Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory

, Volume 20, Issue 1, pp 102–150 | Cite as

What Was Brewing in the Natufian? An Archaeological Assessment of Brewing Technology in the Epipaleolithic

Article

Abstract

It has long been speculated that increasing demands for cereals for the purposes of brewing beer led to domestication in the Near Eastern Natufian cultures. While the question of whether cereals were being used in beer production is an important issue, it has remained a difficult proposition to test. We present some new perspectives on traditional brewing techniques relevant to this issue, on archaeological remains, and on the paleoecology of the Near East. Taken together, these observations provide more compelling circumstantial evidence that makes it increasingly likely that brewing of beer was an important aspect of feasting and society in the Late Epipaleolithic.

Keywords

Archaeology Epipaleolithic Brewing Natufian 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We would like to thank the Social Science and Humanities Research Council of Canada for their support of Hayden’s research into traditional feasting, as well as George Willcox for his help and comments on earlier drafts. Dani Nadel, Steve Rosen, and a number of anonymous reviewers were generous with their insightful comments as well. Our gratitude goes to Saul Moran for assisting in the experiments and providing an experienced eye for the brewing process, as well as to Dan Small and Dan’s Homebrewing Supplies for their expertise and product support. Joe Hepburn reviewed the text, and David Gauthier, Kevin Gaetz and Mario Arruda generously contributed their masticating talents.

References

  1. Adebowale, A. A., Sanni, S. A., Karim, O. R., & Ojoawo, J. A. (2010). Malting characteristics of Ofada rice: chemical and sensory qualities of malt from Ofada rice grains. International Food Research Journal, 17, 83–88.Google Scholar
  2. Adewusi, S. R. A., & Ilori, M. (1994). Nutritional evaluation of spent grains from sorghum malts and maize grit. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, 46, 41–51.Google Scholar
  3. Arthur, J. W. (2003). Brewing beer: status, wealth and ceramic use alteration among the Gamo of South-Western Ethiopia. World Archaeology, 34(3), 516–528.Google Scholar
  4. Autio, K., Simoimen, T., Suortti, T., Salmenkallio-Marttila, M., Lassila, K., & Wilhelmson, A. (2000). Structural and enzymic changes in germinated barley and rye. Journal of the Institute of Brewing, 107(19), 19–257.Google Scholar
  5. Balcerek, M., & Pielech-Przybylska, K. (2009). Effect of supportive enzymes on chemical composition and viscosity of rye mashes obtained by the pressureless liberation of starch method and efficiency of their fermentation. European Food Research Technology, 229, 141–151.Google Scholar
  6. Balter, M. (2007). Seeking agriculture’s ancient roots. Science, 316, 1830–1835.Google Scholar
  7. Bamforth, C. (2003). Beer: tap into the art and science of brewing. Cary: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  8. Barlow, K. R., & Heck, M. (2002). More on acorn eating during the Natufian. In S. Mason & J. Hather (Eds.), Hunter–gatherer archaeology (pp. 128–145). London: Institute of Archaeology, University College London.Google Scholar
  9. Barth, F. (1967). Economic spheres in Darfur. In R. Firth (Ed.), Themes in economic anthropology (pp. 149–174). New York: Tavistock.Google Scholar
  10. Bar-Yosef, O. (1991). The archaeology of the Natufian layer at Hayonim Cave. In O. Bar-Yosef & F. R. Valla (Eds.), The natufian culture in the Levant (pp. 81–92). Ann Arbor: International Monographs in Prehistory.Google Scholar
  11. Bar-Yosef, O. (2002). Natufian: a complex society of foragers. In B. Fitzhugh & J. Habu (Eds.), Beyond foraging and collecting (pp. 91–149). New York: Kluwer.Google Scholar
  12. Beile-Bohn, M., Gerber, C., Morsch, M., & Schmidt, I. (1998). Neolitische forschungen in Obermesopotamien. Gürcütepe und Göbekli Tepe. Istanbuler Mitteilungen, 48, 5–78.Google Scholar
  13. Boas, F. (1921). Ethnology of the Kwakiutl. In Bureau of American ethnology, annual report 35, Pt. 1, 1913–1914 (pp. 43–794). Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution.Google Scholar
  14. Bowles, S. (2011a). Cultivation of cereals by the first farmers was not more productive than foraging. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 108, 4760–4765.Google Scholar
  15. Bowles, S. (2011b). History lesson from the first farmers. New Scientist, 211(2823), 26–27.Google Scholar
  16. Boyd, B. (2006). On ‘sedentism’ in the Later Epipaleolithic (Natufian) Levant. World Archaeology, 38, 164–178.Google Scholar
  17. Boyd, M., & Surette, C. (2010). Northernmost precontact maize in North America. American Antiquity, 75, 117–133.Google Scholar
  18. Bravisotto, V. (1965). Recovery of edible products from spent grains and yeast. Patent Number 3212902.Google Scholar
  19. Braidwood, R. (1953). Symposium: did man once live by bread alone. American Anthropologist, 55, 515–526.Google Scholar
  20. Briggs, D. E., Boulton, C., Brooks, P., & Stevens, R. (2004). Brewing: science and practice. Cambridge: Woodhead.Google Scholar
  21. Briggs, D. E., Stevens, R., Young, T., & Hough, J. (1982). Malting and brewing science vol. 1: malt and sweet wort (2nd ed.). London: Chapman and Hall.Google Scholar
