Journal of Archaeological Research

, Volume 22, Issue 2, pp 141–175 | Cite as

Using Pyrotechnology: Fire-related Features and Activities with a Focus on the African Middle Stone Age

Article

Abstract

Pyrotechnology was important in prehistory and has been a research topic for decades, in particular, the origins of controlled and habitual use of fire. The earliest putative evidence of fire use is from the African sites of Swartkrans (1,500,000–1,000,000 years ago) and Koobi Fora (1,500,000 years ago). In contrast, researchers working with European sites debate whether habitual use of fire occurred before 400,000 years ago. This paper provides a brief introduction to early fire use and then focuses on the African Middle Stone Age. Published evidence on fire use is available for 34 sites in southern Africa. Combustion features yield much evidence about human behavior, not only in regard to technical skills but also concerning social activities. Several activities using fire, symbolic behavior, spatial structuring, and group size in the Middle Stone Age are inferred from bone and lithic data, ash discard, site maintenance, and hearth size. The current status of knowledge on Middle Stone Age pyrotechnology demonstrates the benefits of applying new methodological approaches, facilitates comparisons with earlier and later archaeological periods, and is an important reminder of the benefits of a multidisciplinary approach.

Keywords

Southern Africa Middle Stone Age Pyrotechnology Hearths 

References cited

  1. Abbot, P., Loworet, J., Khofi, C., and Werren, M. (1997). Defining firewood quality: A comparison of quantitative and rapid appraisal techniques to evaluate firewood species from a southern African savanna. Biomass and Bioenergy 12: 429–437.Google Scholar
  2. Albert, R. M., and Marean, C. W. (2012). The exploitation of plant resources by early Homo sapiens: The phytolith record from Pinnacle Point 13B Cave, South Africa. Geoarchaeology 27: 363–384.Google Scholar
  3. Albert, R. M., Berna, F., and Goldberg, P. (2012). Insights on Neanderthal fire use at Kebara Cave (Israel) through high resolution study of prehistoric combustion features: Evidence from phytoliths and thin sections. Quaternary International 247: 278–293.Google Scholar
  4. Allott, L. (2005). Palaeoenvironments of the Middle Stone Age at Sibudu Cave, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: An Analysis of Archaeological Charcoal, Ph.D. thesis, School of Geography, Archaeology and Environmental Studies, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg.Google Scholar
  5. Allott, L. (2006). Archaeological charcoal as a window on palaeovegetation and wood-use during the Middle Stone Age at Sibudu Cave. Southern African Humanities 18: 173–201.Google Scholar
  6. Alperson-Afil, N., and Goren-Inbar, N. (2010). The Acheulian Site of Gesher Benot Ya’aqov, Volume II: Ancient Flames and Controlled Use of Fire, Springer, Dordrecht.Google Scholar
  7. Alperson-Afil, N., Richter, D., and Goren-Inbar, N. (2007). Phantom hearths and the use of fire at Gesher Benot Ya’aqov, Israel. PaleoAnthropology 2007: 1–15.Google Scholar
  8. Avery, G., Cruz-Uribe, K., Goldberg, P., Grine, F. E., Klein, R. G., Lenard, M. J., Marean, C. W., Rink, W. J., Schwarz, H. P., Thackeray, A. L., and Wilson, M. L. (1997). The 1992–1993 excavations at the Die Kelders Middle and Later Stone Age cave site, South Africa. Journal of Field Archaeology 24: 263–291.Google Scholar
  9. Avery, G., Halkett, D., Orton, J., Steele, T., Tusenius, M., and Klein, R. G. (2008). The Ysterfontein 1 Middle Stone Age rock shelter and the evolution of coastal foraging. Goodwin Series 10: 66–89.Google Scholar
  10. Backwell, L., D’Errico, F., and Wadley, L. (2008). Middle Stone Age bone tools from the Howiesons Poort layers, Sibudu Cave, South Africa. Journal of Archaeological Science 35: 1566–1580.Google Scholar
  11. Barham, L. (2000). Mumbwa Caves 1993–1996. In Barham, L. (ed.), The Middle Stone Age of Zambia, Western Academic and Specialist Press, Bristol, pp. 11–42.Google Scholar
  12. Barham, L., Pinto, A. C., and Andrews, P. (2000). The Mumbwa Caves behaviourial record. In Barham, L. (ed.), The Middle Stone Age of Zambia, Western Academic and Specialist Press, Bristol, pp. 81–148.Google Scholar
  13. Bar-Yosef, O., Vandermeersch, B., Arensburg, B., Belfer-Cohen, A., Goldberg, P., Laville, H., Meignen, L., Rak, Y., Speth, J. D., Tchernov, E., Tillier, A.-M., and Weiner, S. (1992). The excavations in Kebara Cave, Mt. Carmel [and comments and replies]. Current Anthropology 33: 497–550.Google Scholar
  14. Beaumont, P. B., and Vogel, J. C. (2006). On a timescale for the past million years of human history in central South Africa. South African Journal of Science 102: 217–228.Google Scholar
  15. Beaumont, P. B., de Villiers, K., and Vogel, J. C. (1978). Modern man in sub-Saharan Africa prior to 49,000 years BP: A review and reevaluation with particular reference to Border Cave. South African Journal of Science 74: 409–419.Google Scholar
  16. Bellomo, R. V. (1993). A methodological approach for identifying archaeological evidence of fire resulting from human activities. Journal of Archaeological Science 20: 525–553.Google Scholar
  17. Bellomo, R. V. (1994). Methods of determining early hominid behavioral activities associated with the controlled use of fire at FxJj 20 Main, Koobi Fora, Kenva. Journal of Human Evolution 27: 173–195.Google Scholar
  18. Bellomo, R. V., and Harris, J. W. (1990). Preliminary report of actualistic studies of fire within Virunga National Park, Zaire: Towards an understanding of archaeological occurrences. In Boaz, N. T. (ed.), Evolution of Environments and Hominidae in the African Western Rift Valley, Virginia Museum of Natural History, Martinsville, pp. 317–338.Google Scholar
  19. Bentsen, S. E. (2012). Size matters: Preliminary results from an experimental approach to interpret Middle Stone Age hearths. Quaternary International 270: 95–102.Google Scholar
  20. Berna, F., Goldberg, P., Horwitz, L. K., Brink, J., Holt, S., Bamford, M., and Chazan, M. (2012). Microstratigraphic evidence of in situ fire in the Acheulean strata of Wonderwerk Cave, Northern Cape Province, South Africa. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 109: 1215–1220.Google Scholar
  21. Braadbaart, F., and Poole, I. (2008). Morphological, chemical and physical changes during charcoalification of wood and its relevance to archaeological contexts. Journal of Archaeological Science 35: 2434–2445.Google Scholar
  22. Brain, C. K. (1993a). A taphonomic overview of the Swartkrans fossil assemblages. In Brain, C. K. (ed.), Swartkrans: A Cave’s Chronicle of Early Man, Transvaal Museum, Pretoria, pp. 257–264.Google Scholar
  23. Brain, C. K. (1993b). The occurrence of burnt bones at Swartkrans and their implications for the control of fire by early hominids. In Brain, C. K. (ed.), Swartkrans: A Cave’s Chronicle of Early Man, Transvaal Museum, Pretoria, pp. 229–242.Google Scholar
