What Was Brewing in the Natufian? An Archaeological Assessment of Brewing Technology in the Epipaleolithic

Abstract

It has long been speculated that increasing demands for cereals for the purposes of brewing beer led to domestication in the Near Eastern Natufian cultures. While the question of whether cereals were being used in beer production is an important issue, it has remained a difficult proposition to test. We present some new perspectives on traditional brewing techniques relevant to this issue, on archaeological remains, and on the paleoecology of the Near East. Taken together, these observations provide more compelling circumstantial evidence that makes it increasingly likely that brewing of beer was an important aspect of feasting and society in the Late Epipaleolithic.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3

Notes

  1. 1.

    The mashed grain that is left over from the mashing process is enriched with proteins, fiber, ash, and lipids and is thus often used as a cheap feed for local animals (Hornsey 1999:41; Briggs et al. 2004:166). These grains also have the potential to be used for human consumption as well. One 1986 invention patent recognized the nutritional value of the spent grains, but noted that the husks, which can be sharp and difficult to chew, would need to be removed or rendered down to make the cereal acceptable for today’s market (Gannon 1986). Similar patents, such as Bavisotto (1965) and Chaudhary (1982), have also emphasized the potential nutritional and health benefits of cereal reuse. These claims are supported by scientific studies which address the advantages of proteins from brewing spent grains when they are added to other cereal based recipes (Mussatto et al. 2006; Stojcesk et al. 2008). These grains are not limited to barley and other typical western brewing cereals. Grains such as sorghum have also demonstrated nutritional potential and benefits (Adewusi and Ilori 1994). Additionally, the yeast produced in brewing, which is in itself rich with vitamins and proteins, is used in contemporary society to produce nutritional supplements (Moyad 2007:561; Wyrick 1944:3).

  2. 2.

    Kuijt and Finlayson (2009:10966) have interpreted the PPNA granaries at Dhra’ as “being used and owned communally.” However, given their subsequent observation that “many granaries would have been in use simultaneously,” their view of communally owned facilities must be questioned. Such multiple facilities would seem to make more sense as owned by individual corporate, or even household, groups. Ethnographically, it is our impression that communal storage by entire small communities is rare or absent, while there are good examples of corporately owned resources and storage. The obvious PPNA storage facilities at Jerf el Ahmar have also been viewed as communal facilities. However, if these ritual structures were actually the ritual centers of secret societies, as Hayden (2003) has suggested, the stored material would not have been communally owned, but owned by the secret society members, representing one of the first instances of the expropriation of surpluses from resident families by incipient elites. The numerous “small bins” of stone or clay at Jericho and Netiv Hagdud referred to by Kuijt and Finlayson may have been more normal storage facilities for individual households.

References

  1. Adebowale, A. A., Sanni, S. A., Karim, O. R., & Ojoawo, J. A. (2010). Malting characteristics of Ofada rice: chemical and sensory qualities of malt from Ofada rice grains. International Food Research Journal, 17, 83–88.

    Google Scholar 

  2. Adewusi, S. R. A., & Ilori, M. (1994). Nutritional evaluation of spent grains from sorghum malts and maize grit. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, 46, 41–51.

    Google Scholar 

  3. Arthur, J. W. (2003). Brewing beer: status, wealth and ceramic use alteration among the Gamo of South-Western Ethiopia. World Archaeology, 34(3), 516–528.

    Google Scholar 

  4. Autio, K., Simoimen, T., Suortti, T., Salmenkallio-Marttila, M., Lassila, K., & Wilhelmson, A. (2000). Structural and enzymic changes in germinated barley and rye. Journal of the Institute of Brewing, 107(19), 19–257.

    Google Scholar 

  5. Balcerek, M., & Pielech-Przybylska, K. (2009). Effect of supportive enzymes on chemical composition and viscosity of rye mashes obtained by the pressureless liberation of starch method and efficiency of their fermentation. European Food Research Technology, 229, 141–151.

    Google Scholar 

  6. Balter, M. (2007). Seeking agriculture’s ancient roots. Science, 316, 1830–1835.

    Google Scholar 

  7. Bamforth, C. (2003). Beer: tap into the art and science of brewing. Cary: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  8. Barlow, K. R., & Heck, M. (2002). More on acorn eating during the Natufian. In S. Mason & J. Hather (Eds.), Hunter–gatherer archaeology (pp. 128–145). London: Institute of Archaeology, University College London.

    Google Scholar 

  9. Barth, F. (1967). Economic spheres in Darfur. In R. Firth (Ed.), Themes in economic anthropology (pp. 149–174). New York: Tavistock.

    Google Scholar 

  10. Bar-Yosef, O. (1991). The archaeology of the Natufian layer at Hayonim Cave. In O. Bar-Yosef & F. R. Valla (Eds.), The natufian culture in the Levant (pp. 81–92). Ann Arbor: International Monographs in Prehistory.

    Google Scholar 

  11. Bar-Yosef, O. (2002). Natufian: a complex society of foragers. In B. Fitzhugh & J. Habu (Eds.), Beyond foraging and collecting (pp. 91–149). New York: Kluwer.

    Google Scholar 

  12. Beile-Bohn, M., Gerber, C., Morsch, M., & Schmidt, I. (1998). Neolitische forschungen in Obermesopotamien. Gürcütepe und Göbekli Tepe. Istanbuler Mitteilungen, 48, 5–78.

    Google Scholar 

  13. Boas, F. (1921). Ethnology of the Kwakiutl. In Bureau of American ethnology, annual report 35, Pt. 1, 1913–1914 (pp. 43–794). Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution.

  14. Bowles, S. (2011a). Cultivation of cereals by the first farmers was not more productive than foraging. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 108, 4760–4765.