  22. Builth, H. (2002). The archaeology and socioeconomy of the gunditjmara. Ph.D. Dissertation. Archaeology Department, Flinders University of South Australia.Google Scholar
  23. Byrd, B. (1989). The natufian encampment at beidha. Aarhus: Aarhus University Press.Google Scholar
  24. Cauvin, M.-C. (1991). Du natoufien au levant nord? In O. Bar-Yosef & F. R. Valla (Eds.), The natufian culture in the levant (pp. 295–314). Ann Arbor: International Monographs in Prehistory.Google Scholar
  25. Chaudhary, V. (1982). High dietary fiber product. Patent number 4341805.Google Scholar
  26. Colledge, S. (2001). Plant exploitation on epipaleolithic and early Neolithic sites in the Levant, bar international series 986. Oxford: BAR.Google Scholar
  27. Colledge, S., & Conolly, J. (2010). Reassessing the evidence for the cultivation of wild crops during the Younger Dryas at Tell Abu Hureyra, Syria. Environmental Archaeology, 15(2), 124–138.Google Scholar
  28. Crawford, G., Underhill, A., Zhao, Z., Lee, G., Feinman, G., Nicholas, L., Luan, F., Yu, H., Fang, H., & Cai, F. (2005). Late Neolithic plant remains from Northern China. Current Anthropology, 46(2), 309–317.Google Scholar
  29. Cutler, H., & Cardenas, M. (1947). Chicha, a native South American beer. Botanical Museum Leaflets, Harvard University, 13(3), 33–60.Google Scholar
  30. Damania, A. B. (1998). Diversity of major cultivated plants domesticated in the Near East. In A. Damania, J. Valkoun, G. Willcox, & C. Qualset (Eds.), the origins of agriculture and crop domestication—the Harlan symposium (pp. 51–64). Aleppo: ICARDA.Google Scholar
  31. Deur, D. (2002). Plant cultivation on the Northwest Coast. Journal of Cultural Geography, 19, 9–35.Google Scholar
  32. Dietler, M. (1990). Driven by drink: the role of drinking in the political economy and the case of the Early Iron Age in France. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 9, 352–406.Google Scholar
  33. Dietler, M. (2001). Theorizing the feast: rituals of consumption, commensal politics, and power in African contexts. In M. Dietler & B. Hayden (Eds.), Feasts: archaeological and ethnographic perspectives on food, politics, and power (pp. 65–114). Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Books.Google Scholar
  34. Dineley, M. (2004). Barley, malt and ale in the Neolithic, bar international series; 1213. Oxford: Archaeopress.Google Scholar
  35. Djien, K. S. (1982). Indigenous fermented foods. In A. H. Rose (Ed.), Economic microbiology, vol. 7, fermented foods (pp. 15–38). New York: New Academic Press.Google Scholar
  36. Driver, H., & Massey, W. (1957). Comparative studies of North American Indians. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, 47(2), 165–456.Google Scholar
  37. Edwards, P. (1991). Wadi Hammeh 27: an early Natufian site at Pella, Jordan. In O. Bar-Yosef & F. R. Valla (Eds.), The natufian culture in the Levant (pp. 123–148). Ann Arbor: International Monographs in Prehistory.Google Scholar
  38. Fages, P. (trans. H. Priestley). (1937 orig. 1775). A historical, political, and natural description of California. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  39. Fall, P., Falconer, S., & Lines, L. (2002). Agricultural intensification and the secondary products revolution along the Jordan rift. Human Ecology, 30(4), 445–482.Google Scholar
  40. Fay, J., & Benavides, J. (2005). Evidence for domestication and wild populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PLoS Genetics, 1(1), 66–71.Google Scholar
  41. Finlayson, B., & Warren, G. (2010). Changing natures: hunter–gatherers, first farmers and the modern world. London: Duckworth.Google Scholar
  42. Fischer, A., & Kristiansen, K. (2002). The neolithisation of Denmark. Sheffield: J. R. Collis.Google Scholar
  43. Flannery, K. V. (1969). Origins and ecological effects of early domestication in Iran and the Near East. In P. J. Ucko & G. W. Dimbleby (Eds.), The domestication and exploitation of plants and animals (pp. 73–100). Chicago: Aldine Publishing.Google Scholar
  44. Foxhall, L., & Forbes, H. (1982). The role of grain as a staple in classical antiquity. Chiron, 12, 41–90.Google Scholar
  45. Gannon, J. (1986). Methods of making food from spent grains. Patent Number 4632833.Google Scholar
  46. Garrard, A. (1999). Charting the emergence of cereal and pulse domestication in SW Asia. Environmental Archaeology, 4, 67–86.Google Scholar
  47. Garrod, D., & Bate, D. (1937). The stone age of Mount Carmel: excavations at the Wady El-Mughara, vol. 1. Oxford: Clarendon.Google Scholar
  48. Goring-Morris, N., & Belfer-Cohen, A. (2009). Feasting in the Natufian, a critical review of the evidence. Paper presented at the Seminar on the Social Context of Food and Drink, University of Granada.Google Scholar
  49. Gregg, S. (1988). Foragers and farmers: population interaction and agricultural expansion in prehistoric Europe. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  50. Gremillion, K. (2004). Seed processing and the origins of food production in Eastern North America. American Antiquity, 69, 215–233.Google Scholar
  51. Gurven, M., Borgerhoff Mulder, M., Hooper, P., Kaplan, H., Quinlan, R., Sear, R., Schniter, E., von Rueden, C., Bowles, S., Hertz, T., & Bell, A. (2010). Domestication alone does not lead to inequality: intergenerational wealth transmission among horticulturalists. Current Anthropology, 51(1), 49–64.Google Scholar
