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Patterns of War in the Andes from the Archaic to the Late Horizon: Insights from Settlement Patterns and Cranial Trauma

Abstract

Over the pre-Columbian sequence, Andean warfare ranged greatly in intensity. This review combines published information on cranial trauma and settlement patterns, which often align and clarify each other, to make an initial assessment of how severely Andean populations were affected by war over time and space. The data speak to a number of major topics in the archaeology of warfare, such as the origin of war, contrasts in state militarism, and changes in the practice of war related to social organization. Although there is considerable regional variation, two large-scale “waves” of escalated conflict that are clearly supported by the cranial trauma and settlement pattern data occurred in the Final Formative (late Early Horizon, 400 BC–AD 100) and the Late Intermediate period (AD 1000–1400).

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Acknowledgments

The authors thank the numerous scholars who gave permission to cite conference papers and articles in preparation, and provided clarification or more detailed data, including Valerie Andrushko, Robert Benfer, Kevin Darcy, Julie Farnum, Catherine Gaither, Danielle Kurin, Ken Nystrom, Elsa Tomasto, Marla Toyne, and John Verano. Much of the initial research was completed while one of us (Arkush) was generously supported by a Wenner-Gren Hunt postdoctoral fellowship and a Dumbarton Oaks residential fellowship. We also thank Gary Feinman for encouraging us to write this article and the reviewers for helpful comments. All errors and misrepresentations are our own.

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Correspondence to Elizabeth Arkush.

Appendices

Appendix A

Frequencies of adult cranial trauma among Andean skeletal populations (ante- and perimortem trauma were collapsed if both were reported)

