. 4.Faculty of EconomicsUniversitat Autònoma de BarcelonaCerdanyola del VallèsSpain

Personalised recommendations