  52. Haaland, R. (2007). Porridge and pot, bread and oven: food ways and symbolism in Africa and the Near East from the Neolithic to the present. Cambridge Archaeological Journal, 17, 165–182.Google Scholar
  53. Habu, J. (2004). Ancient Jomon of Japan. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  54. Haggblade, S., & Holzapfel, W. H. (1989). Industrialization of Africa’s indigenous beer brewing. In K. H. Steinkraus (Ed.), Industrialization of indigenous fermented foods (2nd ed., pp. 271–361). New York: Marcel Dekker.Google Scholar
  55. Hardwick, W., van Oevelen, D., Novellie, L., & Yoshizawa, K. (1995). Kinds of beer and beerlike beverages. In W. Hardwick (Ed.), Handbook of brewing (pp. 53–86). New York: Marcel Dekker.Google Scholar
  56. Harlan, J. (1967). A wild wheat harvest in Turkey. Archaeology, 20, 135–177.Google Scholar
  57. Hayashida, F. (2008). Ancient beer and modern brewers: ethnoarchaeological observations of chicha production in two regions of the North Coast of Peru. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 27(2), 161–174.Google Scholar
  58. Hayashida, F. (2009). Chicha histories: prehispanic chicha production in the Andes and the use of ethnographic and historical analogues. In J. Jennings & B. Bowser (Eds.), Drink, power, and society in the Andes (pp. 232–256). Gainesville: University of Florida Press.Google Scholar
  59. Hayden, B. (1998). Practical and prestige technologies. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory, 5, 1–55.Google Scholar
  60. Hayden, B. (1990). Nimrods, piscators, pluckers, and planters: the emergence of food production. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 9, 31–69.Google Scholar
  61. Hayden, B. (2001). Richman, poorman, beggarman, chief: the dynamics of social inequality. In T. D. Price & G. Feinman (Eds.), Archaeology at the millenium: a comprehensive sourcebook (pp. 231–272). New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  62. Hayden, B. (2003). Shamans, sorcerers, and saints: a prehistory of religion. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Books.Google Scholar
  63. Hayden, B. (2004). Sociopolitical organization in the Natufian: a view from the Northwest. In C. Delage (Ed.), Last hunter–gatherer societies in the near east (pp. 263–308). Oxford: BAR International Series.Google Scholar
  64. Hayden, B. (2009). The proof is in the pudding: feasting and the origins of domestication. Current Anthropology, 50, 597–601.Google Scholar
  65. Hayden, B. (2011a). Rice: the first Asian luxury food? In G. Barker & M. Janowski (Eds.), Why cultivate? (pp. 75–91). Cambridge: MacDonald Institute of Archaeology.Google Scholar
  66. Hayden, B. (2011b). Feasting and social dynamics in the epipaleolithic of the Fertile Crescent. In G. Aranda, S. Monton-Subias, & M. Sanchez (Eds.), Guess who’s coming to dinner: feasting rituals in the prehistoric societies of Europe and the near east (pp. 30–63). Oxford: Oxbow Books.Google Scholar
  67. Hayden, R. (1993). Brewing with rye. Brewing Techniques, 1(3). http://www.brewingtechniques.com/library/backissues/issue1.3/hayden.html
  68. Helmer, D., Roitel, V., Saña, M., & Willcox, G. (1998). Interprétations environnementales des données archéozoologiques et archéobotaniques en Syrie du Nord de 16000 BP à 7000 BP, et les débuts de la domestication des plantes et des animaux. In M. Fortin & O. Aurenche (Eds.), Espace naturel, espace habité en Syrie du Nord (10e-2e millénaires av. J.-C.) (pp. 9–33), Lyon & Québec: Maison de l’Orient Méditerranéen, Canadian Society for Mesopotamian Studies.Google Scholar
  69. Henry, R. J., & Brown, A. (1987). Variation in the carbohydrate composition of wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum) grain. Plant Breeding, 98(2), 97–103.Google Scholar
  70. Hillman, G. (2000). The plant food economy of Abu Hureyra 1: the epipalaeolithic. In A. M. T. Moore, G. C. Hillman, & A. J. Legge (Eds.), Village on the Euphrates: From foraging to farming at Abu Hureyra (pp. 327–398). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  71. Hillman, G., Hedges, R., Moore, A., Colledge, S., & Pettitt, P. (2001). New evidence of late glacial cereal cultivation at Abu Hureyra on the Euphrates. The Holocene, 11, 383–393.Google Scholar
  72. Hoover, R., Smith, C., Zhou, Y., & Ratnayake, R. (2003). Physicochemical properties of Canadian oat starches. Carbohydrate Polymers, 52(3), 253–261.Google Scholar
  73. Hopf, M. (1983). The plants found at Jericho. In K. M. Kenyon & T. A. Holland (Eds.), Excavations at Jericho V: the pottery phases of the tell and other finds (pp. 580–62). London: British School of Archaeology in Jerusalem.Google Scholar
  74. Hornsey, I. (1999). Brewing. Cambridge: Royal Society of Chemistry.Google Scholar
  75. Hornsey, I. (2003). A history of beer and brewing. Cambridge: Royal Society of Chemistry.Google Scholar
  76. Hornsey, I. (2007). The chemistry and biology of winemaking. Cambridge: RSC.Google Scholar
  77. Hough, J. S., Briggs, D., Stevens, R., & Young, T. (1982). Malting and brewing science, vol. 2: hopped wort and beer (2nd ed.). London: Chapman and Hall.Google Scholar
  78. Hulthen, B. (1977). On ceramic technology during the Scanian Neolithic and bronze age. Stockholm: Akademilitteratur.Google Scholar
  79. Iwuoha, C. I., & Eke, O. (1996). Nigerian indigenous fermented foods: their traditional process operation, inherent problems, improvements and current status. Food Research International, 29(5–6), 527–540.Google Scholar