Period Date Region Site(s) Culture Affected Observed % Reference
ARC 7500–7200 BC N Chile coast Acha-3   1 4 25.0 Standen and Santoro (2004)
ARC 8340–6220 BC Paracas, S Peru coast Santo Domingo Pampa   0 2 0.0 Beynon and Siegel (1981)
ARC 5400–5000 BC Chilca, central Peru coast Paloma   0 69 0.0 Benfer (1990, 1999, personal communication 2009)
ARC 5000–4540 BC Far NE Chile Patapatane   0 1 0.0 Santoro et al. (2005)
ARC 4400–3100 BC Cuzco, central Peru Kasapata   0 3 0.0 Sutter and Cortez (2007)
ARC 3800–1500 BC Rio Grande Valley, Nasca, S Peru coast Pernil Alto   1 2 50.0 Tomasto (2009)
ARC 3400–1500 BC St Elena Peninsula, Ecuador Real Alto   4 27 14.8 Ubelaker (2003)
ARC 3800–2000 BC N Chile coast Caleta Huelen 42 Chinchorro-related? 1 27 3.7 Cocilovo et al. (2005)
ARC 3200–1250 BC N Chile coast Morro de Arica de Uhle Chinchorro 19 88 21.6 Costa et al. (2000)
ARC 2600–1800 BC N Chile coast Morro 1, Morro 1/6, Maderas Enco, Playa Miller 8 Chinchorro 16 66 24.2 Standen and Arriaza (2000)
ARC 2400–1900 BC N Chile coast Tiviliche-2 Chinchorro-related? 0 13 0.0 Standen and Nuñez (1984)
ARC 2500–1700 BC Santa drainage, Huanuco, N Peru La Galgada Kotosh 0 12 0.0 Malina (1988a, b)
Archaic total     42 311 13.5  
F 1000–800 BC Azapa, N Chile Azapa Azapa 2 25 8.0 Fouant (1984)
F 1500 BC–AD 100 Titicaca basin, Bolivia Chiripa Chiripa 0 10 0.0 Blom and Bandy (1999)
F 1200–500 BC Jequetepeque, N Peru coast Puemape Early Cupisnique 0 17 0.0 Gillespie (1998)
Formative total     2 52 3.8  
FF 400 BC–AD 100 Rio Grande, S Peru coast Juaranga (and other sites) Paracas 5 20 25.0 Tomasto (2009, personal communication, 2010)
FF 400 BC–AD 100 Moche Valley, N Peru coast Cerro Oreja Salinar 5 15 33.3 Lambert (2011)
FF 400 BC–AD 100 Jequetepeque, N Peru coast Puemape Salinar 1 18 5.6 Gillespie (1998)
FF/EIP 100 BC–100 AD Lower Lurin, central Peru coast Villa El Salvador XII   9 61 14.8 Pechenkina and Delgado (2006)
Final Formative total     20 114 17.5  
EIP AD 1–200 Moche Valley, N Peru coast Cerro Oreja Gallinazo, Early Moche 14 73 19.2 Lambert (2011)
EIP ~AD 290 Chiclayo, N Peru coast Sipan Tomb 1 (Lord of Sipan) Moche 0 9 0.0 Verano (1997)
EIP AD 1–600 Chicama Valley, N Peru coast El Brujo Moche 11 30 36.6 Philips (2009)
EIP AD 300–450 Santa Valley, N coast Peru El Castillo Moche 3 6 50 Philips (2009)
EIP ~AD 500 Jequetepeque, N coast Peru Pacatnamu Moche 4 30 13.3 Philips (2009)
EIP AD 1–750 Las Trancas Valley, S Peru coast El Pampon, La Marcha, Los Medanos Nasca 7 81 8.6 Kellner (2002)
EIP AD 100–750 Palpa, S Peru coast Nasca-Palpa sites Nasca 1 19 5.3 Tomasto (2009, personal communication, 2010)
EIP AD 1–700 Nasca & Taruga Valley, S Peru coast Nasca & Taruga Valley sites Nasca 1 19 5.3 Tung and Schreiber (2010)
EIP AD 100–500 Ayacucho, central Peru Conchopata Huarpa 1 11 9.1 Tung (2007b)
EIP 200 BC–AD 600 Atacama, Chile Toconao Oriente Tiwanaku-affiliated? 5 99 5.1 Torres-Rouff and Costa (2006)
Early Intermediate period total    47 377 12.5  
MH AD 650–800 Majes Valley, S Peru Beringa Wari-affiliated 13 39 33.3 Tung (2007b)
MH AD 650–1000 Majes Valley, S Peru La Real Wari-affiliated 32 104 30.8 Tung (2007b)
MH AD 750–900 Las Trancas Valley, S Peru coast El Pampon, La Marcha, Los Medanos Nasca-Loro (Burials w/ local ceramics) 5 81 6.2 Kellner (2002)
MH AD 750–900 Las Trancas Valley, S Peru coast El Pampon, La Marcha, Los Medanos Nasca-Chakipampa (Burials w/ Wari goods) 4 17 23.5 Kellner (2002)
MH AD 750–1000 Palpa, S Peru coast Nasca-Palpa sites Nasca MH 0 7 0.0 Tomasto (2009)
MH AD 600–1000 Ayacucho, central Peru Huari-Cheqo Wasi Wari 10 24 41.7 Tung (2013)