    Google Scholar 

  15. Bowles, S. (2011b). History lesson from the first farmers. New Scientist, 211(2823), 26–27.

    Google Scholar 

  16. Boyd, B. (2006). On ‘sedentism’ in the Later Epipaleolithic (Natufian) Levant. World Archaeology, 38, 164–178.

    Google Scholar 

  17. Boyd, M., & Surette, C. (2010). Northernmost precontact maize in North America. American Antiquity, 75, 117–133.

    Google Scholar 

  18. Bravisotto, V. (1965). Recovery of edible products from spent grains and yeast. Patent Number 3212902.

  19. Braidwood, R. (1953). Symposium: did man once live by bread alone. American Anthropologist, 55, 515–526.

    Google Scholar 

  20. Briggs, D. E., Boulton, C., Brooks, P., & Stevens, R. (2004). Brewing: science and practice. Cambridge: Woodhead.

    Google Scholar 

  21. Briggs, D. E., Stevens, R., Young, T., & Hough, J. (1982). Malting and brewing science vol. 1: malt and sweet wort (2nd ed.). London: Chapman and Hall.

    Google Scholar 

  22. Builth, H. (2002). The archaeology and socioeconomy of the gunditjmara. Ph.D. Dissertation. Archaeology Department, Flinders University of South Australia.

  23. Byrd, B. (1989). The natufian encampment at beidha. Aarhus: Aarhus University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  24. Cauvin, M.-C. (1991). Du natoufien au levant nord? In O. Bar-Yosef & F. R. Valla (Eds.), The natufian culture in the levant (pp. 295–314). Ann Arbor: International Monographs in Prehistory.

    Google Scholar 

  25. Chaudhary, V. (1982). High dietary fiber product. Patent number 4341805.

  26. Colledge, S. (2001). Plant exploitation on epipaleolithic and early Neolithic sites in the Levant, bar international series 986. Oxford: BAR.

    Google Scholar 

  27. Colledge, S., & Conolly, J. (2010). Reassessing the evidence for the cultivation of wild crops during the Younger Dryas at Tell Abu Hureyra, Syria. Environmental Archaeology, 15(2), 124–138.

    Google Scholar 

  28. Crawford, G., Underhill, A., Zhao, Z., Lee, G., Feinman, G., Nicholas, L., Luan, F., Yu, H., Fang, H., & Cai, F. (2005). Late Neolithic plant remains from Northern China. Current Anthropology, 46(2), 309–317.

    Google Scholar 

  29. Cutler, H., & Cardenas, M. (1947). Chicha, a native South American beer. Botanical Museum Leaflets, Harvard University, 13(3), 33–60.

    Google Scholar 

  30. Damania, A. B. (1998). Diversity of major cultivated plants domesticated in the Near East. In A. Damania, J. Valkoun, G. Willcox, & C. Qualset (Eds.), the origins of agriculture and crop domestication—the Harlan symposium (pp. 51–64). Aleppo: ICARDA.

    Google Scholar 

  31. Deur, D. (2002). Plant cultivation on the Northwest Coast. Journal of Cultural Geography, 19, 9–35.

    Google Scholar 

  32. Dietler, M. (1990). Driven by drink: the role of drinking in the political economy and the case of the Early Iron Age in France. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 9, 352–406.

    Google Scholar 

  33. Dietler, M. (2001). Theorizing the feast: rituals of consumption, commensal politics, and power in African contexts. In M. Dietler & B. Hayden (Eds.), Feasts: archaeological and ethnographic perspectives on food, politics, and power (pp. 65–114). Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Books.

    Google Scholar 

  34. Dineley, M. (2004). Barley, malt and ale in the Neolithic, bar international series; 1213. Oxford: Archaeopress.

    Google Scholar 

  35. Djien, K. S. (1982). Indigenous fermented foods. In A. H. Rose (Ed.), Economic microbiology, vol. 7, fermented foods (pp. 15–38). New York: New Academic Press.

    Google Scholar 

  36. Driver, H., & Massey, W. (1957). Comparative studies of North American Indians. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, 47(2), 165–456.

    Google Scholar 

  37. Edwards, P. (1991). Wadi Hammeh 27: an early Natufian site at Pella, Jordan. In O. Bar-Yosef & F. R. Valla (Eds.), The natufian culture in the Levant (pp. 123–148). Ann Arbor: International Monographs in Prehistory.

    Google Scholar 

  38. Fages, P. (trans. H. Priestley). (1937 orig. 1775). A historical, political, and natural description of California. Berkeley: University of California Press.

  39. Fall, P., Falconer, S., & Lines, L. (2002). Agricultural intensification and the secondary products revolution along the Jordan rift. Human Ecology, 30(4), 445–482.

    Google Scholar 

  40. Fay, J., & Benavides, J. (2005). Evidence for domestication and wild populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PLoS Genetics, 1(1), 66–71.

    Google Scholar 

  41. Finlayson, B., & Warren, G. (2010). Changing natures: hunter–gatherers, first farmers and the modern world. London: Duckworth.

    Google Scholar 

  42. Fischer, A., & Kristiansen, K. (2002). The neolithisation of Denmark. Sheffield: J. R. Collis.

    Google Scholar 

  43. Flannery, K. V. (1969). Origins and ecological effects of early domestication in Iran and the Near East. In P. J. Ucko & G. W. Dimbleby (Eds.), The domestication and exploitation of plants and animals (pp. 73–100). Chicago: Aldine Publishing.

    Google Scholar 

  44. Foxhall, L., & Forbes, H. (1982). The role of grain as a staple in classical antiquity. Chiron, 12, 41–90.

    Google Scholar 

  45. Gannon, J. (1986). Methods of making food from spent grains. Patent Number 4632833.

  46. Garrard, A. (1999). Charting the emergence of cereal and pulse domestication in SW Asia. Environmental Archaeology, 4, 67–86.

    Google Scholar 

  47. Garrod, D., & Bate, D. (1937). The stone age of Mount Carmel: excavations at the Wady El-Mughara, vol. 1. Oxford: Clarendon.

    Google Scholar 

  48. Goring-Morris, N., & Belfer-Cohen, A. (2009). Feasting in the Natufian, a critical review of the evidence. Paper presented at the Seminar on the Social Context of Food and Drink, University of Granada.