  80. Jain, S. M., Al-Khayri, J. M., & Johnson, D. V. (2011). Date palm biotechnology. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  81. Janick, J. (2005). The origins of fruits, fruit growing, and fruit breeding. Plant Breeding Reviews, 25, 255–320.Google Scholar
  82. Jennings, J. (2005). La chichera y el patron: chicha and the energetics of feasting in the prehistoric andes. In C. Conlee, D. Ogburn, & K. Vaughn (Eds.), Foundations of power in the prehispanic Andes (pp. 241–259). Washington, D.C.: American Anthropological Association.Google Scholar
  83. Jennings, J., Antrobus, K., Atencio, S., Glavich, E., Johnson, R., Loffler, G., & Luu, C. (2005). Drinking beer in a blissful mood: alcohol production, operational chains, and feasting in the ancient world. Current Anthropology, 46(2), 275–303.Google Scholar
  84. Katz, S., & Maytag, F. (1991). Brewing an ancient beer. Archaeology, 44(4), 24–33.Google Scholar
  85. Katz, S., & Voigt, M. (1986). Bread and beer: the early use of cereals in the human diet. Expedition, 28(2), 23–34.Google Scholar
  86. Kaufman, D., & Ronen, A. (1987). La sépulture Kébarienne géométrique de Névé-David Haifa, Israel. L’Anthropologie, 91, 335–342.Google Scholar
  87. Kavanagh, T. (1994). Archaeological parameters for the beginnings of beer. Brewing Techniques, 2(5). http://www.brewingtechniques.com/library/backissues/issue2.5/kavanagh.html
  88. Keegstra, K., & Walton, J. (2006). β-Glucans—brewers bane, dietician’s delight. Science, 311(5769), 1872–1873.Google Scholar
  89. Kelly, R. (1983). Hunter–gatherer mobility strategies. Journal of Anthropological Research, 39(3), 277–306.Google Scholar
  90. Kelly, R. (1992). Mobility/sedentism: concepts, archaeological measures, and effects. Annual Review of Anthropology, 21, 43–66.Google Scholar
  91. Kelly, R. (1995). The foraging spectrum. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press.Google Scholar
  92. Kerem, Z., Lev-Yadun, S., Gopher, A., Weinberg, P., & Abbo, S. (2007). Chickpea domestication in the Neolithic Levant through the nutritional perspective. Journal of Archaeological Science, 34, 1289–1293.Google Scholar
  93. Kislev, M., Nadel, D., & Carmi, I. (1992). Epipaleolithic (19,000 BP) cereal and fruit diet at Ohalo II, Sea of Galilee, Israel. Review of Paleobotany and Palynology, 73, 161–166.Google Scholar
  94. Kislev, M., Weiss, E., Hartmann, A., & Watson, P. (2004). Impetus for sowing and the beginning of agriculture: ground collecting of wild cereals. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 101(9), 2692–2695.Google Scholar
  95. Kitamoto, K. (2002). Molecular biology of the koji molds in advances. Applied Microbiology, 51, 129–153.Google Scholar
  96. Klein, M. (1997). The transition from soapstone bowls to Marcey Creek ceramics in the Middle Atlantic region: vessel technology, ethnographic data, and regional exchange. Archaeology of Eastern North America, 25, 143–158.Google Scholar
  97. Kodama, K., & Yoshizawa, K. (1977). Sake. In A. H. Rose (Ed.), Economic microbiology (pp. 432–475). New York: Academic.Google Scholar
  98. Koufopanou, V., Hughes, J., Bell, G., & Burt, A. (2006). The spatial scale of genetic differentiation in a model organism: the wild yeast Saccharomyces paradoxus. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 361(1475), 1941–1946.Google Scholar
  99. Kuijt, I. (2004). Pre-Pottery Neolithic A and Late Natufian at ’Iraq ed-Dubb, Jordan. Journal of Field Archaeology, 29(3–4), 291–308.Google Scholar
  100. Kuijt, I. (2008). The regeneration of life: Neolithic structures of symbolic remembering and forgetting. Current Anthropology, 49(2), 171–197.Google Scholar
  101. Kuijt, I. (2009). What do we really know about food storage, surplus, and feasting in preagricultural communities? Current Anthropology, 50(5), 641–644.Google Scholar
  102. Kuijt, I., & Finlayson, B. (2009). Evidence for food storage and predomestication granaries 11,000 years ago in the Jordan Valley. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106(37), 10966–10970.Google Scholar
  103. Ladizinsky, G. (1975). Collection of wild cereals in the Upper Jordan Valley. Economic Botany, 29, 264–267.Google Scholar
  104. Law, B. A. (Ed.). (1997). Microbiology and biochemistry of cheese and fermented milk. London: Blackie Academic & Professional.Google Scholar
  105. LeGras, J.-L., Merdinoglu, D., Cornuet, J.-M., & Karst, F. (2007). Bread, beer and wine: Saccharomyces cerevisiae diversity reflects human history. Molecular Ecology, 16, 2091–2102.Google Scholar
  106. Lersrutaiyotin, R., Shigenaga, S., & Utsunomiya, N. (1991). Malting quality of hexaploid triticale in comparison with that of barley, wheat and rye. Japan Journal of Crop Science, 60(2), 291–297.Google Scholar
  107. Lewis, M., & Bamforth, C. (2006). Essays in brewing science. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  108. Li, Y., Lu, J., & Gu, G. X. (2005). Control of arabinoxylans solubilization and hydrolysis in mashing. Food Chemistry, 90, 101–108.Google Scholar
  109. Linko, M., Haikara, A., Ritala, A., & Penttila, M. (1998). Recent advances in the malting and brewing industry. Journal of Biotechnology, 65(2,3), 85–98.Google Scholar
  110. Lu, J., & Li, Y. (2006). Effects of arabinoxylan solubization on wort viscosity and filtration when mashing with grist containing wheat and wheat malt. Food Chemistry, 98, 164–170.Google Scholar