MH AD 600–1000 Ayacucho, central Peru Conchopata Wari 10 49 20.4 Tung (2012)
MH AD 600–1000 Ayacucho, central Peru Nawinpukio Wari 0 3 0.0 Tung (2013)
MH AD 600–1000 Ayacucho, central Peru Trigo Pampa Wari 0 2 0.0 Tung (2013)
MH AD 600–1000 Cuzco, central Peru Qotakalli, Ak’awillay, Choquepukio, Cotocotuyoc Wari and Cuzco 3 36 8.3 Andrushko and Torres (2011)
MH AD 650–900 Cuzco, central Peru Pikkillacta Wari 1 2 50.0 Verano (2005)
MH AD 600–950 Atacama, Chile Solcor 3 Tiwanaku-affiliated? 10 92 10.9 Torres-Rouff and Costa (2006)
MH AD 600–1000 Andahuaylas, central Peru Turpo Qasawirka and Wari-affiliated 2 22 9.1 Kurin (2012)
MH AD 400–1000 Titicaca basin, Bolivia Chiripa Tiwanaku 0 5 0.0 Blom and Bandy (1999)
MH AD 692–962 Uyuni salt flats, Bolivia Juch’uypampa Cave Tiwanaku-affiliated 1 3 33.3 Tung (personal communication, 2011)
MH AD 500–1000 Azapa Maitas, Cabuza Tiwanaku-affiliated? 16 89 18.0 Fouant (1984)
Middle Horizon total     107 575 20  
MH/LIP AD 900–1100 La Leche, N Peru coast Sicán capital Sicán (Lambayeque) 1 32 3.1 Farnum (2002, 2006, personal communication 2010)
MH/LIP AD 900–1100 Chicama, N Peru coast El Brujo Sicán (Lambayeque) 2 27 7.4 Farnum (2002, 2006, personal communication 2010)
MH/LIP AD 850–1200 Atacama, Chile Coyo 3 Tiwanaku-affiliated? 16 44 36.4 Torres-Rouff and Costa (2006)
Middle Horizon/Late Intermediate period transition   19 103 18.4  
LIP AD 1000–1400 Cuzco, central Peru Various LIP sites in/near Cuzco pre-Inka 47 199 23.6 Andrushko and Torres (2011)
LIP AD 950–1400 Atacama, Chile Yaye, Quitor 6 Atacama 46 151 30.5 Torres-Rouff and Costa (2006)
LIP AD 1300–1400 Atacama, Chile Catarpe 4-5 Atacama 3 36 8.3 Torres-Rouff and Costa (2006)
LIP AD 1350–1470 Chachapoya, N Peru Kuélap, Revash temporal group of Reichlen collection Chachapoya 13 78 16.7 Nystrom and Verano (2003)
LIP AD 1000–1150 Chachapoya, Dept. of San Martin, Peru Laguna Huayabamba (Vira Vira) Chachapoya 2 25 8.0 Nystrom (2004)
LIP AD 1100–1470 Andahuaylas, central Peru Cachi, Ranracancha, Pucullu, Qasiachi Chanka 117 222 52.7 Kurin (2012)
LIP AD 1200–1500 Chachapoya, N Peru Luya sites, Dept. of Amazona, Peru Chachapoya 13 27 48.1 Darcy et al. (2010)
LIP AD 1100–1470 N Chile coast Azapa (RDP) Regional 3 13 23.1 Fouant (1984)
LIP AD 1100–1450 Titicaca Basin, S Peru Molino-Chilacachi Lupaqa 7 48 14.6 de la Vega et al. (2005)
Late Intermediate period total    251 799 31.4  
LIP/LH AD 1100–1532 Upper Chillon watershed, central Peru San Damian (Hrdlicka collection)   50 121 41.3 Verano (2002)
LIP/LH AD 1100–1532 Upper Chillon watershed, central Peru Cinco Cerros (Hrdlicka collection)   16 34 47.1 Verano (2002)
LIP/LH AD 1100–1532 Upper Chillon watershed, central Peru Matucana (Hrdlicka collection)   9 20 45.0 Verano (2002)
LIP/LH AD 900–1532 Chuquibamba, N Peru Combined Chuquibamba sites Chachapoya 31 137 22.6 Jakobsen et al. (1986)
LIP/LH AD 1000–1532 Cuzco, central Peru Urubamba sites Pre-Inka, Inka 37 225 16.4 MacCurdy (1923)
LIP/LH AD 1000–1532 Colca Valley, southern Peru Malata Collagua/ Inka 9 18 50.0 Tung et al. (2008)
Late Intermediate Period/Late Horizon Total    152 555 27.4  
LH AD 1400–1532 Lima, central Peru coast 2 sites at Puruchuco-Huaquerones: Puruchuco, 57AS03 Local Lima / Inka 22 148 14.9 Murphy et al. (2010)
LH AD 1400–1532 Atacama, Chile Catarpe 1-2 Atacama 8 208 3.8 Torres-Rouff and Costa (2006)
LH AD 1400–1485 Chachapoyas, N Peru Chachapoya sites Chachapoya 5 23 21.7 Jakobsen et al. (1986, pp. 156, 164, 178)
LH AD 1400–1532 Cuzco, Peru Various Inka sites Inka 50 219 22.8 Andrushko and Torres (2011)
Late Horizon total     80 598 13.4  
Total of all samples     706 3448 20.48  