  24. Brain, C. K., and Sillen, A. (1988). Evidence from the Swartkrans cave for the earliest use of fire. Nature 336: 464–466.Google Scholar
  25. Brooks, A. S., Nevell, L., Yellen, J. E., and Hartman, G. (2006). Projectile technologies of the African MSA: Implications for modern human origins. In Hovers, E., and Kuhn, S. L. (eds.), Transitions Before the Transition: Evolution and Stability in the Middle Palaeolithic and Middle Stone Age, Springer, New York, pp. 233–255.Google Scholar
  26. Brown, K. S., Marean, C. W., Herries, A. I. R., Jacobs, Z., Tribolo, C., Braun, D., Roberts, D. L., Meyer, M. C., and Bernatchez, J. (2009). Fire as an engineering tool of early modern humans. Science 325: 859–862.Google Scholar
  27. Brown, K. S., Marean, C. W., Jacobs, Z., Schoville, B. J., Oestmo, S., Fisher, E. C., Bernatchez, J., Karkanas, P., and Matthews, T. (2012). An early and enduring advanced technology originating 71,000 years ago in South Africa. Nature 491: 590–593.Google Scholar
  28. Butzer, K. W. (1973). Geology of Nelson Bay Cave, Robberg, South Africa. South African Archaeological Bulletin 28: 97–110.Google Scholar
  29. Butzer, K. W. (1978). Sediment stratigraphy of the Middle Stone Age sequence at Klasies River Mouth, Tsitsikama Coast, South Africa. South African Archaeological Bulletin 33: 141–151.Google Scholar
  30. Butzer, K. W., Beaumont, P. B., and Vogel, J. C. (1978). Lithostratigraphy of Border Cave, KwaZulu, South Africa: A Middle Stone Age sequence beginning c. 195,000 BP. Journal of Archaeological Science 5: 317–341.Google Scholar
  31. Cahen, D., Keeley, L. H., and Noten, F. L. (1979). Stone tools, toolkits, and human behavior in prehistory [and comments and reply]. Current Anthropology 20: 661–683.Google Scholar
  32. Cain, C. R. (2005). Using burned animal bone to look at Middle Stone Age occupation and behavior. Journal of Archaeological Science 32: 873–884.Google Scholar
  33. Cain, C. R. (2006). Human activity suggested by the taphonomy of 60 ka and 50 ka faunal remains from Sibudu Cave. Southern African Humanities 18: 241–260.Google Scholar
  34. Carbonell, E., Bermudez de Castro, J. M., Pares, J. M., Perez-Gonzalez, A., Cuenca-Bescos, G., Olle, A., Mosquera, M., Huguet, R., Van der Made, J., Rosas, A., Sala, R., Vallverdu, J., Garcia, N., Granger, D. E., Martinon-Torres, M., Rodriguez, X. P., Stock, G. M., Verges, J. M., Allue, E., Burjachs, F., Caceres, I., Canals, A., Benito, A., Diez, C., Lozano, M., Mateos, A., Navazo, M., Rodriguez, J., Rosell, J., and Arsuaga, J. L. (2008). The first hominin of Europe. Nature 452: 465–469.Google Scholar
  35. Carmody, R. N., and Wrangham, R. W. (2009). The energetic significance of cooking. Journal of Human Evolution 57: 379–391.Google Scholar
  36. Carter, P. L. (1977). The Prehistory of Eastern Lesotho, Ph.D. dissertation, University of Cambridge, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  37. Carter, P. L., Mitchell, P., and Vinnicombe, P. (1988). Sehonghong: The Middle and Later Stone Age Industrial Sequence at a Lesotho Rock-Shelter, BAR International Series No. 406, Archaeopress, Oxford.Google Scholar
  38. Cartwright, C., and Parkington, J. (1997). The wood charcoal assemblages from Elands Bay Cave, Southwestern Cape: Principles, procedures and preliminary interpretation. The South African Archaeological Bulletin 52: 59–72.Google Scholar
  39. Caspar, J.-P., and De Bie, M. (1996). Preparing for the hunt in the Late Paleolithic camp at Rekem, Belgium. Journal of Field Archaeology 23: 437–460.Google Scholar
  40. Chazan, M., and Horwitz, L. K. (2009). Milestones in the development of symbolic behaviour: A case study from Wonderwerk Cave, South Africa. World Archaeology 41: 521–539.Google Scholar
  41. Clark, J. D., and Harris, J. W. (1985). Fire and its roles in early hominid lifeways. The African Archaeological Review 3: 3–27.Google Scholar
  42. Clark, J. L., and Ligouis, B. (2010). Burned bone in the Howieson’s Poort and post-Howieson’s Poort Middle Stone Age deposits at Sibudu (South Africa): Behavioral and taphonomic implications. Journal of Archaeological Science 37: 2650–2661.Google Scholar
  43. Cooke, C. K. (1963). Report on excavations at Pomongwe and Tshangula caves, Matopo Hills, Southern Rhodesia. South African Archaeological Bulletin 18: 73–151.Google Scholar
  44. Coulson, S., Staurset, S., and Walker, N. (2011). Ritualized behavior in the Middle Stone Age: Evidence from Rhino Cave, Tsodilo Hills, Botswana. PaleoAnthropology 2011: 18–61.Google Scholar
  45. Courty, M. A., Goldberg, P. B., and Macphail, R. I. (1989). Soils and Micromorphology in Archaeology, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  46. Cowling, R. M., Cartwright, C. R., Parkington, J. E., and Allsopp, J. C. (1999). Fossil wood charcoal assemblages from Elands Bay Cave, South Africa: Implications for Late Quaternary vegetation and climates in the winter-rainfall fynbos biome. Journal of Biogeography 26: 367–378.Google Scholar
  47. Daniau, A.-L., d’Errico, F., and Sánchez, G. M. (2010). Testing the hypothesis of fire use for ecosystem management by Neanderthal and Upper Palaeolithic modern human populations. PLoS ONE 5: e9157.Google Scholar
  48. De Lumley, H. (1969). A Paleolithic camp at Nice. Scientific American 220: 42–50.Google Scholar
  49. Deacon, H. J. (1979). Excavations at Boomplaas cave: A sequence through the upper Pleistocene and Holocene in South Africa. World Archaeology 10: 241–257.Google Scholar
  50. Deacon, H. J. (1989). Late Pleistocene palaeoecology and archaeology in the Southern Cape, South Africa. In Mellars, P., and Stringer, C. (eds.), The Human Evolution: Behavioural and Biological Perspectives on the Origins of Modern Humans, Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh, pp. 547–564.Google Scholar
  51. Deacon, H. J. (1993). Planting an idea: An archaeology of Stone Age gatherers in South Africa. The South African Archaeological Bulletin 48: 86–93.Google Scholar
  52. Deacon, H. J. (1995). Two Late Pleistocene-Holocene archaeological depositories from the Southern Cape, South Africa. The South African Archaeological Bulletin 50: 121–131.Google Scholar
  53. Deacon, H. J., and Geleijnse, V. B. (1988). The stratigraphy and sedimentology of the main site sequence, Klasies River, South Africa. South African Archaeological Bulletin 43: 5–14.Google Scholar
  54. Deacon, J. (1979). Guide to Archaeological Sites in the Southern Cape, Occasional Publication, Department of Archaeology, University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch.Google Scholar
  55. Deacon, J. (1995). An unsolved mystery at the Howieson’s Poort name site. South African Archaeological Bulletin 50: 110–120.Google Scholar
  56. d’Errico, F., and Henshilwood, C. S. (2007). Additional evidence for bone technology in the southern African Middle Stone Age. Journal of Human Evolution 52: 142–163.Google Scholar
  57. d’Errico, F., Henshilwood, C. S., Vanhaeren, M. F., and van Niekerk, K. (2005). Nassarius kraussianus shell beads from Blombos Cave: Evidence for symbolic behaviour in the Middle Stone Age. Journal of Human Evolution 48: 3–24.Google Scholar
