Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory

, Volume 21, Issue 4, pp 750–780

Colonialism, Dining, and Changing Strategies of Power: the Example of Iron Age and Roman Mediterranean France at Lattara (ca 150 bcad 50)

Article

Abstract

The establishment of colonial rule by one society over another, both in ancient and modern examples, often has dramatic consequences for the establishment and maintenance of political relationships within the context of everyday life in colonial society. In this article, I examine the ways in which the performative acts of dining can play an integral role in this reconstruction of political relationships that is so often implicit in colonial encounters and state expansion. In particular, I suggest that an analysis of the ceramic evidence of vessels used in dining and the frequency of specific forms in the overall assemblages can help to reveal the ways in which the politics of commensality play an active role in transforming political relationships and strategies of power in colonial societies. This article uses the example of ancient Mediterranean France after the Roman conquest in the late second century bc at the Celtic-speaking settlement of Lattara (modern Lattes). I argue that by the end of the first century bc, coinciding with a time period when the political structure of the region was being significantly reorganized, there was a notable change in dining practices, with a move away from a more communal ethos in dining to one emphasizing the individual. These new practices served the strategic interests of individuals in local society at Lattara seeking to break with earlier political systems and integrate themselves into larger colonial society.

Keywords

Dining Colonialism Ceramic assemblages Iron Age/Roman Mediterranean France 

Reference

Ancient Sources

  1. Appianus. (1913). Appian’s Roman History. Trans. W. Heinemann. New York: The Macmillan Co.Google Scholar
  2. Cicero. (1953). Cicero: Pro Milone: In Pisonem: Pro Scauro: Pro Fonteio: Pro Rabirio Postumo: Pro Marcello: Pro Ligario: Pro Rege Deiotaro. Trans. N. H. Watts. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Florus. (1995). Florus: epitome of Roman history. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Trans. E. S. Forster.Google Scholar
  4. Livy. (1959). Livy, 14 vols. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Trans. A. C. Schlesinger.Google Scholar
  5. Pliny the Elder. (1940). Pliny: natural history, 10 vols. Trans. H. Rackham. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  6. Strabo. (1924). The geography of Strabo. 8 vols. Trans. H. J. Jones. New York: Putnam’s Sons.Google Scholar
  7. Tierney, J. (1960). The Celtic ethnography of Posidonius. Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, 60, 189–275.Google Scholar
  8. Paterculus, V. (1961). Velleius Paterculus, Compendium of Roman History; Res Gestae Divi Augusti. Trans. F. W. Shipley. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar

Modern Sources

  1. Appadurai, A. (1981). Gastropolitics in Hindu South Asia. American Ethnologist, 8, 494–511.Google Scholar
  2. Aranda, G., & Esquivel, J. (2007). Poder y prestigio en las sociedades de la cultura de El Argar. El consumo communal de bovidos y ovicapridos en los rituals de enterramiento. Trabajos de Prehistoria, 64(2), 95–118.Google Scholar
  3. Arcelin, P. (1991). Céramiques campaniennes et dérivées régionales tardive de Glanum (Saint-Rémy-de-Provence, B.-du-Rh.): Question culturelles et chronologiques. Documents d‟archéologie meridionale, 14, 205–238.Google Scholar
  4. Arcelin, P. (1999). L’habitat dans l’image sociale des Gaulois du Midi: La question des résidences aristocratiques. In F. Braemer, S. Cleuziou, & A. Coudart (Eds.), Habitat et société (pp 481–498). XIXe Rencontres Internationales d’Archéologie et d’Histoire d’Antibes. Antibes: APDCA.Google Scholar
  5. Arcelin, P., & Gruat, P. (2003). La France du Sud-Est (Languedoc-Roussillon, Midi-Pyrénées, Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur). Gallia, 60, 1–268.Google Scholar
  6. Arnold, B. (1999). “Drinking the Feast”: alcohol and the legitimation of power in Celtic Europe. Cambridge Archaeological Journal, 9(1), 71–93.Google Scholar
  7. Bats, M. (1988). Vaiselle et alimentation à Olbia de Provence (v. 350-v. 50 av. J.-C.): modèles culturels et catégories céramiques. Paris: Editions du CNRS.Google Scholar
  8. Bats, M., G. Bertucchi, G. Congès, and H. Treziny (Eds.). (1992). Marseille grecque et la Gaule: actes du Colloque dhistoire et darchéologie et du Ve Congrès archéologique de Gaule méridionale (Marseille, 1823 novembre 1990). Aix-en-Provence: Université de Provence.Google Scholar
  9. Bel, V., & Daveau, I. (2008). L’occupation du territoire autour de Lattara: Quelques aspects mis en lumière par les fouilles récentes. Gallia, 65, 23–44.Google Scholar
  10. Bel, V., & Chardenon, N. (2010). La Céreirède, tombe aristocratique du début du Ier siècle avant notre ère. In L. Pernet & M. Py (Eds.), Les objets racontent Lattara (pp. 60–61). Paris: Éditions Errance.Google Scholar
  11. Bel, V., S. Barberan, N. Chardenon, V. Forest, and I. Robert-Blarbi. (2008). Les pratiques funéraires. In V. Bel et al. (eds.). Tombes et Espaces funéraires de la fin de lAge du Fer et du début de lEpoque romaine à Nîmes. (pp. 179–183) Lattes: Monographies d’archéologie mediterranéene 24.Google Scholar
  12. Belarte, M. C. (2009). Colonial contacts and protohistoric indigenous urbanism on the Mediterranean Coast of the Iberian Peninsula. In M. Dietler & C. Lopez-Ruiz (Eds.), Colonial encounters in Ancient Iberia: Phoenician, Greek, and indigenous relations (pp. 91–112). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  13. Bémont, C. (1996). Vases à parois fines gallo-romains. Dossiers d’archéologie, 215, 38–45.Google Scholar
  14. Biel, J. (1987). A Celtic grave in Hochdorf, Germany. Archaeology, 40(6), 22–29.Google Scholar
  15. Bohannan, P. (1959). The impact of money on an African subsistence economy. Journal of Economic History, 19, 491–503.Google Scholar
  16. Bradley, K. (1998). The Roman family at dinner. In I. Nielsen & H. S. Nielsen (Eds.), Meals in a social context: aspects of the communal meal in the Hellenistic and Roman world (pp. 36–55). Aarhus: Aarhus University Press.Google Scholar
  17. Bray, T. L. (Ed.). (2003a). The archaeology and politics of food and feasting in early states and empires. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum.Google Scholar
  18. Bray, T. L. (2003b). To dine splendidly: imperial pottery, commensal politics, and the Inca State. In T. L. Bray (Ed.), The archaeology and politics of food and feasting in early states and empires (pp. 93–142). New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum.Google Scholar
  19. Brun, J.-P. (2003). Le vin et l’huile dans la Méditerranée antique: Viticulture, oléiculture et procédés de fabrication. Paris: Editions Errance.Google Scholar