  111. Lübbehüsen, T. L., Nielsen, J., & McIntyre, M. (2004). Aerobic and anaerobic ethanol production by Mucor circinelloides during submerged growth. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 63(5), 543–548.Google Scholar
  112. McCorriston, J. (1994). Acorn eating and agricultural origins. Antiquity, 68(258), 97–107.Google Scholar
  113. McGovern, P. (2003). Ancient wine: the search for the origins of viniculture. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  114. McGovern, P. (2009). Uncorking the past: the quest for wine, beer, and other alcoholic beverages. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  115. McGovern, P., Zhang, J., Tang, J., Zhang, Z., Hall, G., Moreau, R., Nuñez, A., Butrym, E., Richards, M., Wang, C., Cheng, G., Zhao, Z., & Wang, C. (2004). Fermented beverages of Pre- and Proto-Historic China. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 101(51), 17593–17598.Google Scholar
  116. Maher, L., Banning, E., & Chazan, M. (2011). Oasis or mirage? assessing the role of abrupt climate change in the prehistory of the Southern Levant. Cambridge Archaeological Journal, 21, 1–29.Google Scholar
  117. Martinoli, D., & Jacomet, S. (2004). Identifying endocarp remains and exploring their use at Epipalaeolithic Okuzini in Southwest Anatolia, Turkey. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany, 13, 45–54.Google Scholar
  118. Marshall, F., & Weissbrod, L. (2011). Domestication processes and morphological change: through the lens of the donkey and African pastoralism. Current Anthropology, 52(S4), S397–S413.Google Scholar
  119. Meurers-Balke, J., & Lüning, J. (1992). Some aspects and experiments concerning the processing of glume wheats. In P. Anderson (Ed.), Prehistoire de l’Agriculture: Nouvelles Approches Experimentales et Ethnographiques (pp. 341–362). Paris: Monographie du Centre de Recherches Archéologiques No. 6. Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique.Google Scholar
  120. Meurers-Balke, J., & Lüning, J. (1999). Some aspects and experiments concerning the processing of glume wheats. In P. Anderson (Ed.), Prehistory of agriculture: new experiments and ethnographic approaches (pp. 238–253). Los Angeles: UCLA Institute of Archaeology.Google Scholar
  121. Michel, R., McGovern, P., & Badler, V. (1993). The first wine and beer: chemical detection of ancient fermented beverages. Analytical Chemistry, 65(8), 408A–413A.Google Scholar
  122. Mintzlaff, H. J., Ciegler, A., & Leistner, L. (1972). Potential mycotoxin problems in mold-fermented sausage. Zeitschrift für Lebensmitteluntersuchung und -Forschung A, 153(3), 133–137.Google Scholar
  123. Moll, M. (1979). Analysis and composition of barley and malt. In J. R. A. Pollock (Ed.), Brewing science (pp. 1–143). New York: Academic.Google Scholar
  124. Moore, A. M. T., Hillman, G., & Legge, A. (2000). Village on the Euphrates: from foraging to farming at Abu Hureyra. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  125. Mortimer, R. (2000). Evolution and variation of the yeast (Saccharomyces) genome. Genome Research, 10(4), 403–409.Google Scholar
  126. Moyad, M. (2007). Brewer’s/baker’s yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and preventive medicine: part I. Urologic Nursing, 27(6), 560–561.Google Scholar
  127. Munro, N., & Bar-Oz, G. (2004). Gazelle bone fat processing in the Levantine Epipalaeolithic. Journal of Archaeological Science, 32, 223–239.Google Scholar
  128. Munro, N., & Grosman, L. (2010). Early evidence (ca. 12,000 B.P.) for feasting at a burial cave in Israel. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 107, 15362–15366.Google Scholar
  129. Munro, N. (1963). Ainu creed and cult. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  130. Munroe, J. (1995). Fermentation. In W. Hardwick (Ed.), Handbook of brewing (pp. 323–353). New York: Marcel Dekker.Google Scholar
  131. Mussatto, S. I., Dragone, G., & Roberto, I. (2006). Brewers’ spent grain: generation, characteristics and potential applications. Journal of Cereal Science, 43, 1–14.Google Scholar
  132. Nadel, D., & Lengyel, G. (2009). Human-made bedrock holes (mortars and cupmarks) as a Late Natufian social phenomenon. Archaeology, Ethnology and Anthropology of Eurasia, 37(2), 37–48.Google Scholar
  133. Nadel, D., Grinberg, U., Boaretto, E., & Werker, E. (2006). Wooden objects from Ohalo II (23,000 cal BP), Jordan Valley, Israel. Journal of Human Evolution, 50(6), 644–662.Google Scholar
  134. Naumov, G. I., Naumova, E. S., & Sniegowski, P. D. (1998). Saccharomyces paradoxus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae are associated with exudates of North American oaks. Canadian Journal of. Microbiology, 44, 1045–1050.Google Scholar
  135. Nesbitt, M. (2002). When and where did domesticated cereals first occur in Southwest Asia? In R. Cappers & S. Bottema (Eds.), The dawn of farming in the near east (pp. 113–127). Berlin: Ex Oriente.Google Scholar
  136. Oyewole, O. (1997). Lactic fermented foods in Africa and their benefits. Food Control, 8(5,6), 289–297.Google Scholar
  137. Ozkan, H., Willcox, G., Graner, A., Salamini, F., & Kilian, B. (2010). Geographic distribution and domestication of wild emmer wheat (Triticum dicoccoides). Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution, 58(1), 11–53.Google Scholar
  138. Ozkaya, V., & Coskun, A. (2009), Körtik Tepe, a new pre-pottery Neolithic a site in Southeastern Anatolia. Antiquity online, 83(320), http://antiquity,ac.uk/projgall/ozkaya.