  58. d’Errico, F., Vanhaeren, M., and Wadley, L. (2008). Possible shell beads from the Middle Stone Age layers of Sibudu Cave, South Africa. Journal of Archaeological Science 35: 2675–2685.Google Scholar
  59. d’Errico, F., García Moreno, R., and Rifkin, R. F. (2012). Technological, elemental and colorimetric analysis of an engraved ochre fragment from the Middle Stone Age levels of Klasies River Cave 1, South Africa. Journal of Archaeological Science 39: 942–952.Google Scholar
  60. Dewar, G., and Stewart, B. A. (2012). Preliminary results of excavations at Spitzkloof Rockshelter, Richtersveld, South Africa. Quaternary International 270: 30–39.Google Scholar
  61. Domanski, M., Webb, J. A., and Boland, J. (1994). Mechanical properties of stone artefact materials and the effect of heat treatment. Archaeometry 36: 177–208.Google Scholar
  62. Flenniken, J. J., and White, J. P. (1983). Heat treatment of siliceous rocks and its implications for Australian prehistory. Australian Aboriginal Studies 1: 43–47.Google Scholar
  63. Gabunia, L., and Vekua, A. (1995). A Plio-Pleistocene hominid from Dmanisi, East Georgia, Caucasus. Nature 373: 509–512.Google Scholar
  64. Gabunia, L., Vekua, A., Lordkipanidze, D., Swisher, C. C., Ferring, R., Justus, A., Nioradze, M., Tvalchrelidze, M., Antón, S. C., Bosinski, G., Jöris, O., de Lumley, M.-A., Majsuradze, G., and Mouskhelishvili, A. (2000). Earliest Pleistocene hominid cranial remains from Dmanisi, Republic of Georgia: Taxonomy, geological setting, and age. Science 288: 1019–1025.Google Scholar
  65. Gamble, C. S. (1999). The Palaeolithic Societies of Europe, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  66. Goldberg, P. (2000). Micromorphology and site formation at Die Kelders Cave I, South Africa. Journal of Human Evolution 38: 43–90.Google Scholar
  67. Goldberg, P., Weiner, S., Bar-Yosef, O., Xu, Q., and Liu, J. (2001). Site formation processes at Zhoukoudian, China. Journal of Human Evolution 41: 483–530.Google Scholar
  68. Goldberg, P., Miller, C., Schiegl, S., Ligouis, B., Berna, F., Conard, N. J., and Wadley, L. (2009). Bedding, hearths, and site maintenance in the Middle Stone Age of Sibudu Cave, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences 1: 95–122.Google Scholar
  69. Goren-Inbar, N., Alperson, N., Kislev, M. E., Simchoni, O., Melamed, Y., Ben-Nun, A., and Werker, E. (2004). Evidence of hominin control of fire at Gesher Benot Ya`aqov, Israel. Science 304: 725–727.Google Scholar
  70. Gowlett, J. A. (2006). The early settlement of northern Europe: Fire history in the context of climate change and the social brain. Comptes Rendus Palevol 5: 299–310.Google Scholar
  71. Grün, R., and Beaumont, P. (2001). Border Cave revisited: A revised ESR chronology. Journal of Human Evolution 40: 467–482.Google Scholar
  72. Halkett, D., Hart, T., Yates, R., Volman, T. P., Parkington, J. E., Orton, J., Klein, R. G., Cruz-Uribe, K., and Avery, G. (2003). First excavation of intact Middle Stone Age layers at Ysterfontein, Western Cape Province, South Africa: Implications for Middle Stone Age ecology. Journal of Archaeological Science 30: 955–971.Google Scholar
  73. Hanson, M., and Cain, C. R. (2007). Examining histology to identify burned bone. Journal of Archaeological Science 34: 1902–1913.Google Scholar
  74. Henderson, Z. (1992). The context of some Middle Stone Age hearths at Klasies River Shelter 1B: Implications for understanding human behaviour. Southern African Field Archaeology 1: 14–26.Google Scholar
  75. Henshilwood, C. S., and Dubreuil, B. (2011). The Still Bay and Howiesons Poort, 77-59 ka. Current Anthropology 52: 361–400.Google Scholar
  76. Henshilwood, C. S., d’Errico, F., Marean, C. W., Milo, R. G., and Yates, R. (2001a). An early bone tool industry from the Middle Stone Age at Blombos Cave, South Africa: Implications for the origins of modern human behaviour, symbolism and language. Journal of Human Evolution 41: 631–678.Google Scholar
  77. Henshilwood, C. S., Sealy, J. C., Yates, R., Cruz-Uribe, K., Goldberg, P., Grine, F. E., Klein, R. G., Poggenpoel, C., Van Niekerk, K., and Watts, I. (2001b). Blombos Cave, Southern Cape, South Africa: Preliminary report on the 1992–1999 excavations of the Middle Stone Age levels. Journal of Archaeological Science 28: 421–448.Google Scholar
  78. Henshilwood, C. S., d’Errico, F., Yates, R., Jacobs, Z., Tribolo, C., Duller, G. A., Mercier, N., Sealy, J. C., Valladas, H., Watts, I., and Wintle, A. G. (2002). Emergence of modern human behavior: Middle Stone Age engravings from South Africa. Science 295: 1278–1280.Google Scholar
  79. Henshilwood, C. S., d’Errico, F., and Watts, I. (2009). Engraved ochres from the Middle Stone Age levels at Blombos Cave, South Africa. Journal of Human Evolution 57: 27–47.Google Scholar
  80. Herries, A. I., and Fisher, E. C. (2010). Multidimensional GIS modeling of magnetic mineralogy as a proxy for fire use and spatial patterning: Evidence from the Middle Stone Age bearing sea cave of Pinnacle Point 13B (Western Cape, South Africa). Journal of Human Evolution 59: 306–320.Google Scholar
  81. Herries, A. I., and Latham, A. G. (2009). Archaeomagnetic studies at the Cave of Hearths. In McNabb, J., and Sinclair, A. (eds.), The Cave of Hearths: Makapan Middle Pleistocene Research Project: Field Research by Anthony Sinclair and Patrick Quinney, 1996–2001, BAR International Series 1940, Archaeopress, Oxford, pp. 59–64.Google Scholar
  82. Hodgskiss, T. (2012). An investigation into the properties of the ochre from Sibudu, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Southern African Humanities 24: 99–120.Google Scholar
  83. Howell, F. C. (1966). Observations on the earlier phases of the European Lower Paleolithic. American Anthropologist 68: 88–201.Google Scholar
  84. Jacobs, Z., Duller, G. A., Wintle, A. G., and Henshilwood, C. S. (2006). Extending the chronology of deposits at Blombos Cave, South Africa, back to 140 ka using optical dating of single and multiple grains of quartz. Journal of Human Evolution 51: 255–273.Google Scholar
  85. Jacobs, Z., Roberts, R. G., Galbraith, R. F., Deacon, H. J., Grün, R., Mackay, A., Mitchell, P., Vogelsang, R., and Wadley, L. (2008). Ages for the Middle Stone Age of southern Africa: Implications for human behavior and dispersal. Science 322: 733–735.Google Scholar
  86. James, S. R. (1989). Hominid use of fire in the Lower and Middle Pleistocene: A review of the evidence [and comments and replies]. Current Anthropology 30: 1–26.Google Scholar
  87. Kaplan, J. M. (1989). 45000 years of hunter-gatherer history in Natal as seen from Umhlatuzana Rock Shelter. Goodwin Series 6: 7–16.Google Scholar
  88. Kaplan, J. (1990). The Umhlatuzana rock shelter sequence: 100,000 years of Stone Age history. Natal Museum Journal of Humanities 2: 1–94.Google Scholar