  49. Gregg, S. (1988). Foragers and farmers: population interaction and agricultural expansion in prehistoric Europe. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

    Google Scholar 

  50. Gremillion, K. (2004). Seed processing and the origins of food production in Eastern North America. American Antiquity, 69, 215–233.

    Google Scholar 

  51. Gurven, M., Borgerhoff Mulder, M., Hooper, P., Kaplan, H., Quinlan, R., Sear, R., Schniter, E., von Rueden, C., Bowles, S., Hertz, T., & Bell, A. (2010). Domestication alone does not lead to inequality: intergenerational wealth transmission among horticulturalists. Current Anthropology, 51(1), 49–64.

    Google Scholar 

  52. Haaland, R. (2007). Porridge and pot, bread and oven: food ways and symbolism in Africa and the Near East from the Neolithic to the present. Cambridge Archaeological Journal, 17, 165–182.

    Google Scholar 

  53. Habu, J. (2004). Ancient Jomon of Japan. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  54. Haggblade, S., & Holzapfel, W. H. (1989). Industrialization of Africa’s indigenous beer brewing. In K. H. Steinkraus (Ed.), Industrialization of indigenous fermented foods (2nd ed., pp. 271–361). New York: Marcel Dekker.

    Google Scholar 

  55. Hardwick, W., van Oevelen, D., Novellie, L., & Yoshizawa, K. (1995). Kinds of beer and beerlike beverages. In W. Hardwick (Ed.), Handbook of brewing (pp. 53–86). New York: Marcel Dekker.

    Google Scholar 

  56. Harlan, J. (1967). A wild wheat harvest in Turkey. Archaeology, 20, 135–177.

    Google Scholar 

  57. Hayashida, F. (2008). Ancient beer and modern brewers: ethnoarchaeological observations of chicha production in two regions of the North Coast of Peru. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 27(2), 161–174.

    Google Scholar 

  58. Hayashida, F. (2009). Chicha histories: prehispanic chicha production in the Andes and the use of ethnographic and historical analogues. In J. Jennings & B. Bowser (Eds.), Drink, power, and society in the Andes (pp. 232–256). Gainesville: University of Florida Press.

    Google Scholar 

  59. Hayden, B. (1998). Practical and prestige technologies. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory, 5, 1–55.

    Google Scholar 

  60. Hayden, B. (1990). Nimrods, piscators, pluckers, and planters: the emergence of food production. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 9, 31–69.

    Google Scholar 

  61. Hayden, B. (2001). Richman, poorman, beggarman, chief: the dynamics of social inequality. In T. D. Price & G. Feinman (Eds.), Archaeology at the millenium: a comprehensive sourcebook (pp. 231–272). New York: Plenum.

    Google Scholar 

  62. Hayden, B. (2003). Shamans, sorcerers, and saints: a prehistory of religion. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Books.

    Google Scholar 

  63. Hayden, B. (2004). Sociopolitical organization in the Natufian: a view from the Northwest. In C. Delage (Ed.), Last hunter–gatherer societies in the near east (pp. 263–308). Oxford: BAR International Series.

    Google Scholar 

  64. Hayden, B. (2009). The proof is in the pudding: feasting and the origins of domestication. Current Anthropology, 50, 597–601.

    Google Scholar 

  65. Hayden, B. (2011a). Rice: the first Asian luxury food? In G. Barker & M. Janowski (Eds.), Why cultivate? (pp. 75–91). Cambridge: MacDonald Institute of Archaeology.

    Google Scholar 

  66. Hayden, B. (2011b). Feasting and social dynamics in the epipaleolithic of the Fertile Crescent. In G. Aranda, S. Monton-Subias, & M. Sanchez (Eds.), Guess who’s coming to dinner: feasting rituals in the prehistoric societies of Europe and the near east (pp. 30–63). Oxford: Oxbow Books.

    Google Scholar 

  67. Hayden, R. (1993). Brewing with rye. Brewing Techniques, 1(3). http://www.brewingtechniques.com/library/backissues/issue1.3/hayden.html

  68. Helmer, D., Roitel, V., Saña, M., & Willcox, G. (1998). Interprétations environnementales des données archéozoologiques et archéobotaniques en Syrie du Nord de 16000 BP à 7000 BP, et les débuts de la domestication des plantes et des animaux. In M. Fortin & O. Aurenche (Eds.), Espace naturel, espace habité en Syrie du Nord (10e-2e millénaires av. J.-C.) (pp. 9–33), Lyon & Québec: Maison de l’Orient Méditerranéen, Canadian Society for Mesopotamian Studies.

  69. Henry, R. J., & Brown, A. (1987). Variation in the carbohydrate composition of wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum) grain. Plant Breeding, 98(2), 97–103.

    Google Scholar 

  70. Hillman, G. (2000). The plant food economy of Abu Hureyra 1: the epipalaeolithic. In A. M. T. Moore, G. C. Hillman, & A. J. Legge (Eds.), Village on the Euphrates: From foraging to farming at Abu Hureyra (pp. 327–398). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  71. Hillman, G., Hedges, R., Moore, A., Colledge, S., & Pettitt, P. (2001). New evidence of late glacial cereal cultivation at Abu Hureyra on the Euphrates. The Holocene, 11, 383–393.

    Google Scholar 

  72. Hoover, R., Smith, C., Zhou, Y., & Ratnayake, R. (2003). Physicochemical properties of Canadian oat starches. Carbohydrate Polymers, 52(3), 253–261.

    Google Scholar 

  73. Hopf, M. (1983). The plants found at Jericho. In K. M. Kenyon & T. A. Holland (Eds.), Excavations at Jericho V: the pottery phases of the tell and other finds (pp. 580–62). London: British School of Archaeology in Jerusalem.