  20. Carozza, L. (2000). A la source du premier Âge du Fer languedocien. In T. Janin (Ed.), Mailhac et le Premier Âge du Fer en Europe occidentale (pp. 9–23). Monographies d’archéologie méditerranéene 7. Lattes: CNRS.Google Scholar
  21. Carroll, M. (2005). Portraying opulence at the table in Roman Gaul and Germany. In M. Carroll, D. M. Hadley, & H. Wilmott (Eds.), Consuming passions: dining from antiquity to the eighteenth century (pp. 23–38). Gloucestershire: Tempus.Google Scholar
  22. Christol, M., & Goudineau, C. (1987). Nîmes et les Volques Arécomiques au Ier siècle avant J.-C. Gallia, 45, 87–103.Google Scholar
  23. Clark, J., & Blake, M. (1994). The power of prestige: competitive generosity and the emergence of rank societies in lowland Mesoamerica. In E. Brumfiel & J. Fox (Eds.), Factional competition and political development in the new world (pp. 17–30). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  24. Comaroff, J., & Comaroff, J. (1991). Of revelation and revolution. Vol 1: Christianity, colonialism, and consciousness in South Africa. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  25. Conterio, M. (2009). Le verre. In J.-L. Fiches (Ed.), Une maison des Ier-IIe siècles dans l’agglomération routière d’Ambrussum (Villetelle, Hérault: fouille de la zone 9 (1995–1999). Monographies d’archéologie méditerranéenne, 26 (pp. 101–143). Lattes: Ed. de l’Association pour le Développement de l’Archéologie en Languedoc-Roussillon.Google Scholar
  26. Cook, A., & Glowacki, M. (2003). Pots, politics, and power: Huari ceramic assemblages and imperial administration. In T. L. Bray (Ed.), The archaeology and politics of food and feasting in early states and empires (pp. 173–202). New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum.Google Scholar
  27. Coulon, G. (2006). Les Gallo-Romains: Vivre, travailler, croire, se distraire, 51 av. J.-C. – 486 apr. J.-C. Paris: Éditions Errance.Google Scholar
  28. D’Altroy, T. (1987). Transitions in power: centralization of Wanka political organization under Inka Rule. Ethnohistory, 34, 78–101.Google Scholar
  29. D’Altroy, T. (2005). Remaking the social landscape: colonization in the Inka Empire. In G. Stein (Ed.), The archaeology of colonial encounters: comparative perspectives (pp. 263–296). Santa Fe: School of American Research Advanced Seminar Series.Google Scholar
  30. de Chazelles, C.-A. (1990). Histoire de l’îlot 3. Stratigraphie, architecture et aménagements (IIIe s. av. n. è.). Lattara, 3, 113–150.Google Scholar
  31. de Chazelles, C.-A. (1999). Les maisons de l’Âge du Fer en Gaule méridionale, témoins de différentes identités culturelle et reflets d’une certain disparité sociale. In F. Braemer, S. Cleuziou, & A. Coudart (Eds.), Habitat et société. XIXe Rencontres Internationales d’Archéologie et d’Histoire d’Antibes (pp. 481–498). Antibes: APDCA.Google Scholar
  32. Dedet, B. (1999). La maison de l’oppidum languedocien durant la protohistoire. Gallia, 56, 313–355.Google Scholar
  33. Deetz, J. (1996). In small things forgotten: an archaeology of early American life. New York: Anchor Books.Google Scholar
  34. Dentzer, J.-M. (1982). Le motif du banquet couché dans le Proche-Orient et dans le monde grec du VIIIe au IV sièce avant J.-C. Bibliothèque des Écoles Françaises d’Athènes et de Rome, 246. Paris: Boccard.Google Scholar
  35. Dietler, M. (1989). Greeks, Etruscans, and thirsty Barbarians: early Iron Age interaction in the Rhône Basin of France. In T. Champion (Ed.), Centre and periphery: comparative studies in archaeology (pp. 127–141). London: Unwin Hyman.Google Scholar
  36. Dietler, M. (1990). Driven by drink: the role of drinking in the political economy and the case of Early Iron Age France. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 9, 352–406.Google Scholar
  37. Dietler, M. (1997). The Iron Age in Mediterranean France: colonial encounters, entanglements, and transformations. Journal of World Prehistory, 11(3), 269–358.Google Scholar