  89. Karkanas, P., and Goldberg, P. (2010). Site formation processes at Pinnacle Point Cave 13B (Mossel Bay, Western Cape Province, South Africa): Resolving stratigraphic and depositional complexities with micromorphology. Journal of Human Evolution 59: 256–273.Google Scholar
  90. Karkanas, P., Shahack-Gross, R., Ayalon, A., Bar-Matthews, M., Barkai, R., Frumkin, A., Gopher, A., and Stiner, M. C. (2007). Evidence for habitual use of fire at the end of the Lower Paleolithic: Site-formation processes at Qesem Cave, Israel. Journal of Human Evolution 53: 197–212.Google Scholar
  91. Klein, R. G. (1970). Problems in the study of the Middle Stone Age of South Africa. The South African Archaeological Bulletin 25: 127–135.Google Scholar
  92. Klein, R. G., Avery, G., Cruz-Uribe, K., Halkett, D., Parkington, J. E., Steele, T., Volman, T. P., and Yates, R. (2004). The Ysterfontein 1 Middle Stone Age site, South Africa, and early human exploitation of coastal resources. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 101: 5708–5715.Google Scholar
  93. Koller, J., Baumer, U., and Mania, D. (2001). High-tech in the Middle Palaeolithic: Neandertal-manufactured pitch identified. European Journal of Archaeology 4: 385–397.Google Scholar
  94. Kuman, K., and Clarke, R. J. (1986). Florisbad: New investigations at a Middle Stone Age hominid site in South Africa. Geoarchaeology 1: 103–125.Google Scholar
  95. Kuman, K., Inbar, M., and Clarke, R. J. (1999). Palaeoenvironments and cultural sequence of the Florisbad Middle Stone Age hominid site, South Africa. Journal of Archaeological Science 26: 1409–1425.Google Scholar
  96. Langejans, G. H., Van Niekerk, K. L., Dusseldorp, G. L., and Thackeray, J. F. (2012). Middle Stone Age shellfish exploitation: Potential indications for mass collecting and resource intensification at Blombos Cave and Klasies River, South Africa. Quaternary International 270: 80–94.Google Scholar
  97. Leroi-Gourhan, A., and Brézillon, M. N. (1972). Fouilles de Pincevent; essai d’analyse ethnographique d’un habitat magdalénien (La section 36), Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris.Google Scholar
  98. Lombard, M. (2007). The gripping nature of ochre: The association of ochre with Howiesons Poort adhesives and Later Stone Age mastics from South Africa. Journal of Human Evolution 53: 406–419.Google Scholar
  99. Lombard, M. (2008). From testing times to high resolution: The late Pleistocene Middle Stone Age of South Africa and beyond. Goodwin Series 10: 180–188.Google Scholar
  100. Louw, A. W. (1969). Bushman Rock Shelter, Ohrigstad, eastern Transvaal: A preliminary investigation, 1965. South African Archaeological Bulletin 24: 39–51.Google Scholar
  101. Mackay, A. (2006). A characterization of the MSA stone artefact assemblage from the 1984 excavations at Klein Kliphuis, Western Cape. The South African Archaeological Bulletin 61: 181–188.Google Scholar
  102. Mackay, A., and Welz, A. (2008). Engraved ochre from a Middle Stone Age context at Klein Kliphuis in the Western Cape of South Africa. Journal of Archaeological Science 35: 1521–1532.Google Scholar
  103. Malan, B. D., and Cooke, H. B. (1941). A preliminary account of the Wonderwerk Cave, Kuruman district. South African Journal of Science 37: 300–312.Google Scholar
  104. Marean, C. W., Goldberg, P., Avery, G., Grine, F. E., and Klein, R. G. (2000). Middle Stone Age stratigraphy and excavations at Die Kelders Cave 1 (Western Cape Province, South Africa): The 1992, 1993, and 1995 field seasons. Journal of Human Evolution 38: 7–42.Google Scholar
  105. Marean, C. W., Nilssen, P., Brown, K., Jerardino, A., and Stynder, D. (2004). Paleoanthropological investigations of Middle Stone Age sites at Pinnacle Point, Mossel Bay (South Africa): Archaeology and hominid remains from the 2000 Field Season. PaleoAnthropology 2004: 14–83.Google Scholar
  106. Marean, C. W., Bar-Matthews, M., Bernatchez, J., Fisher, E., Goldberg, P., Herries, A. I., Jacobs, Z., Jerardino, A., Karkanas, P., Minichillo, T., Nilssen, P. J., Thompson, E., Watts, I., and Williams, H. M. (2007). Early human use of marine resources and pigment in South Africa during the Middle Pleistocene. Nature 449: 905–908.Google Scholar
  107. Marean, C. W., Bar-Matthews, M., Fisher, E., Goldberg, P., Herries, A., Karakans, P., Nilssen, P. J., and Thompson, E. (2010). The stratigraphy of the Middle Stone Age sediments at Pinnacle Point Cave 13B (Mossel Bay, Western Cape Province, South Africa). Journal of Human Evolution 59: 234–255.Google Scholar
  108. Mason, R. (1988). Cave of Hearths Makapansgat Transvaal, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg.Google Scholar
  109. Mazza, P. P., Martini, F., Sala, B., Magi, M., Colombini, M. P., Giachi, G., Landucci, F., Lemorini, C., Modugno, F., and Ribechini, E. (2006). A new Palaeolithic discovery: Tar-hafted stone tools in a European mid-Pleistocene bone-bearing bed. Journal of Archaeological Science 33: 1310–1318.Google Scholar
  110. McBrearty, S., and Brooks, A. S. (2000). The revolution that wasn’t: A new interpretation of the origin of modern human behavior. Journal of Human Evolution 39: 453–563.Google Scholar
  111. Mercader, J., Asmerom, Y., Bennett, T., Raja, M., and Skinner, A. (2009). Initial excavation and dating of Ngalue Cave: A Middle Stone Age site along the Niassa Rift, Mozambique. Journal of Human Evolution 57: 63–74.Google Scholar
  112. Mercieca, A. (2000). Burnt and broken: An experimental study of heat fracturing in silcrete. Australian Archaeology 51: 40–47.Google Scholar
  113. Miller, C. E., Goldberg, P., and Berna, F. (2013). Geoarchaeological investigations at Diepkloof Rock Shelter, Western Cape, South Africa. Journal of Archaeological Science 40: 3432–3452.Google Scholar
  114. Milo, R. G. (1998). Evidence for hominid predation at Klasies River Mouth, South Africa, and its implications for the behaviour of early modern humans. Journal of Archaeological Science 25: 99–133.Google Scholar
  115. Mourre, V., Villa, P., and Henshilwood, C. (2010). Early use of pressure flaking on lithic artifacts at Blombos Cave, South Africa. Science 330: 659–662.Google Scholar
  116. Munalula, F., and Meincken, M. (2009). An evaluation of South African fuelwood with regards to calorific value and environmental impact. Biomass and Bioenergy 33: 415–420.Google Scholar
  117. Nicholson, R. A. (1993). A morphological investigation of burnt animal bone and an evaluation of its utility in archaeology. Journal of Archaeological Science 20: 411–428.Google Scholar
  118. Oakley, K. (1954). Evidence of fire in South African Cave deposits. Nature 174: 261–262.Google Scholar
  119. Oakley, K. (1961). On man’s use of fire, with comments on tool-making and hunting. Social Life of Early Man, Wenner-Gren Foundation, New York, pp. 176–193.Google Scholar
  120. Opperman, H. (1996). Strathalan Cave B, North-eastern Cape Province, South Africa: Evidence for human behaviour 29,000–26,000 years ago. Quaternary International 33: 45–53.Google Scholar