    Google Scholar 

  74. Hornsey, I. (1999). Brewing. Cambridge: Royal Society of Chemistry.

    Google Scholar 

  75. Hornsey, I. (2003). A history of beer and brewing. Cambridge: Royal Society of Chemistry.

    Google Scholar 

  76. Hornsey, I. (2007). The chemistry and biology of winemaking. Cambridge: RSC.

    Google Scholar 

  77. Hough, J. S., Briggs, D., Stevens, R., & Young, T. (1982). Malting and brewing science, vol. 2: hopped wort and beer (2nd ed.). London: Chapman and Hall.

    Google Scholar 

  78. Hulthen, B. (1977). On ceramic technology during the Scanian Neolithic and bronze age. Stockholm: Akademilitteratur.

    Google Scholar 

  79. Iwuoha, C. I., & Eke, O. (1996). Nigerian indigenous fermented foods: their traditional process operation, inherent problems, improvements and current status. Food Research International, 29(5–6), 527–540.

    Google Scholar 

  80. Jain, S. M., Al-Khayri, J. M., & Johnson, D. V. (2011). Date palm biotechnology. New York: Springer.

    Google Scholar 

  81. Janick, J. (2005). The origins of fruits, fruit growing, and fruit breeding. Plant Breeding Reviews, 25, 255–320.

    Google Scholar 

  82. Jennings, J. (2005). La chichera y el patron: chicha and the energetics of feasting in the prehistoric andes. In C. Conlee, D. Ogburn, & K. Vaughn (Eds.), Foundations of power in the prehispanic Andes (pp. 241–259). Washington, D.C.: American Anthropological Association.

    Google Scholar 

  83. Jennings, J., Antrobus, K., Atencio, S., Glavich, E., Johnson, R., Loffler, G., & Luu, C. (2005). Drinking beer in a blissful mood: alcohol production, operational chains, and feasting in the ancient world. Current Anthropology, 46(2), 275–303.

    Google Scholar 

  84. Katz, S., & Maytag, F. (1991). Brewing an ancient beer. Archaeology, 44(4), 24–33.

    Google Scholar 

  85. Katz, S., & Voigt, M. (1986). Bread and beer: the early use of cereals in the human diet. Expedition, 28(2), 23–34.

    Google Scholar 

  86. Kaufman, D., & Ronen, A. (1987). La sépulture Kébarienne géométrique de Névé-David Haifa, Israel. L’Anthropologie, 91, 335–342.

    Google Scholar 

  87. Kavanagh, T. (1994). Archaeological parameters for the beginnings of beer. Brewing Techniques, 2(5). http://www.brewingtechniques.com/library/backissues/issue2.5/kavanagh.html

  88. Keegstra, K., & Walton, J. (2006). β-Glucans—brewers bane, dietician’s delight. Science, 311(5769), 1872–1873.

    Google Scholar 

  89. Kelly, R. (1983). Hunter–gatherer mobility strategies. Journal of Anthropological Research, 39(3), 277–306.

    Google Scholar 

  90. Kelly, R. (1992). Mobility/sedentism: concepts, archaeological measures, and effects. Annual Review of Anthropology, 21, 43–66.

    Google Scholar 

  91. Kelly, R. (1995). The foraging spectrum. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press.

    Google Scholar 

  92. Kerem, Z., Lev-Yadun, S., Gopher, A., Weinberg, P., & Abbo, S. (2007). Chickpea domestication in the Neolithic Levant through the nutritional perspective. Journal of Archaeological Science, 34, 1289–1293.

    Google Scholar 

  93. Kislev, M., Nadel, D., & Carmi, I. (1992). Epipaleolithic (19,000 BP) cereal and fruit diet at Ohalo II, Sea of Galilee, Israel. Review of Paleobotany and Palynology, 73, 161–166.

    Google Scholar 

  94. Kislev, M., Weiss, E., Hartmann, A., & Watson, P. (2004). Impetus for sowing and the beginning of agriculture: ground collecting of wild cereals. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 101(9), 2692–2695.

    Google Scholar 

  95. Kitamoto, K. (2002). Molecular biology of the koji molds in advances. Applied Microbiology, 51, 129–153.

    Google Scholar 

  96. Klein, M. (1997). The transition from soapstone bowls to Marcey Creek ceramics in the Middle Atlantic region: vessel technology, ethnographic data, and regional exchange. Archaeology of Eastern North America, 25, 143–158.

    Google Scholar 

  97. Kodama, K., & Yoshizawa, K. (1977). Sake. In A. H. Rose (Ed.), Economic microbiology (pp. 432–475). New York: Academic.

    Google Scholar 

  98. Koufopanou, V., Hughes, J., Bell, G., & Burt, A. (2006). The spatial scale of genetic differentiation in a model organism: the wild yeast Saccharomyces paradoxus. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 361(1475), 1941–1946.

    Google Scholar 

  99. Kuijt, I. (2004). Pre-Pottery Neolithic A and Late Natufian at ’Iraq ed-Dubb, Jordan. Journal of Field Archaeology, 29(3–4), 291–308.

    Google Scholar 

  100. Kuijt, I. (2008). The regeneration of life: Neolithic structures of symbolic remembering and forgetting. Current Anthropology, 49(2), 171–197.

    Google Scholar 

  101. Kuijt, I. (2009). What do we really know about food storage, surplus, and feasting in preagricultural communities? Current Anthropology, 50(5), 641–644.

    Google Scholar 

  102. Kuijt, I., & Finlayson, B. (2009). Evidence for food storage and predomestication granaries 11,000 years ago in the Jordan Valley. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106(37), 10966–10970.

    Google Scholar 

  103. Ladizinsky, G. (1975). Collection of wild cereals in the Upper Jordan Valley. Economic Botany, 29, 264–267.

    Google Scholar 

  104. Law, B. A. (Ed.). (1997). Microbiology and biochemistry of cheese and fermented milk. London: Blackie Academic & Professional.

    Google Scholar 

  105. LeGras, J.-L., Merdinoglu, D., Cornuet, J.-M., & Karst, F. (2007). Bread, beer and wine: Saccharomyces cerevisiae diversity reflects human history. Molecular Ecology, 16, 2091–2102.