  139. Pederson, C. S. (1979). Microbiology of food fermentations (2nd ed.). Westport: AVI Publishing.Google Scholar
  140. Perlès, C. (1996). Les stratégies alimentaires dans les temps préhistoriques. In J.-L. Flandrin & M. Montanari (Eds.), Histoire de l’alimentation (pp. 43–55). Paris: Fayard.Google Scholar
  141. Perrot, J. (1960). ‘Eynan (‘Ein Mallaha). Israel Exploration Journal, 10(4), 257–258.Google Scholar
  142. Perrot, J. (1966). Le gisement Natoufien de Mallaha (Eynan), Israel. L’Anthropologie, 70, 437–483.Google Scholar
  143. Perrot, J., & Landiray, D. (1988). Les Hommes de Mallaha (Eynan) Israel. Mémoires et Travaux du Centre de Recherche Français de Jerusalem, No. 7. Paris: Association Paleorient.Google Scholar
  144. Phaff, H., & Starmer, W. (1987). Yeasts associated with plants, insects and soil. In A. H. Rose & J. S. Harrison (Eds.), The yeasts, volume 1: Biology of yeasts (2nd ed., pp. 123–180). Orlando: Academic.Google Scholar
  145. Piperno, D., Weiss, E., Hoist, I., & Nadel, D. (2004). Processing of wild cereal grains in the Upper Palaeolithic revealed by starch grain analysis. Nature, 430, 670–673.Google Scholar
  146. Pomeranz, Y., Standridge, N., Shreck, J., & Goplin, E. (1973). Rye in malting and brewing. Crop Science, 13(2), 213–215.Google Scholar
  147. Poo, M.-C. (1999). The use and abuse of wine in ancient China. Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, 42(2), 123–151.Google Scholar
  148. Redzepovic, S., Orlic, S., Sikora, S., Majdak, A., & Pretorius, I. (2002). Identification and characterisation of Sacchar omyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces paradoxus strains isolated from Croatian vineyards. Letters in Applied Microbiology, 35(4), 305–310.Google Scholar
  149. Richter, T., Garrard, A., Allcock, S., & Maher, L. (2011). Interaction before agriculture: exchanging material and sharing knowledge in the Final Pleistocene Levant. Cambridge Archaeological Journal, 21, 95–114.Google Scholar
  150. Riehl, S. (2009). Archaeobotanical evidence for the interrelationship of agricultural decision-making and climate change in the ancient Near East. Quaternary International, 197, 93–114.Google Scholar
  151. Rindos, D. (1984). The origins of agriculture: an evolutionary perspective. London: Academic.Google Scholar
  152. Rojo Guerra, M., Garrido Pena, R., Martinez-de-Lagran, I., & Tejedor Ropdriguez, C. (2008). Los preimeros agricultores y ganaderos del interior peninsular. Valladolid: Ochoa Impresores.Google Scholar
  153. Rosenberg, M., & Redding, R. (2000). Hallan Çemi and early village organization in Eastern Anatolia. In I. Kuijt (Ed.), Life in Neolithic farming communities (pp. 39–61). New York: Kluwer.Google Scholar
  154. Rosenberg, M., Belfer-Cohen, A., Bettinger, R., Betts, A., Dunnell, R., Gilbert, A., Henry, D., Hole, F., Rocek, T., & Rosen, S. (1998). Cheating at musical chairs: territoriality and sedentism in an evolutionary context [with comments and reply]. Current Anthropology, 39(5), 653–681.Google Scholar
  155. Rowley-Conwy, P. (2001). Time, change, and the archaeology of hunter–gatherers: how original is the ‘original affluent society’? In C. Panter-Brick, R. H. Layton, & P. Rowley-Conwy (Eds.), Hunter–gatherers: an interdisciplinary perspective (pp. 39–72). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  156. Samuel, D. (1996). Archaeology of ancient Egyptian beer. Journal of the American Society of Brewing Chemists, 54, 3–12.Google Scholar
  157. Samuel, D., & Bolt, P. (1995). Rediscovering ancient Egyptian beer. Brewers’ Guardian, 124, 26–31.Google Scholar
  158. Savard, M., Mark Nesbitt, M., & Jones, M. (2006). The role of wild grasses in subsistence and sedentism: new evidence from the northern Fertile Crescent. World Archaeology, 38(2), 179–196.Google Scholar
  159. Scheffler, A., & Bamforth, C. (2005). Exogenous β-glucanases and pentosanases and their impact on mashing. Enzyme and Microbal Technology, 36, 813–817.Google Scholar
  160. Schoenwetter, J. (2001). Paleoethnobotanical expressions of prehistoric ritual: an Early Woodland case. In P. Drooker (Ed.), Fleeting identities: perishable material culture in archaeological research (pp. 273–282). Carbondale: Southern Illinois University.Google Scholar
  161. Smalley, J., & Blake, M. (2003). Sweet beginnings: stalk sugar and the domestication of maize. Current Anthropology, 44, 675–695.Google Scholar
  162. Smith, B. (2001). The transition to food production. In G. Feinman & T. Price (Eds.), Archaeology at the millennium (pp. 199–230). New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum.Google Scholar