  121. Opperman, H., and Heydenrych, B. (1990). A 22,000 year-old Middle Stone Age camp site with plant food remains from the North-eastern Cape. The South African Archaeological Bulletin 45: 93–99.Google Scholar
  122. Parkington, J., and Poggenpoel, C. (1987). Diepkloof rock shelter. In Parkington, J., and Hall, M. (eds.), Papers in the Prehistory of the Western Cape, South Africa, BAR International Series No. 332, Archaeopress, Oxford, pp. 269–293.Google Scholar
  123. Parkington, J., Poggenpoel, C., Rigaud, J.-P., and Tixier, P.-J. (2005). From tool to symbol: The behavioural context of intentionally marked ostrich eggshell from Diepkloof, Western Cape. In d’Errico, F., and Backwell, L. (eds.), From Tools to Symbols: From Early Hominids to Modern Humans, Witwatersrand University Press, Johannesburg, pp. 475–492.Google Scholar
  124. Pavlov, P., Roebroeks, W., and Svendsen, J. I. (2004). The Pleistocene colonization of northeastern Europe: A report on recent research. Journal of Human Evolution 47: 3–17.Google Scholar
  125. Pickering, T. (2012). What’s new is old: Comments on (more) archaeological evidence of one-million-year-old fire from South Africa. South African Journal of Science 108: 1–2.Google Scholar
  126. Pickering, T. R., Egeland, C. P., Domínguez-Rodrigo, M., Brain, C. K., and Schnell, A. G. (2008). Testing the “shift in the balance of power” hypothesis at Swartkrans, South Africa: Hominid cave use and subsistence behavior in the Early Pleistocene. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 27: 30–45.Google Scholar
  127. Plug, I. (1981). Some research results on the Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene deposits of Bushman RockShelter, Eastern Transvaal. South African Archaeological Bulletin 36: 14–21.Google Scholar
  128. Preece, R. C., Gowlett, J. A., Parfitt, S. A., Bridgland, D. R., and Lewis, S. G. (2006). Humans in the Hoxnian: Habitat, context and fire use at Beeches Pit, West Stow, Suffolk, UK. Journal of Quaternary Science 21: 485–496.Google Scholar
  129. Pruetz, J. D., and LaDuke, T. C. (2010). Brief communication: Reaction to fire by savanna chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) at Fongoli, Senegal: Conceptualization of “fire behavior” and the case for a chimpanzee model. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 141: 646–650.Google Scholar
  130. Purdy, B. A., and Brooks, H. K. (1971). Thermal alteration of silica minerals: An archeological approach. Science 173: 322–325.Google Scholar
  131. Rifkin, R. F. (2012). Processing ochre in the Middle Stone Age: Testing the inference of prehistoric behaviours from actualistically derived experimental data. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 31: 174–195.Google Scholar
  132. Rigaud, J.-P., Texier, P.-J., Parkington, J., and Poggenpoel, C. (2006). Le mobilier Stillbay et Howiesons Poort de l’abri Diepkloof: La chronologie du Middle Stone Age sud-africain et ses implications. Comptes Rendus Palevol 5: 839–849.Google Scholar
  133. Rightmire, G. P., Lordkipanidze, D., and Vekua, A. (2006). Anatomical descriptions, comparative studies and evolutionary significance of the hominin skulls from Dmanisi, Republic of Georgia. Journal of Human Evolution 50: 115–141.Google Scholar
  134. Robbins, L. H., Brook, G. A., Murphy, M. L., Campbell, A. C., Melear, N., and Downey, W. S. (2000). Late Quatenary archaeological and palaeoenvironmental data from sediments at Rhino Cave, Tsodilo Hills, Botswana. Southern African Field Archaeology 9: 17–31.Google Scholar
  135. Roebroeks, W. (2001). Hominid behaviour and the earliest occupation of Europe: An exploration. Journal of Human Evolution 41: 437–461.Google Scholar
  136. Roebroeks, W., and Villa, P. (2011a). On the earliest evidence for habitual use of fire in Europe. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 108: 5209–5214.Google Scholar
  137. Roebroeks, W., and Villa, P. (2011b). Reply to Sandgathe et al.: Neandertal use of fire. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 108: E299.Google Scholar
  138. Sampson, C. G. (1968). The Middle Stone Age Industries of the Orange River Scheme Area, National Museum, Bloemfontein.Google Scholar
  139. Sampson, C. G. (1972). The Stone Age Industries of the Orange River Scheme and South Africa, National Museum, Bloemfontein.Google Scholar
  140. Sandgate, D. M., Dibble, H. L., Goldberg, P., McPherron, S. P., Turq, A., Niven, L., and Hodgkins, J. (2011). On the role of fire in Neandertal adaptations in western Europe: Evidence from Pech de l’Azé and Roc de Marsal, France. PaleoAnthropology 2011: 216–242.Google Scholar
  141. Schiegl, S., Goldberg, P., Bar-Yosef, O., and Weiner, S. (1996). Ash deposits in Hayonim and Kebara Caves, Israel: Macroscopic, microscopic and mineralogical observations, and their archaeological implications. Journal of Archaeological Science 23: 763–781.Google Scholar
  142. Schiegl, S., Stockhammer, P., Scott, C., and Wadley, L. (2004). A mineralological and phytolith study of the Middle Stone Age hearths in Sibudu Cave, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. South African Journal of Science 100: 185–194.Google Scholar
  143. Schmidt, P., Masse, S., Laurent, G., Slodczyk, A., Le Bourhis, E., Perrenoud, C., Livage, J., and Fröhlich, F. (2012). Crystallographic and structural transformations of sedimentary chalcedony in flint upon heat treatment. Journal of Archaeological Science 39: 135–144.Google Scholar
  144. Schmidt, P., Porraz, G., Slodczyk, A., Bellot-Gurlet, L., Archer, W., and Miller, C. E. (2013). Heat treatment in the South African Middle Stone Age: Temperature induced transformations of silcrete and their technological implications. Journal of Archaeological Science 40: 3519–3531.Google Scholar
  145. Schweitzer, F. R. (1970). A preliminary report of excavations of a cave at Die Kelders. South African Archaeological Bulletin 25: 136–138.Google Scholar
  146. Shafizadeh, F., and DeGroot, W. F. (1976). Combustion characteristics of cellulosic fuels. In Shafizadeh, F., Sarkanen, K. V., and Tillman, D. A. (eds.), Thermal Uses and Properties of Carbohydrates and Lignings,, Academic Press, New York, pp. 1–8.Google Scholar
  147. Shahack-Gross, R. (2011). Herbivorous livestock dung: Formation, taphonomy, methods for identification, and archaeological significance. Journal of Archaeological Science 38: 205–218.Google Scholar
  148. Shea, J. J. (2011). Homo sapiens is as Homo sapiens was. Current Anthropology 52: 1–35.Google Scholar
  149. Shipman, P., Foster, G., and Schoeninger, M. (1984). Burnt bones and teeth: An experimental study of color, morphology, crystal structure and shrinkage. Journal of Archaeological Science 11: 307–325.Google Scholar
  150. Sievers, C. (2006). Seeds from the Middle Stone Age layers at Sibudu Cave. Southern African Humanities 18: 203–222.Google Scholar
  151. Sievers, C., and Muasya, A. M. (2011). Identification of the sedge Cladium mariscus subsp. jamaicense and its possible use in the Middle Stone Age at Sibudu, KwaZulu-Natal. Southern African Humanities 23: 77–86.Google Scholar