    Google Scholar 

  106. Lersrutaiyotin, R., Shigenaga, S., & Utsunomiya, N. (1991). Malting quality of hexaploid triticale in comparison with that of barley, wheat and rye. Japan Journal of Crop Science, 60(2), 291–297.

    Google Scholar 

  107. Lewis, M., & Bamforth, C. (2006). Essays in brewing science. New York: Springer.

    Google Scholar 

  108. Li, Y., Lu, J., & Gu, G. X. (2005). Control of arabinoxylans solubilization and hydrolysis in mashing. Food Chemistry, 90, 101–108.

    Google Scholar 

  109. Linko, M., Haikara, A., Ritala, A., & Penttila, M. (1998). Recent advances in the malting and brewing industry. Journal of Biotechnology, 65(2,3), 85–98.

    Google Scholar 

  110. Lu, J., & Li, Y. (2006). Effects of arabinoxylan solubization on wort viscosity and filtration when mashing with grist containing wheat and wheat malt. Food Chemistry, 98, 164–170.

    Google Scholar 

  111. Lübbehüsen, T. L., Nielsen, J., & McIntyre, M. (2004). Aerobic and anaerobic ethanol production by Mucor circinelloides during submerged growth. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 63(5), 543–548.

    Google Scholar 

  112. McCorriston, J. (1994). Acorn eating and agricultural origins. Antiquity, 68(258), 97–107.

    Google Scholar 

  113. McGovern, P. (2003). Ancient wine: the search for the origins of viniculture. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  114. McGovern, P. (2009). Uncorking the past: the quest for wine, beer, and other alcoholic beverages. Berkeley: University of California Press.

    Google Scholar 

  115. McGovern, P., Zhang, J., Tang, J., Zhang, Z., Hall, G., Moreau, R., Nuñez, A., Butrym, E., Richards, M., Wang, C., Cheng, G., Zhao, Z., & Wang, C. (2004). Fermented beverages of Pre- and Proto-Historic China. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 101(51), 17593–17598.

    Google Scholar 

  116. Maher, L., Banning, E., & Chazan, M. (2011). Oasis or mirage? assessing the role of abrupt climate change in the prehistory of the Southern Levant. Cambridge Archaeological Journal, 21, 1–29.

    Google Scholar 

  117. Martinoli, D., & Jacomet, S. (2004). Identifying endocarp remains and exploring their use at Epipalaeolithic Okuzini in Southwest Anatolia, Turkey. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany, 13, 45–54.

    Google Scholar 

  118. Marshall, F., & Weissbrod, L. (2011). Domestication processes and morphological change: through the lens of the donkey and African pastoralism. Current Anthropology, 52(S4), S397–S413.

    Google Scholar 

  119. Meurers-Balke, J., & Lüning, J. (1992). Some aspects and experiments concerning the processing of glume wheats. In P. Anderson (Ed.), Prehistoire de l’Agriculture: Nouvelles Approches Experimentales et Ethnographiques (pp. 341–362). Paris: Monographie du Centre de Recherches Archéologiques No. 6. Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique.

  120. Meurers-Balke, J., & Lüning, J. (1999). Some aspects and experiments concerning the processing of glume wheats. In P. Anderson (Ed.), Prehistory of agriculture: new experiments and ethnographic approaches (pp. 238–253). Los Angeles: UCLA Institute of Archaeology.

    Google Scholar 

  121. Michel, R., McGovern, P., & Badler, V. (1993). The first wine and beer: chemical detection of ancient fermented beverages. Analytical Chemistry, 65(8), 408A–413A.

    Google Scholar 

  122. Mintzlaff, H. J., Ciegler, A., & Leistner, L. (1972). Potential mycotoxin problems in mold-fermented sausage. Zeitschrift für Lebensmitteluntersuchung und -Forschung A, 153(3), 133–137.

    Google Scholar 

  123. Moll, M. (1979). Analysis and composition of barley and malt. In J. R. A. Pollock (Ed.), Brewing science (pp. 1–143). New York: Academic.

    Google Scholar 

  124. Moore, A. M. T., Hillman, G., & Legge, A. (2000). Village on the Euphrates: from foraging to farming at Abu Hureyra. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  125. Mortimer, R. (2000). Evolution and variation of the yeast (Saccharomyces) genome. Genome Research, 10(4), 403–409.

    Google Scholar 

  126. Moyad, M. (2007). Brewer’s/baker’s yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and preventive medicine: part I. Urologic Nursing, 27(6), 560–561.

    Google Scholar 

  127. Munro, N., & Bar-Oz, G. (2004). Gazelle bone fat processing in the Levantine Epipalaeolithic. Journal of Archaeological Science, 32, 223–239.

    Google Scholar 

  128. Munro, N., & Grosman, L. (2010). Early evidence (ca. 12,000 B.P.) for feasting at a burial cave in Israel. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 107, 15362–15366.

    Google Scholar 

  129. Munro, N. (1963). Ainu creed and cult. New York: Columbia University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  130. Munroe, J. (1995). Fermentation. In W. Hardwick (Ed.), Handbook of brewing (pp. 323–353). New York: Marcel Dekker.

    Google Scholar 

  131. Mussatto, S. I., Dragone, G., & Roberto, I. (2006). Brewers’ spent grain: generation, characteristics and potential applications. Journal of Cereal Science, 43, 1–14.

    Google Scholar 

  132. Nadel, D., & Lengyel, G. (2009). Human-made bedrock holes (mortars and cupmarks) as a Late Natufian social phenomenon. Archaeology, Ethnology and Anthropology of Eurasia, 37(2), 37–48.

    Google Scholar 

  133. Nadel, D., Grinberg, U., Boaretto, E., & Werker, E. (2006). Wooden objects from Ohalo II (23,000 cal BP), Jordan Valley, Israel. Journal of Human Evolution, 50(6), 644–662.

    Google Scholar 

  134. Naumov, G. I., Naumova, E. S., & Sniegowski, P. D. (1998). Saccharomyces paradoxus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae are associated with exudates of North American oaks. Canadian Journal of. Microbiology, 44, 1045–1050.