  38. Dietler, M. (1999). Rituals of commensality and the politics of state formation in the “princely” societies of early Iron Age Europe. In P. Ruby (Ed.), Les princes de la protohistoire et l’émergence de l’état (pp. 135–152). Naples: Centre Jean Bérard.Google Scholar
  39. Dietler, M. (2001). Theorizing the feast: rituals of consumption, commensal politics, and power in African contexts. In M. Dietler & B. Hayden (Eds.), Feasts: archaeological and ethnographic perspectives on food, politics, and power (pp. 65–114). Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institute.Google Scholar
  40. Dietler, M. (2010). Archaeologies of colonialism: consumption, entanglement, and violence in ancient Mediterranean France. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  41. Dietler, M., & Hayden, B. (Eds.). (2001a). Feasts: archaeological and ethnographic perspectives on food, politics, and power. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press.Google Scholar
  42. Dietler, M., & Hayden, B. (2001b). Digesting the feast—good to eat, good to drink, good to think: an introduction. In Feasts: archaeological and ethnographic perspectives on food, politics, and power (pp. 1–20). Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press.Google Scholar
  43. Dietler, D., & López-Ruiz, C. (Eds.). (2009). Colonial encounters in ancient Iberia: Phoenician, Greek, and indigenous relations. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  44. Dietler, M., Kohn, A., Moya, A., Garra, I., & Rivalan, A. (2008). Les maisons à cour des IIIe-IIe s. av. n. è. à Lattes: émergence d’une différentiation dans l’habitat indigène. Gallia, 65, 111–122.Google Scholar
  45. Douglas, M. (1984). Standard social uses of food: introduction. In M. Douglas (Ed.), Food in the social order: studies of food and festivities in three American communities (pp. 1–39). New York: Russel Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  46. Dunbabin, K. (1998). Ut Graeco More Biberteur: Greeks and Romans on the dining couch. In I. Nielsen & H. S. Nielsen (Eds.), Meals in a social context: aspects of the communal meal in the Hellenistic and Roman world (pp. 81–101). Aarhus: Aarhus University Press.Google Scholar
  47. Dunbabin, K. (2003). The Roman banquet. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  48. Ebel, C. (1998). Southern Gaul in the Triumval period: a critical stage of Romanization. American Journal of Philology, 109(4), 572–590.Google Scholar
  49. Faas, P. (1994). Around the Roman table: food and feasting in ancient Rome. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Trans. S. Whiteside.Google Scholar
  50. Feugère, M. (2010). Guéridons tripodes. In L. Pernet & M. Py (Eds.), Les objets racontent Lattara. Paris: Editions Errance.Google Scholar
  51. Fiches, J.-L. (1994). Les céramiques d’époque romaine (Ier s. avant–IIe s. de notre ère). Lattara, 7, 333–372.Google Scholar
  52. Fiches, J.-L. (2009). Une maison des Ier-IIe siècles dans l’agglomération routière d’Ambrussum (Villetelle, Hérault: fouille de la zone 9 (1995–1999). Monographies d'archéologie méditerranéenne, 26. Lattes: Ed. de l'Association pour le Développement de l'Archéologie en Languedoc-Roussillon.Google Scholar
  53. Gailledrat, E., & Gardeisen, A. (2008). Assemblages originaux d’équidés du IIIe s. av. n. ère sur le site de Pech Maho (Sigean, Aude). In A. Gardeisen, E. Furet, & N. Boulbes (Eds.), Histoire d’équidés: des textes, des images et des os. Monographies d’Archéologie Méditerranéenne, Hors série-4 (pp. 105–123). Lattes: ADAL.Google Scholar
  54. Garcia, D. (1996). Dynamique de développement de la ville de Lattara: Implantation, urbanisme et métrologie (VIe s. av. n. è.-IIe s. de n. è.). Lattara, 9, 7–22.Google Scholar
  55. Garcia, D. (2004). La Celtique mediterranéenne: Habitats et sociétés en Languedoc et en Provence VIIIe-IIe siècles av. J.-C. Paris: Editions Errance.Google Scholar
  56. Gardeisen, A. (1999). Découpe et consommation de viande au début du IVe siècle avant notre ère: Quelques éléments de boucherie gauloise. Lattara, 12, 569–588.Google Scholar