  152. Sievers, C., and Wadley, L. (2008). Going underground: Experimental carbonization of fruiting structures under hearths. Journal of Archaeological Science 35: 2909–2917.Google Scholar
  153. Singer, R., and Wymer, J. (1982). The Middle Stone Age at Klasies River Mouth in South Africa, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  154. Soriano, S., Villa, P., and Wadley, L. (2007). Blade technology and tool forms in the Middle Stone Age of South Africa: The Howiesons Poort and post-Howiesons Poort at Rose Cottage Cave. Journal of Archaeological Science 34: 681–703.Google Scholar
  155. Speth, J. (2004). News flash: Negative evidence convicts Neanderthals of gross mental incompetence. World Archaeology 36: 519–526.Google Scholar
  156. Speth, J. D. (2006). Housekeeping, Neandertal-style: Hearth placement and midden formation in Kebara Cave (Israel). In Hovers, E., and Kuhn, S. L. (eds.), Transitions Before the Transition. Evolution and Stability in the Middle Palaeolithic and Middle Stone Age, Springer, New York, pp. 171–188.Google Scholar
  157. Stiner, M. C., Kuhn, S. L., Weiner, S., and Bar-Yosef, O. (1995). Differential burning, recrystallization, and fragmentation of archaeological bone. Journal of Archaeological Science 22: 223–237.Google Scholar
  158. Texier, P.-J., Porraz, G., Parkington, J., Rigaud, J.-P., Poggenpoel, C., Miller, C., Tribolo, C., Cartwright, C., Coudenneau, A., Klein, R., Steele, T., and Verna, C. (2010). A Howiesons Poort tradition of engraving ostrich eggshell containers dated to 60,000 years ago at Diepkloof Rock Shelter, South Africa. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 107: 6180–6185.Google Scholar
  159. Théry-Parisot, I. (2001). Économie des combustibles au Paléolithique, CNRS Editions, Paris.Google Scholar
  160. Théry-Parisot, I. (2002). Fuel management (bone and wood) during the Lower Aurignacian in the Pataud Rock Shelter (Lower Palaeolithic, Les Eyzies de Tayac, Dordogne, France): Contribution of experimentation. Journal of Archaeological Science 29: 1415–1421.Google Scholar
  161. Théry-Parisot, I., Chabal, L., and Chrzavzez, J. (2010). Anthracology and taphonomy, from wood gathering to charcoal analysis: A review of the taphonomic processes modifying charcoal assemblages, in archaeological contexts. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 291: 142–153.Google Scholar
  162. Thoms, A. V. (2009). Rocks of ages: Propagation of hot-rock cookery in western North America. Journal of Archaeological Science 36: 573–591.Google Scholar
  163. Tobias, P. V. (1949). The excavation of Mwulu’s Cave, Potgietersrust District. South African Archaeological Society 4: 2–13.Google Scholar
  164. Tribolo, C., Mercier, N., Selo, M., Valladas, H., Joron, J. L., Reyss, J. L., Henshilwood, C. S., Sealy, J. C., and Yates, R. (2006). TL dating of burnt lithics from Blombos cave (South Africa): Further evidence for the antiquity of modern human behaviour. Archaeometry 48: 341–357.Google Scholar
  165. Tribolo, C., Mercier, N., Valladas, H., Joron, J. L., Guibert, P., Lefrais, Y., Selo, M., Texier, P.-J., Rigaud, J.-P., Porraz, G., Poggenpoel, C., Parkington, J., Texier, J.-P., and Lenoble, A. (2009). Thermoluminescence dating of a Stillbay–Howiesons Poort sequence at Diepkloof Rock Shelter (Western Cape, South Africa). Journal of Archaeological Science 36: 730–739.Google Scholar
  166. Tryon, C. A., and McBrearty, S. (2002). Tephrostratigraphy and the Acheulian to Middle Stone Age transition in the Kapthurin Formation, Kenya. Journal of Human Evolution 42: 211–235.Google Scholar
  167. Turner, A. (1992). Large carnivores and earliest European hominids: Changing determinants of resource availability during the Lower and Middle Pleistocene. Journal of Human Evolution 22: 109–126.Google Scholar
  168. Twomey, T. M. (2013). The cognitive implications of controlled fire use by early humans. Cambridge Archaeological Journal 23: 113–128.Google Scholar
  169. Valladas, H., Wadley, L., Mercier, N., Froget, L., Tribolo, C., Reyss, J. L., and Joron, J. L. (2005). Thermoluminescence dating on burnt lithics from Middle Stone Age layers at Rose Cottage Cave. South African Journal of Science 101: 169–174Google Scholar
  170. Vallverdú, J., Vaquero, M., Cáceres, I., Allué, E., Rosell, J., Saladié, P., Chacón, G., Ollé, A., Canals, A., Sala, R., Courty, M. A., and Carbonell, E. (2010). Sleeping activity area within the site structure of archaic human groups. Current Anthropology 51: 137–145.Google Scholar
  171. Vallverdú, J., Alonso, S., Bargalló, A., Bartrolí, R., Campeny, G., Carrancho, Á., Expósito, I., Fontanals, M., Gabucio, J., Gómez, B., Prats, J. M., Sañudo, P., Solé, À., Vilalta, J., and Carbonell, E. (2012). Combustion structures of archaeological level O and mousterian activity areas with use of fire at the Abric Romaní rockshelter (NE Iberian Peninsula). Quaternary International 247: 313–324.Google Scholar
  172. Van Riet Lowe, C. (1954). The Cave of Hearths. The South African Archaeological Bulletin 9: 25–29.Google Scholar
  173. Vaquero, M., and Pastó, I. (2001). The definition of spatial units in Middle Palaeolithic Sites: The hearth-related assemblages. Journal of Archaeological Science 28: 1209–1220.Google Scholar
  174. Vaquero, M., Vallverdú, J., Rosell, J., Pastó, I., and Allué, E. (2001). Neandertal behavior at the Middle Palaeolithic site of Abric Romaní, Capellades, Spain. Journal of Field Archaeology 28: 93–114.Google Scholar
  175. Vekua, A., Lordkipanidze, D., Rightmire, G. P., Agusti, J., Ferring, R., Maisuradze, G., Mouskhelishvili, A., Nioradze, M., De Leon, M. P., Tappen, M., Tvalchrelidze, M., and Zollikofer, C. (2002). A new skull of early Homo from Dmanisi, Georgia. Science 297: 85–89.Google Scholar
  176. Villa, P. (1983). Terra Amata and the Middle Pleistocene Archaeological Record of Southern France, University of California Press, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  177. Villa, P. (2010). Foreword: A view from Europe. In Alperson-Afil, N., and Goren-Inbar, N. (eds.), The Acheulian Site of Gesher Benot Ya‘aqov, Volume II: Ancient Flames and Controlled Use of Fire, Springer, New York, pp. ix–xiii.Google Scholar
  178. Villa, P., Delagnes, A., and Wadley, L. (2005). A late Middle Stone Age artifact assemblage from Sibudu (KwaZulu-Natal): Comparisons with the European Middle Paleolithic. Journal of Archaeological Science 32: 399–422.Google Scholar
  179. Villa, P., Soressi, M., Henshilwood, C. S., and Mourre, V. (2009). The Still Bay points of Blombos Cave (South Africa). Journal of Archaeological Science 36: 441–460.Google Scholar
  180. Vogelsang, R., Richter, J., Jacobs, Z., Eichhorn, B., Linseele, V., and Roberts, R. G. (2010). New excavations of Middle Stone Age deposits at Apollo 11 rockshelter, Namibia: Stratigraphy, archaeology, chronology and past environments. Journal of African Archaeology 8: 185–218.Google Scholar
  181. von den Driesch, A. (2004). The Middle Stone Age fish fauna from the Klasies River main site, South Africa. Anthropozoologica 39: 33–59.Google Scholar