    Google Scholar 

  135. Nesbitt, M. (2002). When and where did domesticated cereals first occur in Southwest Asia? In R. Cappers & S. Bottema (Eds.), The dawn of farming in the near east (pp. 113–127). Berlin: Ex Oriente.

    Google Scholar 

  136. Oyewole, O. (1997). Lactic fermented foods in Africa and their benefits. Food Control, 8(5,6), 289–297.

    Google Scholar 

  137. Ozkan, H., Willcox, G., Graner, A., Salamini, F., & Kilian, B. (2010). Geographic distribution and domestication of wild emmer wheat (Triticum dicoccoides). Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution, 58(1), 11–53.

    Google Scholar 

  138. Ozkaya, V., & Coskun, A. (2009), Körtik Tepe, a new pre-pottery Neolithic a site in Southeastern Anatolia. Antiquity online, 83(320), http://antiquity,ac.uk/projgall/ozkaya.

  139. Pederson, C. S. (1979). Microbiology of food fermentations (2nd ed.). Westport: AVI Publishing.

    Google Scholar 

  140. Perlès, C. (1996). Les stratégies alimentaires dans les temps préhistoriques. In J.-L. Flandrin & M. Montanari (Eds.), Histoire de l’alimentation (pp. 43–55). Paris: Fayard.

    Google Scholar 

  141. Perrot, J. (1960). ‘Eynan (‘Ein Mallaha). Israel Exploration Journal, 10(4), 257–258.

    Google Scholar 

  142. Perrot, J. (1966). Le gisement Natoufien de Mallaha (Eynan), Israel. L’Anthropologie, 70, 437–483.

    Google Scholar 

  143. Perrot, J., & Landiray, D. (1988). Les Hommes de Mallaha (Eynan) Israel. Mémoires et Travaux du Centre de Recherche Français de Jerusalem, No. 7. Paris: Association Paleorient.

  144. Phaff, H., & Starmer, W. (1987). Yeasts associated with plants, insects and soil. In A. H. Rose & J. S. Harrison (Eds.), The yeasts, volume 1: Biology of yeasts (2nd ed., pp. 123–180). Orlando: Academic.

    Google Scholar 

  145. Piperno, D., Weiss, E., Hoist, I., & Nadel, D. (2004). Processing of wild cereal grains in the Upper Palaeolithic revealed by starch grain analysis. Nature, 430, 670–673.

    Google Scholar 

  146. Pomeranz, Y., Standridge, N., Shreck, J., & Goplin, E. (1973). Rye in malting and brewing. Crop Science, 13(2), 213–215.

    Google Scholar 

  147. Poo, M.-C. (1999). The use and abuse of wine in ancient China. Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, 42(2), 123–151.

    Google Scholar 

  148. Redzepovic, S., Orlic, S., Sikora, S., Majdak, A., & Pretorius, I. (2002). Identification and characterisation of Sacchar omyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces paradoxus strains isolated from Croatian vineyards. Letters in Applied Microbiology, 35(4), 305–310.

    Google Scholar 

  149. Richter, T., Garrard, A., Allcock, S., & Maher, L. (2011). Interaction before agriculture: exchanging material and sharing knowledge in the Final Pleistocene Levant. Cambridge Archaeological Journal, 21, 95–114.

    Google Scholar 

  150. Riehl, S. (2009). Archaeobotanical evidence for the interrelationship of agricultural decision-making and climate change in the ancient Near East. Quaternary International, 197, 93–114.

    Google Scholar 

  151. Rindos, D. (1984). The origins of agriculture: an evolutionary perspective. London: Academic.

    Google Scholar 

  152. Rojo Guerra, M., Garrido Pena, R., Martinez-de-Lagran, I., & Tejedor Ropdriguez, C. (2008). Los preimeros agricultores y ganaderos del interior peninsular. Valladolid: Ochoa Impresores.

    Google Scholar 

  153. Rosenberg, M., & Redding, R. (2000). Hallan Çemi and early village organization in Eastern Anatolia. In I. Kuijt (Ed.), Life in Neolithic farming communities (pp. 39–61). New York: Kluwer.

    Google Scholar 

  154. Rosenberg, M., Belfer-Cohen, A., Bettinger, R., Betts, A., Dunnell, R., Gilbert, A., Henry, D., Hole, F., Rocek, T., & Rosen, S. (1998). Cheating at musical chairs: territoriality and sedentism in an evolutionary context [with comments and reply]. Current Anthropology, 39(5), 653–681.

    Google Scholar 

  155. Rowley-Conwy, P. (2001). Time, change, and the archaeology of hunter–gatherers: how original is the ‘original affluent society’? In C. Panter-Brick, R. H. Layton, & P. Rowley-Conwy (Eds.), Hunter–gatherers: an interdisciplinary perspective (pp. 39–72). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  156. Samuel, D. (1996). Archaeology of ancient Egyptian beer. Journal of the American Society of Brewing Chemists, 54, 3–12.

    Google Scholar 

  157. Samuel, D., & Bolt, P. (1995). Rediscovering ancient Egyptian beer. Brewers’ Guardian, 124, 26–31.

    Google Scholar 

  158. Savard, M., Mark Nesbitt, M., & Jones, M. (2006). The role of wild grasses in subsistence and sedentism: new evidence from the northern Fertile Crescent. World Archaeology, 38(2), 179–196.

    Google Scholar 

  159. Scheffler, A., & Bamforth, C. (2005). Exogenous β-glucanases and pentosanases and their impact on mashing. Enzyme and Microbal Technology, 36, 813–817.

    Google Scholar 

  160. Schoenwetter, J. (2001). Paleoethnobotanical expressions of prehistoric ritual: an Early Woodland case. In P. Drooker (Ed.), Fleeting identities: perishable material culture in archaeological research (pp. 273–282). Carbondale: Southern Illinois University.