  57. Garmy, P., & Monteil, M. (2000). Le quartier antique des Bénédictins à Nîmes (Gard): Découvertes anciennes et fouilles 1966–1992. Documents d’archéologie française vol. 81. Paris: Éditions de la Maison des sciences de l’Homme.Google Scholar
  58. Garnsey, P. (1999). Food and society in classical antiquity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  59. Geschire, P. (1982). Village communities and the state: changing relations among the Maka of Southeastern Cameroon since the colonial conquest. London: Kegan Paul. Trans. J. Ravell.Google Scholar
  60. Giacosa, I. G. (1992). A taste of ancient Rome. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. trans. A. Herklotz.Google Scholar
  61. Gold, B., & Donahue, J. (Eds.). (2005). Roman dining: a special issue of the American Journal of Philology, vol. 124. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  62. Goldstein, P. S. (2003). From stew-eaters to maize-drinkers: the Chicha economy and the Tiwanaku expansion. In T. L. Bray (Ed.), The archaeology and politics of food and feasting in early states and empires (pp. 143–172). New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum.Google Scholar
  63. Goody, J. (1982). Cooking, cuisine, and class: a study in comparative sociology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  64. Grimstead, N., & Bayham, F. (2010). Evolutionary ecology, elite feasting, and the Hohokam: a case study from a southern Arizona platform mound. American Antiquity, 75(4), 841–864.Google Scholar
  65. Gros, P. (2008). Gallia Narbonensis: Eine römische Provinz in Südfrankreich. Mainz am Rhein: Verlag Philipp von Zabern.Google Scholar
  66. Hastorf, C. (2008). Food and feasting, social and political aspects. In D. Pearsall (Ed.), Encyclopedia of archaeology (pp. 1386–1395). Orlando: Academic.Google Scholar
  67. Hayden, B. (2001). Fabulous feasts: a prolegomenon to the importance of feasting. In M. Dietler & B. Hayden (Eds.), Feasts: archaeological and ethnographic perspectives on food, politics, and power (pp. 23–64). Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institute.Google Scholar
  68. Hayden, B., & Villeneuve, S. (2011). A century of feasting studies. Annual Review of Anthropology, 40, 433–449.Google Scholar
  69. Hayes, J. W. (1997). Handbook of Mediterranean pottery. London: British Museum Press.Google Scholar
  70. Janin, T. (Ed.). (2000). Mailhac et le Premier Âge du Fer en Europe occidentale. Monographies d’archéologie méditerranéene 7. Lattes: CNRS.Google Scholar
  71. Joffroy, R. (1979). Vix et ses trésors. Paris: Librairie Jules Tallandier.Google Scholar
  72. Junker, L., Mudar, K., & Schwaller, M. (1994). Social stratification, household wealth, and competitive feasting in15th/16th-century Philippine chiefdoms. Research in Economic Anthropology, 15, 307–358.Google Scholar
  73. Leone, M. (2005). The archaeology of liberty in an American capital: excavations in Annapolis. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  74. Lévi-Strauss, C. (1983). The raw and the cooked. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Trans. J. and D. Weightman.Google Scholar
  75. Lightfoot, K. G. (2005). Indians, missionaries, and merchants: the legacy of colonial encounters on the California Frontier. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  76. Luley, B. P. (2011). The material dimensions of colonialism: hegemony and consumption in Roman Southern Gaul. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Chicago.Google Scholar
  77. Maniquet, C. (2008). Le dépôt cultuel du sanctuaire gaulois de Tintignac à Naves. Gallia, 65, 273–326.Google Scholar
  78. Mattingly, D. J. (2010). Imperialism, power, and identity: experiencing the Roman Empire. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  79. Menzel, D. (1959). The Inca occupation of the South Coast of Peru. Southwestern Journal of Anthropology, 15, 125–142.Google Scholar
  80. Michelozzi, A. (1982). L’Habitation protohistorique en Languedoc oriental (p. 10). Caveirac: A.R.A.L.O. No.Google Scholar