  163. Sniegowski, P. D., Dombrowski, P., & Fingerman, E. (2002). Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces paradoxus coexist in a natural woodland site in North America and display different levels of reproductive isolation from European conspecifics. FEMS Yeast Research, 1(4), 299–306.Google Scholar
  164. Solecki, R. (1980). Early village site at Zawi Chemi Shanidar. Malibu: Undena Publications.Google Scholar
  165. Solecki, R., Solecki, R., & Agelarakis, A. (Eds.). (2004). The Proto-Neolithic cemetery in Shanidar cave. College Station: Texas A&M University Press.Google Scholar
  166. Steinkraus, K. H. (1983). Handbook of indigenous fermented foods. New York: Marcel Dekker.Google Scholar
  167. Steinkraus, K. (2002). Fermentation in world food processing. Food Science and Food Safety, 1, 23–32.Google Scholar
  168. Stekelis, M., & Yizraeli, T. (1963). Excavations at Nahal Oren, preliminary report. Israel Exploration Journal, 13, 1–12.Google Scholar
  169. Stewart, G. (1995). Adjuncts. In W. Hardwick (Ed.), Handbook of brewing (pp. 121–132). New York: Marcel Dekker.Google Scholar
  170. Stordeur, D. (2003). Tell Aswad. Résultats préliminaires des campagnes 2001 et 2002. Neo Lithics, 1(103), 7–15.Google Scholar
  171. Stordeur, D., & Abbès, F. (2002). Du PPNA au PPNB. Bulletin de la Société Préhistorique Française, 99, 563–595.Google Scholar
  172. Stordeur, D., & Willcox, G. (2009). Indices de culture et d’utilisation des céréales à Jerf el Ahmar. In De Méditerranée et d’Ailleurs: Mélanges Offerts à Jean Guilaine (pp. 694–710). Toulouse: Archives d’Ecologie Préhistorique.Google Scholar
  173. Stordeur, D., Helmer, D., Jamous, B., Khawam, R., Molist, M., & Willcox, G. (2010). Le PPNB de Syrie du sud à travers les découvertes récentes à Tell Aswad. In M. Al-Maqdissi, F. Braemer, & J.-M. Dentzer (Eds.), Hauran V La Syrie Du Sud Du Néolithique À L'Antiquité Tardive Recherche,s Récentes Actes Du Colloque De Damas 2007, Vol 1. (pp. 41–68). Beyrouth: l’Institut Français du Proche-Orient.Google Scholar
  174. Stojceska, V., Ainsworth, P., Plunkett, A., & Ibanoglu, S. (2008). The recycling of brewer’s processing by-product into ready-to-eat snacks using extrusion technology. Journal of Cereal Science, 47, 469–479.Google Scholar
  175. Taché, K., White, D., & Seelen, S. (2008). Potential functions of Vinette I pottery. Archaeology of Eastern North America, 36, 63–90.Google Scholar
  176. Tanno, K., & Willcox, G. (2011). Distinguishing wild and domestic wheat and barley spikelets from early Holocene sites in the Near East. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany. doi:10.1007/s00334-011-0316-0.
  177. Tomenchuck, J. (1983). Predicting the past: Examples from the use-wear study of selected chipped stone tools from two Epipalaeolithic occupations in Israel. In M.-C. Cauvin (Ed.), Traces d’utilisation sur les outils néolithiques du Proche-Orient (pp. 57–76). Lyon: Travaux de la Maisson de l’Orient 5.Google Scholar
  178. Turner, N., & Kuhnlein, H. (1982). Two important ‘root’ foods of the Northwest Coast Indians: springback clover (Trifolium wormskioldii) and Pacific silverweed (Potentillan anserina spp. pacifica). Economic Botany, 36, 411–432.Google Scholar
  179. Turner, N., & Kuhnlein, H. (1983). Camas (Camassia spp.) and riceroot (Fritillaria spp.): two Liliaceous ‘root’ foods of the Northwest Coast Indians. Ecology of Food and Nutrition, 13, 199–219.Google Scholar
  180. Usansa, U. (2008). Beer production from Thai rice. Ph.D. Dissertation, Biotechnology, Suranaree University of Technology, Thailand.Google Scholar
  181. Valla, F. (2008). L’Homme et l’habitat. Paris: CNRS Edition.Google Scholar
  182. Valla, F. (2009). Une énigme natoufienne: les "mortiers" enterrés. In De Méditerranée et d’Ailleurs: Mélanges Offerts à Jean Guilaine (pp. 10–18). Toulouse: Archives d'Ecologie Préhistorique.Google Scholar
  183. Valla, F., Plisson, H., & Buxo, R. (1989). Notes préliminaires sur les fouilles en cours sur la terrasse d’Hayonim. Paléorient, 15, 245–257.Google Scholar
  184. van Houte, J. (1983). Bacterial adherence in the mouth. Reviews of Infectious Diseases, Supplement 4. Bacterial Virulence and Pathogenicity, 5, S659–S669.Google Scholar
  185. van Zeist, W., & Bakker-Heeres, J. (1982). Archaeobotanical studies in the Levant 1 Neolithic sites in the Damascus Basin: Aswad, Ghoraife, Ramad. Palaeohistoria, 24, 165–256.Google Scholar
  186. van Zeist, W., & Bakker-Heeres, J. (1984). Archaeobotanical studies in the Levant 3 Late Paleolithic Murerbit. Palaeohistoria, 26, 171–200.Google Scholar
  187. Vend, S. (1994). The archaeology of thirst. Journal of European Archaeology, 2, 229–326.Google Scholar
  188. Wadley, G., & Martin, A. (1993). The origins of agriculture? a biological perspective and a new hypothesis. Australian Biologist, 6, 96–105.Google Scholar