    Google Scholar 

  161. Smalley, J., & Blake, M. (2003). Sweet beginnings: stalk sugar and the domestication of maize. Current Anthropology, 44, 675–695.

    Google Scholar 

  162. Smith, B. (2001). The transition to food production. In G. Feinman & T. Price (Eds.), Archaeology at the millennium (pp. 199–230). New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum.

    Google Scholar 

  163. Sniegowski, P. D., Dombrowski, P., & Fingerman, E. (2002). Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces paradoxus coexist in a natural woodland site in North America and display different levels of reproductive isolation from European conspecifics. FEMS Yeast Research, 1(4), 299–306.

    Google Scholar 

  164. Solecki, R. (1980). Early village site at Zawi Chemi Shanidar. Malibu: Undena Publications.

    Google Scholar 

  165. Solecki, R., Solecki, R., & Agelarakis, A. (Eds.). (2004). The Proto-Neolithic cemetery in Shanidar cave. College Station: Texas A&M University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  166. Steinkraus, K. H. (1983). Handbook of indigenous fermented foods. New York: Marcel Dekker.

    Google Scholar 

  167. Steinkraus, K. (2002). Fermentation in world food processing. Food Science and Food Safety, 1, 23–32.

    Google Scholar 

  168. Stekelis, M., & Yizraeli, T. (1963). Excavations at Nahal Oren, preliminary report. Israel Exploration Journal, 13, 1–12.

    Google Scholar 

  169. Stewart, G. (1995). Adjuncts. In W. Hardwick (Ed.), Handbook of brewing (pp. 121–132). New York: Marcel Dekker.

    Google Scholar 

  170. Stordeur, D. (2003). Tell Aswad. Résultats préliminaires des campagnes 2001 et 2002. Neo Lithics, 1(103), 7–15.

    Google Scholar 

  171. Stordeur, D., & Abbès, F. (2002). Du PPNA au PPNB. Bulletin de la Société Préhistorique Française, 99, 563–595.

    Google Scholar 

  172. Stordeur, D., & Willcox, G. (2009). Indices de culture et d’utilisation des céréales à Jerf el Ahmar. In De Méditerranée et d’Ailleurs: Mélanges Offerts à Jean Guilaine (pp. 694–710). Toulouse: Archives d’Ecologie Préhistorique.

  173. Stordeur, D., Helmer, D., Jamous, B., Khawam, R., Molist, M., & Willcox, G. (2010). Le PPNB de Syrie du sud à travers les découvertes récentes à Tell Aswad. In M. Al-Maqdissi, F. Braemer, & J.-M. Dentzer (Eds.), Hauran V La Syrie Du Sud Du Néolithique À L'Antiquité Tardive Recherche,s Récentes Actes Du Colloque De Damas 2007, Vol 1. (pp. 41–68). Beyrouth: l’Institut Français du Proche-Orient.

  174. Stojceska, V., Ainsworth, P., Plunkett, A., & Ibanoglu, S. (2008). The recycling of brewer’s processing by-product into ready-to-eat snacks using extrusion technology. Journal of Cereal Science, 47, 469–479.

    Google Scholar 

  175. Taché, K., White, D., & Seelen, S. (2008). Potential functions of Vinette I pottery. Archaeology of Eastern North America, 36, 63–90.

    Google Scholar 

  176. Tanno, K., & Willcox, G. (2011). Distinguishing wild and domestic wheat and barley spikelets from early Holocene sites in the Near East. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany. doi:10.1007/s00334-011-0316-0.

  177. Tomenchuck, J. (1983). Predicting the past: Examples from the use-wear study of selected chipped stone tools from two Epipalaeolithic occupations in Israel. In M.-C. Cauvin (Ed.), Traces d’utilisation sur les outils néolithiques du Proche-Orient (pp. 57–76). Lyon: Travaux de la Maisson de l’Orient 5.

    Google Scholar 

  178. Turner, N., & Kuhnlein, H. (1982). Two important ‘root’ foods of the Northwest Coast Indians: springback clover (Trifolium wormskioldii) and Pacific silverweed (Potentillan anserina spp. pacifica). Economic Botany, 36, 411–432.

    Google Scholar 

  179. Turner, N., & Kuhnlein, H. (1983). Camas (Camassia spp.) and riceroot (Fritillaria spp.): two Liliaceous ‘root’ foods of the Northwest Coast Indians. Ecology of Food and Nutrition, 13, 199–219.

    Google Scholar 

  180. Usansa, U. (2008). Beer production from Thai rice. Ph.D. Dissertation, Biotechnology, Suranaree University of Technology, Thailand.

  181. Valla, F. (2008). L’Homme et l’habitat. Paris: CNRS Edition.

    Google Scholar 

  182. Valla, F. (2009). Une énigme natoufienne: les "mortiers" enterrés. In De Méditerranée et d’Ailleurs: Mélanges Offerts à Jean Guilaine (pp. 10–18). Toulouse: Archives d'Ecologie Préhistorique.

  183. Valla, F., Plisson, H., & Buxo, R. (1989). Notes préliminaires sur les fouilles en cours sur la terrasse d’Hayonim. Paléorient, 15, 245–257.

    Google Scholar 

  184. van Houte, J. (1983). Bacterial adherence in the mouth. Reviews of Infectious Diseases, Supplement 4. Bacterial Virulence and Pathogenicity, 5, S659–S669.

    Google Scholar 

  185. van Zeist, W., & Bakker-Heeres, J. (1982). Archaeobotanical studies in the Levant 1 Neolithic sites in the Damascus Basin: Aswad, Ghoraife, Ramad. Palaeohistoria, 24, 165–256.

    Google Scholar 

  186. van Zeist, W., & Bakker-Heeres, J. (1984). Archaeobotanical studies in the Levant 3 Late Paleolithic Murerbit. Palaeohistoria, 26, 171–200.

    Google Scholar 

  187. Vend, S. (1994). The archaeology of thirst. Journal of European Archaeology, 2, 229–326.

    Google Scholar 

  188. Wadley, G., & Martin, A. (1993). The origins of agriculture? a biological perspective and a new hypothesis. Australian Biologist, 6, 96–105.