  81. Miller, D., Rowlands, M., & Tilley, C. (Eds.). (1989). Domination and resistance. London: Unwin Hyman.Google Scholar
  82. Mohen, J.-P., Duval, A., & Eluère, C. (Eds.). (1987). Trésors des princes celts. Paris: Éditions de la Réunion des musées nationaux.Google Scholar
  83. Murray, O. (1991). War and the symposium. In W. J. Slater (Ed.), Dining in a classical context (pp. 83–103). Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.Google Scholar
  84. Nadeau, R. (2010). Les manières de table dans le monde gréco-romain. Tours: Presses universitaires François-Rabelals.Google Scholar
  85. Nielsen, H. S. (1998). Roman children at mealtimes. In I. Nielsen & H. S. Nielsen (Eds.), Meals in a social context: aspects of the communal meal in the Hellenistic and Roman world (pp. 56–80). Aarhus: Aarhus University Press.Google Scholar
  86. Osterhammel, J. (1997). Colonialism: a theoretical overview. Princeton: Marcus Weiner Publishers.Google Scholar
  87. Pantel-Schmitt, P. S. (1992). La cité au banquet: histoire des repas publics dans les cités grecques. Collection de l’École française de Rome 157. Rome: Palais Farnèse.Google Scholar
  88. Pantel, P. S., & Tchernia, A. (2009). Vin et civilisation. In J.-P. Brun, M. Poux, & A. Tchernia (Eds.), Le Vin: Nectar des dieux, génie des hommes (pp. 42–55). Montpellier: Infolio.Google Scholar
  89. Piqués, G., & Martinez, V. (2008). Nouvelles données sur Lattes romaine. Gallia, 65, 175–184.Google Scholar
  90. Piquès, G., & Luley, B. P. (2011). Recherches sur l’urbanisme récent au coeur de la ville primitive: la zone 75. In P. Garmy & E. Gailledrat (Eds.), Lattara, Lattes (Hérault): Rapport de fouille intermédiaire (pp. 175–204). Lattes: Unité de Fouilles et de Recherches Archéologiques de Lattes.Google Scholar
  91. Potter, J. (2000). Pots, parties, and politics: communal feasting in the American Southwest. American Antiquity, 65(3), 471–492.Google Scholar
  92. Poux, M. (2006). Le sanctuaire arverne de Corent. In C. Goudineau (Ed.), Religion et société en Gaule (pp. 117–134). Paris: Editions Errance.Google Scholar
  93. Py, M. (1981). Recherches sur Nîmes preromaine. Paris: Editions du centre Nationale de la Recherche scientifique.Google Scholar
  94. Py, M. (1990a). Culture, Economie, et Société protohistorique dans la région nimoise (Vol. 2). Palais Farnèse: Ecole Française de Rome.Google Scholar
  95. Py, M. (1990b). La céramique de l’îlot 3. Lattara, 3, 151–190.Google Scholar
  96. Py, M. (1990c). La céramique de l’îlot 4-nord. Lattara, 3, 245–268.Google Scholar
  97. Py, M. (1993a). Les Gaulois du Midi: De la fin de l’Âge du Bronze à la conquête romaine. Paris: Hachette.Google Scholar
  98. Py, M. (ed.). (1993b). Dicocer: Dictionnaire des céramiques antiques (VIIème s. av. n. è.–VIIème s. de n. è.) en Méditerranée nord-occidentale (Provence, Languedoc, Ampurdan). Lattara 6.Google Scholar
  99. Py, M. (1994a). Les céramiques d’époque protohistorique (IVe-IIe s. avant notre ère). Lattara, 7, 205–332.Google Scholar
  100. Py, M. (1994b). Catalogue des petits objets. Lattara, 7, 373–422.Google Scholar
  101. Py, M. (1996). Les maisons protohistoriques de Lattara (IVe-Ier s. av. n. è.): Approche typologique et fonctionnelle. Lattara, 9, 141–258.Google Scholar
  102. Py, M. (2004). Le dossier de fouille du quarter 30–35. Structures, stratigraphies et mobiliers. Lattara, 17, 7–318.Google Scholar
  103. Py, M. (2009). Lattara (Lattes, Hérault): Comptoir gaulois méditerranéen entre Etrusques, Grecs et Romains. Paris: Éditions Errance.Google Scholar
  104. Py, M., & Garcia, D. (1993). Bilan des recherches archéologiques sur la ville portuaire de Lattara (Lattes, Hérault). Gallia, 50, 1–93.Google Scholar
  105. Py, M., & Lopez, J. (1990). Histoire de l’îlot 4-nord. Stratigraphie, architecture et amémagements (IIe s. av. n. è.-Ier s. de. n. è.). Lattara, 3, 211–246.Google Scholar
  106. Rivet, A. L. F. (1988). Gallia Narbonensis: Southern France in Roman times. London: B.T. Batsford Ltd.Google Scholar