  189. Watkins, T. (2010). Changing people, changing environments: how hunter–gatherers became communities that changed the world. In B. Finlayson & G. Warren (Eds.), Landscapes in transition (pp. 106–114). Oxford: Oxbow.Google Scholar
  190. Webb, S., & Edwards, P. (2002). The Natufian human skeletal remains from Wadi Hammeh 27 (Jordan). Paléorient, 28, 103–124.Google Scholar
  191. Weinstein-Evron, M. (2009). Archaeology in the archives: unveiling the Natufian culture of Mount Carmel. Boston: Brill.Google Scholar
  192. Weinstein-Evron, M., Kaufman, D., Bachrach, N., Bar-Oz, G., Bar-Yosef Mayer, D. E., Chaim, S., Druck, D., Groman-Yaroslavski, I., Hershkovitz, I., Liber, N., Rosenberg, D., Tsatskin, A., & Weissbrod, L. (2007). After 70 years: new excavations at El-Wad terrace, Mount Carmel, Israel. Journal of the Israel Prehistoric Society, 37, 37–134.Google Scholar
  193. Weiss, E., Wetterstrom, W., Nadel, D., Bar-Yosef, O., & Smith, B. (2004). The broad spectrum revisited: evidence from plant remains. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 101(26), 9551–9555.Google Scholar
  194. Weiss, E., Kislev, M., & Hartman, A. (2006). Autonomous cultivation before domestication. Science, 312, 1608–1610.Google Scholar
  195. Wiessner, P. (2002). The vines of complexity. Current Anthropology, 43, 233–267.Google Scholar
  196. Willcox, G. (1995). Wild and domestic cereal exploitation: new evidence from Early Neolithic sites in the northern Levant and south-east Anatolia. World Journal of Prehistoric and Ancient Studies, 1, 9–16.Google Scholar
  197. Willcox, G. (1998). Archaeobotanical evidence for the beginnings of agriculture in Southwest Asia. In A. Damania, J. Valkoun, G. Willcox, & C. Qualset (Eds.), The origins of agriculture and crop domestication—the Harlan symposium (pp. 25–38). Aleppo: ICARDA.Google Scholar
  198. Willcox, G. (1999). Agrarian change and the beginnings of cultivation in the Near East. In C. Gosden & J. Hather (Eds.), The prehistory of food (pp. 478–500). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  199. Willcox, G. (2005). The distribution, natural habitats, and availability of wild cereals in relation to their domestication in the Near East. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany, 14, 534–541.Google Scholar
  200. Willcox, G. (2007). The adoption of farming and the beginnings of the Neolithic in the Euphrates Valley. In S. Colledge & J. Conolly (Eds.), The origins and spread of domestic plants in Southwest Asia and Europe (pp. 21–36). Walnut Creek: Left Coast Press.Google Scholar
  201. Willcox, G. (2011). Searching for the origins of arable weeds in the Near East. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany. doi:10.1007/s00334-011-0307-1.
  202. Willcox, G., Buxo, R., & Herveux, L. (2009). Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene climate and the beginnings of cultivation in Northern Syria. The Holocene, 19, 151–158.Google Scholar
  203. Willcox, G., Fornite, S., & Herveux, L. (2008). Early Holocene cultivation before domestication in Northern Syria. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany, 17, 313–325.Google Scholar
  204. Winterhalder, B., & Kennet, D. (2006). Behavioral ecology and the transition from hunting and gathering to agriculture. In D. Kennet & B. Winterhalder (Eds.), Behavioral ecology and the transition to agriculture (pp. 1–21). Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  205. Woodburn, J. (1966). The Hadza (16 mm. Film). London: School of Economics.Google Scholar
  206. Wright, K. (1994). Ground-stone tools and hunter–gatherer subsistence in Southwest Asia: implications for the transition to farming. American Antiquity, 59(2), 238–263.Google Scholar
  207. Wyrick, W. (1944). Beer making helps furnish milk, meat. In The Milwaukee Journal – Sept. 17, 1944, p. 3. Accessed online April 13 2010 at http://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=1499&dat=19440917&id=EB8aAAAAIBAJ&sjid=6yQEAAAAIBAJ&pg=1946,329287
  208. Yartah, T. (2005). Les bâtiments communautaires de Tell ‘Abr 3 (PPNA, Syrie). Neo-Lithics, 1, 3–9.Google Scholar
  209. Yasuda, Y. (2002). Origins of pottery and agriculture in East Asia. In Y. Yasuda (Ed.), The origins of pottery and agriculture (pp. 119–142). New Delhi: Lustre Press/Roli Books.Google Scholar
  210. Zohary, D., & Hopf, M. (2000). Domestication of plants in the old world: the origin and spread of cultivated plants in West Asia, Europe, and the Nile Valley (3rd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Archaeology DepartmentSimon Fraser UniversityBurnabyCanada

Personalised recommendations