    Google Scholar 

  189. Watkins, T. (2010). Changing people, changing environments: how hunter–gatherers became communities that changed the world. In B. Finlayson & G. Warren (Eds.), Landscapes in transition (pp. 106–114). Oxford: Oxbow.

    Google Scholar 

  190. Webb, S., & Edwards, P. (2002). The Natufian human skeletal remains from Wadi Hammeh 27 (Jordan). Paléorient, 28, 103–124.

    Google Scholar 

  191. Weinstein-Evron, M. (2009). Archaeology in the archives: unveiling the Natufian culture of Mount Carmel. Boston: Brill.

    Google Scholar 

  192. Weinstein-Evron, M., Kaufman, D., Bachrach, N., Bar-Oz, G., Bar-Yosef Mayer, D. E., Chaim, S., Druck, D., Groman-Yaroslavski, I., Hershkovitz, I., Liber, N., Rosenberg, D., Tsatskin, A., & Weissbrod, L. (2007). After 70 years: new excavations at El-Wad terrace, Mount Carmel, Israel. Journal of the Israel Prehistoric Society, 37, 37–134.

    Google Scholar 

  193. Weiss, E., Wetterstrom, W., Nadel, D., Bar-Yosef, O., & Smith, B. (2004). The broad spectrum revisited: evidence from plant remains. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 101(26), 9551–9555.

    Google Scholar 

  194. Weiss, E., Kislev, M., & Hartman, A. (2006). Autonomous cultivation before domestication. Science, 312, 1608–1610.

    Google Scholar 

  195. Wiessner, P. (2002). The vines of complexity. Current Anthropology, 43, 233–267.

    Google Scholar 

  196. Willcox, G. (1995). Wild and domestic cereal exploitation: new evidence from Early Neolithic sites in the northern Levant and south-east Anatolia. World Journal of Prehistoric and Ancient Studies, 1, 9–16.

    Google Scholar 

  197. Willcox, G. (1998). Archaeobotanical evidence for the beginnings of agriculture in Southwest Asia. In A. Damania, J. Valkoun, G. Willcox, & C. Qualset (Eds.), The origins of agriculture and crop domestication—the Harlan symposium (pp. 25–38). Aleppo: ICARDA.

    Google Scholar 

  198. Willcox, G. (1999). Agrarian change and the beginnings of cultivation in the Near East. In C. Gosden & J. Hather (Eds.), The prehistory of food (pp. 478–500). London: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  199. Willcox, G. (2005). The distribution, natural habitats, and availability of wild cereals in relation to their domestication in the Near East. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany, 14, 534–541.

    Google Scholar 

  200. Willcox, G. (2007). The adoption of farming and the beginnings of the Neolithic in the Euphrates Valley. In S. Colledge & J. Conolly (Eds.), The origins and spread of domestic plants in Southwest Asia and Europe (pp. 21–36). Walnut Creek: Left Coast Press.

    Google Scholar 

  201. Willcox, G. (2011). Searching for the origins of arable weeds in the Near East. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany. doi:10.1007/s00334-011-0307-1.

  202. Willcox, G., Buxo, R., & Herveux, L. (2009). Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene climate and the beginnings of cultivation in Northern Syria. The Holocene, 19, 151–158.

    Google Scholar 

  203. Willcox, G., Fornite, S., & Herveux, L. (2008). Early Holocene cultivation before domestication in Northern Syria. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany, 17, 313–325.

    Google Scholar 

  204. Winterhalder, B., & Kennet, D. (2006). Behavioral ecology and the transition from hunting and gathering to agriculture. In D. Kennet & B. Winterhalder (Eds.), Behavioral ecology and the transition to agriculture (pp. 1–21). Berkeley: University of California Press.

    Google Scholar 

  205. Woodburn, J. (1966). The Hadza (16 mm. Film). London: School of Economics.

  206. Wright, K. (1994). Ground-stone tools and hunter–gatherer subsistence in Southwest Asia: implications for the transition to farming. American Antiquity, 59(2), 238–263.

    Google Scholar 

  207. Wyrick, W. (1944). Beer making helps furnish milk, meat. In The Milwaukee Journal – Sept. 17, 1944, p. 3. Accessed online April 13 2010 at http://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=1499&dat=19440917&id=EB8aAAAAIBAJ&sjid=6yQEAAAAIBAJ&pg=1946,329287

  208. Yartah, T. (2005). Les bâtiments communautaires de Tell ‘Abr 3 (PPNA, Syrie). Neo-Lithics, 1, 3–9.

    Google Scholar 

  209. Yasuda, Y. (2002). Origins of pottery and agriculture in East Asia. In Y. Yasuda (Ed.), The origins of pottery and agriculture (pp. 119–142). New Delhi: Lustre Press/Roli Books.

    Google Scholar 

  210. Zohary, D., & Hopf, M. (2000). Domestication of plants in the old world: the origin and spread of cultivated plants in West Asia, Europe, and the Nile Valley (3rd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

We would like to thank the Social Science and Humanities Research Council of Canada for their support of Hayden’s research into traditional feasting, as well as George Willcox for his help and comments on earlier drafts. Dani Nadel, Steve Rosen, and a number of anonymous reviewers were generous with their insightful comments as well. Our gratitude goes to Saul Moran for assisting in the experiments and providing an experienced eye for the brewing process, as well as to Dan Small and Dan’s Homebrewing Supplies for their expertise and product support. Joe Hepburn reviewed the text, and David Gauthier, Kevin Gaetz and Mario Arruda generously contributed their masticating talents.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Brian Hayden.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Hayden, B., Canuel, N. & Shanse, J. What Was Brewing in the Natufian? An Archaeological Assessment of Brewing Technology in the Epipaleolithic. J Archaeol Method Theory 20, 102–150 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10816-011-9127-y

Download citation

Keywords

  • Archaeology
  • Epipaleolithic
  • Brewing
  • Natufian