  107. Sabrié, M., & Sabrié, R. (Eds.). (2011). La Maison au Grand Triclinium du Clos de la Lombarde à Narbonne. Montagnac: Éditions monique mergoil.Google Scholar
  108. Sabrié, M., Sabrié, R., & Solier, Y. (1987). La Maison à portiques du Clos de la Lombarde à Narbonne et sa décoration murale (Fouilles 1975–1983). Revue Archéologique de Narbonnaise, Supplément n. 16. Paris: Éditions du Centre National de la Recherche scientifique.Google Scholar
  109. Said, E. W. (1993). Culture and imperialism. New York: Vintage Books.Google Scholar
  110. Salmon, E. T. (1969). Roman colonization under the Republic. London: Thames and Hudson.Google Scholar
  111. Sanchez, C. (2009). Narbonne à l’époque tardo-républicaine: Chronologies, commerce et artisanat céramique. Revue Archéologique de Narbonnaise, Supplément n. 38. Montpellier: Éditions de l’Association de la Revue archéologique de Narbonnaise.Google Scholar
  112. Sanchez, C., & Adroher Auroux, A. (2004). La céramique du quartier 30–35. Evolutions, implications historiques et économiques. Lattara, 17, 319–344.Google Scholar
  113. Sanmartí, J. (2009). Colonial relations and social change in Iberia (seventh to third centuries B.C). In M. Dietler & C. López-Ruiz (Eds.), Colonial encounters in Ancient Iberia: Phoenician, Greek, and indigenous relations (pp. 49–88). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  114. Sanmartí, J., & Santacana, J. (2005). Els Ibers del Nord. Barcelona: Rafael Dalmau.Google Scholar
  115. Schucany, C. (2005). Cooking like a native, dining like a Roman: food preparation and consumption in Roman Switzerland. In M. Carroll, D. M. Hadley, & H. Wilmott (Eds.), Consuming passions: dining from antiquity to the eighteenth century (pp. 39–48). Stroud: Tempus.Google Scholar
  116. Scott, J. (1990). Domination and the arts of resistance: hidden transcripts. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  117. Smith, M. E., Wharton, J. B., & Olson, J. M. (2003). Aztec feasts, rituals, and markets: political uses of ceramic vessels in a commercial economy. In T. L. Bray (Ed.), The archaeology and politics of food and feasting in early states and empires (pp. 235–268). New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum.Google Scholar
  118. Sternberg, M. (1994). Histoire de l’îlot 5: Stratigraphie, architecture et aménagements (IIe s. av. n. è. – IIe s. de n. n. è). Lattara, 7, 81–96.Google Scholar
  119. Twiss, K. C. (2007a). The archaeology of food and identity. Carbondale: Center for Archaeological Investigations. Occasional Paper No. 34.Google Scholar
  120. Twiss, K. C. (2007b). Home is where the hearth is: food and identity in the Neolithic Levant. In K. C. Twiss (Ed.), The archaeology of food and identity (pp. 50–68). Carbondale: Center for Archaeological Investigations. Occasional Paper No. 34.Google Scholar
  121. Van der Veen, M. (2007). Food as an instrument of social change: feasting in Iron Age and Early Roman Britain. In K. C. Twiss (Ed.), The archaeology of food and identity (pp. 112–129). Carbondale: Center for Archaeological Investigations.Google Scholar
  122. Vial, J. (2011). Les Volques Arécomiques et le Languedoc Oriental Protohistorique: Etude d’une entité ethno-politique préromaine (IXe-Ier s. av. J.-C.). Monographies d’archéologie méditerranéenne 30. Lattes: UMR 5140 du CNRS.Google Scholar
  123. Whisson, M. (1961). The rise of Asembo and the curse of Kakia. In East African Institute of Social Research Conference Proceedings, no pagination. Kampala: Makarere CollegeGoogle Scholar
  124. Woolf, G. (1995). The formation of Roman provincial cultures. In M. Millet et al. (Eds.), Integration in the early Roman west: the role of culture and ideology. Luxembourg: Musée national d'histoire et d'art.Google Scholar
  125. Young, R. J. C. (2001). Postcolonialism: an historical introduction. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of AnthropologyUniversity of ChicagoChicagoUSA

Personalised recommendations