  182. Wadley, L. (2001). What is cultural modernity? A general view and a South African perspective from Rose Cottage Cave. Cambridge Archaeological Journal 11: 201–221.Google Scholar
  183. Wadley, L. (2005). Putting ochre to the test: Replication studies of adhesives that may have been used for hafting tools in the Middle Stone Age. Journal of Human Evolution 49: 587–601.Google Scholar
  184. Wadley, L. (2006). The use of space in the Late Middle Stone Age of Rose Cottage Cave, South Africa: Was there a shift to modern behavior? In Hovers, E., and Kuhn, S. L. (eds.), Transitions Before the Transition: Evolution and Stability in the Middle Palaeolithic and Middle Stone Age, Springer, New York, pp. 279–294.Google Scholar
  185. Wadley, L. (2009). Post-depositional heating may cause over-representation of red-coloured ochre in stone age sites. South African Archaeological Bulletin 64: 166–171.Google Scholar
  186. Wadley, L. (2012). Some combustion features at Sibudu, South Africa, between 65,000 and 58,000 years ago. Quaternary International 247: 341–349.Google Scholar
  187. Wadley, L., and Jacobs, Z. (2006). Sibudu Cave: Background to the excavations, stratigraphy and dating. Southern African Humanities 18: 1–26.Google Scholar
  188. Wadley, L., Hodgskiss, T., and Grant, M. (2009). Implications for complex cognition from the hafting of tools with compound adhesives in the Middle Stone Age, South Africa. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106: 9590–9594.Google Scholar
  189. Wadley, L., Sievers, C., Bamford, M., Goldberg, P., Berna, F., and Miller, C. (2011). Middle Stone Age bedding construction and settlement patterns at Sibudu, South Africa. Science 334: 1388–1391.Google Scholar
  190. Wandsnider, L. (1997). The roasted and the boiled: Food composition and heat treatment with special emphasis on pit-hearth cooking. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 16: 1–48.Google Scholar
  191. Watts, I. (2002). Ochre in the Middle Stone Age of southern Africa: Ritualised display or hide preservative? The South African Archaeological Bulletin 57: 1–14.Google Scholar
  192. Watts, I. (2010). The pigments from Pinnacle Point Cave 13B, Western Cape, South Africa. Journal of Human Evolution 59: 392–411.Google Scholar
  193. Wintle, A. G., and Aitken, M. J. (1977). Thermoluminescence dating of burnt flint: Application to a Lower Palaeolithic site, Terra Amata. Archaeometry 19: 111–130.Google Scholar
  194. Wobber, V., Hare, B., and Wrangham, R. (2008). Great apes prefer cooked food. Journal of Human Evolution 55: 340–348.Google Scholar
  195. Wrangham, R. (2009). Catching Fire: How Cooking Made Us Human, Basic Books, New York.Google Scholar
  196. Wrangham, R., and Carmody, R. N. (2010). Human adaptation to the control of fire. Evolutionary Anthropology: Issues, News, and Reviews 19: 187–199.Google Scholar
  197. Wurz, S. (1999). The Howiesons Poort backed artefacts from Klasies River: An argument for symbolic behaviour. The South African Archaeological Bulletin 54: 38–50.Google Scholar
  198. Wurz, S. (2012). The significance of MIS 5 shell middens on the Cape coast: A lithic perspective from Klasies River and Ysterfontein 1. Quaternary International 270: 61–69.Google Scholar
  199. Yellen, J. E. (1977). Archaeological Approaches to the Present: Models for Reconstructing the Past, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  200. Zilhao, J. (2007). The emergence of ornaments and art: An archaeological perspective on the origins of “behavioral modernity.” Journal of Archaeological Research 15: 1–54.Google Scholar

Bibliography of recent literature

  1. Backwell, L. R., Parkinson, A. H., Roberts, E. M., d’Errico, F., and Huchet, J.-B. (2012). Criteria for identifying bone modification by termites in the fossil record. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 337–338: 72–87.Google Scholar
  2. Badenhorst, S., Mitchell, P., and Driver, J. C. (eds). (2008). People, places and animals of Africa: essays in honour of Ina Plug, BAR International series 1849, Archaeopress, Oxford, pp. 46–56.Google Scholar
  3. Bar-Matthews, M., Marean, C. W., Jacobs, Z., Karkanas, P., Fisher, E. C., Herries, A. I., Brown, K., Williams, H. M., Bernatchez, J., Ayalon, A., and Nilssen, P. J. (2010). A high resolution and continuous isotopic speleothem record of paleoclimate and paleoenvironment from 90 to 53 ka from Pinnacle Point on the south coast of South Africa. Quaternary Science Reviews 29: 2131–2145.Google Scholar
  4. Bernatchez, J. A. (2010). Taphonomic implications of orientation of plotted finds from Pinnacle Point 13B (Mossel Bay, Western Cape Province, South Africa). Journal of Human Evolution 59: 274–288.Google Scholar
  5. Botha, R. (2008). Prehistoric shell beads as a window on language evolution. Language and Communication 28: 197–212.Google Scholar
  6. Botha, R., and Knight, C. (eds). (2009). The Cradle of Language, Oxford University Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  7. Brusch, A. A., Sievers, C., and Wadely, L. (2012). Quantification of climate and vegetation from southern African Middle Stone Age sites: An application using Late Pleistocene plant material from Sibudu, South Africa. Quaternary Science Reviews 45: 7–17.Google Scholar
  8. Chase, B. M. (2010). South African palaeoenvironments during marine oxygen isotope stage 4: A context for the Howiesons Poort and Still Bay industries. Journal of Archaeological Science 37: 1359–1366.Google Scholar
  9. Clark, J. L., and Plug, I. (2008). Animal exploitation strategies during the South African Middle Stone Age: Howiesons Poort and post-Howiesons Poort fauna from Sibudu Cave. Journal of Human Evolution 54: 886–898.Google Scholar
  10. de Ruiter, D. J., Brophy, J. K., Lewis, P. J., Churchill, S. E., and Berger, L. (2008). Faunal assemblage composition and paleoenvironment of Plovers Lake, a Middle Stone Age locality in Gauteng Province, South Africa. Journal of Human Evolution 55: 1102–1117.Google Scholar
  11. Faith, J. T. (2008). Eland, buffalo, and wild pigs: Were Middle Stone Age humans ineffective hunters? Journal of Human Evolution 55: 24–36.Google Scholar
  12. Grine, F. E. (2012). Observations on Middle Stone Age human teeth from Klasies River Main Site, South Africa. Journal of Human Evolution 63: 750–758.Google Scholar
  13. Hall, G., Woodborne, S., and Scholes, M. (2008). Stable carbon isotope ratios from archaeological charcoal as palaeoenvironmental indicators. Chemical Geology 247: 384–400.Google Scholar
  14. Henshilwood, C. S., d’Errico, F., and Watts, I. (2009). Engraved ochres from the Middle Stone Age levels at Blombos Cave, South Africa. Journal of Human Evolution 57: 27–47.Google Scholar
  15. Henshilwood, C. S., d’Errico, F., van Niekerk, K. L., Coquinot, Y., Jacobs, Z., Lauritzen, S.-E., Menu, M., and García-Moreno, R. (2011). A 100,000-year-old ochre-processing workshop at Blombos Cave, South Africa. Science 334: 219–222.Google Scholar
  16. Jacobs, Z. (2010). An OSL chronology for the sedimentary deposits from Pinnacle Point Cave 13B: A punctuated presence. Journal of Human Evolution 59: 289–305.Google Scholar
  17. Jacobs, Z., and Roberts, R. G. (2009). Catalysts for Stone Age innovations. What might have triggered two short-lived bursts of technological and behavioral innovation in southern Africa during the Middle Stone Age? Communicative and Integrative Biology 2: 191–193.Google Scholar
  18. Jeradino, A., and Marean, C. W. (2010). Shellfish gathering, marine paleoecology and modern human behavior: perspectives from cave PP13B, Pinnacle Point, South Africa. Journal of Human Evolution 59: 412–424.Google Scholar
  19. Langejans, G. H. (2012). Middle Stone Age pièces esquillées from Sibudu Cave, South Africa: An initial micro-residue study. Journal of Archaeological Science 39: 1694–1704.Google Scholar
  20. Lombard, M. (2008). Finding resolution for the Howiesons Poort through the microscope: Micro-residue analysis of segments from Sibudu Cave, South Africa. Journal of Archaeological Science 35: 26–41.Google Scholar
  21. Lombard, M. (2009). The Howiesons Poort of South Africa amplified. South African Archaeological Bulletin 64: 4–12.Google Scholar
  22. Lombard, M. (2012). Thinking through the Middle Stone Age of sub-Saharan Africa. Quaternary International 270: 140–155.Google Scholar
  23. Lombard, H., and Haidle, M. N. (2012). Thinking a bow-and-arrow set: Cognitive implications of Middle Stone Age bow and stone-tipped arrow technology. Cambridge Archaeological Journal 22: 237–264.Google Scholar
  24. Lombard, M., and Pargeter, J. (2008). Hunting with Howiesons Poort segments: Pilot experimental study and the functional interpretation of archaeological tools. Journal of Archaeological Science 35: 26–41.Google Scholar
  25. Lombard, M., and Parsons, I. (2008). Blade and bladelet function and variability in risk management during the last 2000 years in the Northern Cape. South African Archaeological Bulletin 63: 18–27.Google Scholar
  26. Lombard, M., and Phillipson, L. (2010). Indications of bow and stone-tipped arrow use 64,000 years ago in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Antiquity 84: 635–648.Google Scholar
  27. Lombard, M., Sievers, C., and Ward, V. (eds). (2008). Current Themes in Middle Stone Age Research, Goodwin Series 10, South African Archaeological Society, Vlaeberg, and the Association of South African Professional Archaeologist.Google Scholar
  28. Mackay, A. (2008). A method for estimating edge length from flake dimensions: Use and implications for technological change in the southern African MSA. Journal of Archaeological Science 35: 614–622.Google Scholar
  29. Marean, C. W. (2010). Pinnacle Point Cave 13B (Western Cape Province, South Africa) in context: The Cape foral kingdom, shellfish, and modern human origins. Journal of Human Evolution 59: 425–443.Google Scholar
  30. Mercader, J. (2009). Mozambican grass seed consumption during the Middle Stone Age. Science 326:1680–1683.Google Scholar
  31. Mercader, J., Bennett, T., and Raja, M. (2008). Middle Stone Age starch acquisition in the Niassa Rift, Mozambique. Quaternary Research 70: 283–300.Google Scholar
  32. Pargeter, J., and Bradfield, J. (2012). The effects of Class I and II sized bovids on macrofracture formation and tool displacement: Results of a trampling experiment in a southern African Stone Age context. Journal of Field Archaeology 37: 238–251.Google Scholar
  33. Parkington, J. (2010). Coastal diet, encephalization, and innovative behaviors in the Late Middle Stone Age of southern Africa. In Cunnane, S. C., and Stewart, K. M. (eds), Human Brain Evolution: The Influence of Freshwater and Marine Food Resources, John Wiley and Sons, Hoboken, NJ.Google Scholar
  34. Pienaar, M., Woodborne, S., and Wadley, L. (2008). Optically stimulated luminescence dating at Rose Cottage Cave. South African Journal of Science 102: 65–70.Google Scholar
  35. Porat, N., Chazan, M., Grün, R., Aubert, M., Eisenmann, V., and Horwitz, L. K. (2010). New radiometric ages for the Fauresmith industry from Kathu Pan, southern Africa: Implications for the earlier to Middle Stone Age transition. Journal of Archaeological Science 37: 269–283.Google Scholar
  36. Rector, A. L., and Reed, K. E. (2010). Middle and late Pleistocene faunas of Pinnacle Point and their paleoecological implications. Journal of Human Evolution 59: 340–367.Google Scholar
  37. Schoville, B. J. (2010). Frequency and distribution of edge damage on Middle Stone Age lithic points, Pinnacle Point 13B, South Africa. Journal of Human Evolution 59: 378–391.Google Scholar
  38. Sealy, J., and Galimberti, M. (2009). Shellfishing and the interpretation of shellfish sizes in the Middle and Later Stone Ages of South Africa. In Bicho, N. F., Haws, J. A., and Davis, L. G. (eds), Trekking the Shore Changing Coastlines and the Antiquity of Coastal Settlement, Springer, New York, pp. 405–419.Google Scholar
  39. Shea, J. J. (2009). The impact of projectile weaponry on Late Pleistocene hominin evolution. In Hublin, J. J., and Richards, M. P. (eds), The Evolution of Hominin Diets: Integrating Approaches to the Study of Palaeolithic Subsistence, Springer, New York, pp. 189–200.Google Scholar
  40. Steele, T. E., and Klein, R. G. (2008). Intertidal shellfish use during the Middle and Later Stone Age of South Africa. Archaeofauna 17: 63–76.Google Scholar
  41. Thompson, E., Williams, H. M., and Minichillo, T. (2010). Middle and late Pleistocene Middle Stone Age lithic technology from Pinnacle Point 13B (Mossel Bay, Western Cape Province, South Africa). Journal of Human Evolution 59: 358–377.Google Scholar
  42. Thompson, J. C. (2010). Taphonomic analysis of the Middle Stone Age faunal assemblage from Pinnacle Point Cave 13B, Western Cape, South Africa. Journal of Human Evolution 59: 321–339.Google Scholar
  43. Villa, P., Soriano, S., Teyssandier, N., and Wurz, S. (2010). The Howiesons Poort and Middle Stone Age III at Klasies River Mouth, Cave 1A. Journal of Archaeological Science 37: 630–655.Google Scholar
  44. Wadley, L. (2010). Were snares and traps used in the Middle Stone Age and does it matter? A review and a case study from Sibudu, South Africa. Journal of Human Evolution 58: 179–192.Google Scholar
  45. Wadley, L. (2010). Cemented ash as a receptacle or work surface for ochre powder production at Sibudu, South Africa, 58,000 years ago. Journal of Archaeological Science 37: 2397–2406.Google Scholar
  46. Wadley, L. (2012). Two ‘moments in time’ during Middle Stone Age occupations of Sibudu, South Africa. Southern African Humanities 24: 79–97.Google Scholar
  47. Wadley, L., and Mohapi, M. (2008). A segment is not a monolith: Evidence from the Howiesons Poort of Sibudu, South Africa. Journal of Archaeological Science 35: 2594–2605.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Geography, Archaeology and Environmental Studies & Evolutionary Studies InstituteUniversity of the WitwatersrandJohannesburgSouth Africa

Personalised recommendations