Appendix B

Defensive and nondefensive settlement patterns over time

Archaic
North coast Nondefensive, aside from Salinas de Chao (Alva 1986) and possibly Ostra (Topic 1989)
Central coast Nondefensive
South coast Nondefensive where known
Far south coast Nondefensive
Central highlands Nondefensive where known
South highlands Nondefensive where known
Formative up to 500 BC
North coast Nondefensive (e.g., Billman 1999; Proulx 1985). Possible small fortifications in Jequetepeque (Dillehay 2008) upper Casma and Sechin Valleys (Wilson 1995), and Culebras (Giersz and Przadka 2009). One site in Chao protected by stone walls linking incised gullies (Cárdenas 1998, site 157–158). Potentially defensible settlement on hill spurs in middle Fortaleza Valley (Vega-Centeno et al. 1998)
Central coast Some hilltop settlement (Silva 1998) and possibly some early hillforts (Brown Vega et al. 2013)
South coast Nondefensive
Far south coast Nondefensive
North highlands Generally nondefensive. A few hilltop settlements with walls and/or ditches, e.g., Cerro Huachac (Topic 2009) and Cerro Pelón (Pérez 1998; Zaki 1983). Some small ridgetop sites in the Mosna drainage (Burger 1983)
Central highlands Nondefensive where known
South highlands Nondefensive
Final Formative
North coast Many large hillforts in Santa, Casma, Nepeña, and Virú Valleys (Brown Vega 2010; Daggett 1984; Proulx 1985; Przadka and Giersz 2003; Willey 1953; Wilson 1988, 1995). Settlements in Moche and Chicama are defensible and sometimes fortified (Attarian 2009; Billman 1996; Russell 1992). Some large hillforts to the south, especially in Huaura (Brown Vega 2010)
Central coast In the Lurin Valley, small dispersed ridgetop settlements, sometimes fortified (Earle 1972). Nucleated, potentially defensible settlements in middle Chincha (Canziani 1992, 2009)
South coast Nucleated hilltop sites and hillforts in the lower Ica Valley and the Palpa area (DeLeonardis 1991; Paul 2000, p.75, n 17; Reindel 2009; Reindel and Isla 2006, pp. 246–247). Small hilltop settlements, sometimes with slingstones, in the southern Nazca drainage (Schreiber and Lancho 2003, p.14; van Gijseghem and Vaughn 2008). Nucleated fortified settlements and buffer zones in the Acari Valley (Valdez 2009)
North highlands Hilltop settlement, sometimes fortified, in Cajamarca after c. 250 BC (Julien 1988; Seki 1998). Significant fortification and defensible settlement in uppermost Chicama, Moche, and Virú Valleys and adjacent highlands (Pérez 1998; Topic and Topic 1978). Hilltop settlement in Huamachuco, sometimes with walls (Topic 2009; Topic and Topic 1978). Some large hilltop sites in Ancash, at least one fortified (Ponte 2000; Topic and Topic 1982). Nondefensive settlement east toward the Marañon (Herrera 2003; Ibarra 2003)
Central highlands Around Cuzco, many hilltop/ridgetop settlements (Bauer 2004; Zapata 1998)
South highlands Nondefensive except for some large hilltop settlements in the Titicaca Basin (Arkush 2008) and Chiripa settlements in the Tiwanaku Valley on defensible hills between incised gullies (Albarracin-Jordan and Matthews 1992, pp. 71–72). Nondefensive in the Bolivian altiplano and Cochabamba Valley (Lecoq and Céspedes 1997; McAndrews 2005)
Early Intermediate period
North coast Hilltop settlement in early EIP (Gallinazo) in the Moche Valley; less defensive in later EIP, with some strategic forts in the middle/upper Chicama and Moche Valleys (Billman 1999; Topic and Topic 1978). Nondefensive settlement in Virú protected by strategic hillforts (Willey 1953). In Santa, Nepeña, and Casma, nondefensive Moche sites in lower valleys and strongly defensive Recuay-affiliated sites in middle and upper valleys (Chapdelaine et al. 2009; Proulx 1985; Wilson 1988, 1995)
Central coast Largely nondefensive (Canziani 1992; Paredes 2000; Silva 1996), with some hilltop settlement in the later EIP (Earle 1972)
South coast Nondefensive in Nasca and Palpa, with increasing nucleation over time (Reindel 2009; Schreiber and Lancho 2003; Silverman and Proulx 2002). In Acarí, transition about AD 350 from defensive sites to smaller unwalled settlements (Valdez 2009). Nondefensive in Moquegua (Goldstein 2005, p. 123)
North highlands In Cajamarca, early EIP defensible hilltop settlement shifting to valley floors in late EIP (Julien 1988). In Huamachuco, competing early EIP centers with walls and ditches shift to less defensive settlement dominated by Marcahuamachuco (Topic 2009). In Ancash, many hilltop and fortified sites
Central highlands Near Junín, several late EIP/MH walled sites (Parsons et al. 2000). Clustered but unfortified Huarpa sites in the Ayacucho Valley (Isbell 1985, p. 90). Nondefensive in Andahuaylas and Cuzco (Bauer 2004; Bauer et al. 2010)
South highlands Some possible defensive settlement in the early EIP in the northern Titicaca Basin; nondefensive in the southern Titicaca Basin (Janusek and Kolata 2003; Matthews 2003)
Far south highlands Nondefensive (Lecoq 1997, 2001; Nielsen 2001b); layout of nucleated villages at San Pedro de Atacama is somewhat defensible (Llagostera and Costa 1999)
Middle Horizon (where known)
North coast Defensive settlement patterns in the middle and upper Moche, Jequetepeque, and Zaña Valleys; after about AD 800, dispersal into small hillside fortified hamlets (Dillehay 2001; Dillehay et al. 2009; Topic 1991; Topic and Topic 1987). Less defensive to south, except for defensible and sometimes fortified settlements in Nepeña (Proulx 1985)
Central coast Largely nondefensive (e.g., Silva 1996), but some hillforts in Huaura (Brown Vega et al. 2013)
South coast Partial abandonment (Conlee 2006; Reindel 2009; Schreiber 2001)
Far south coast Mostly nondefensive in Moquegua with some fortified outposts (see text)
North highlands Hilltop settlement continues in Huamachuco (Topic 2009; Topic and Topic 1978, 1987); nondefensive in Cajamarca (Julien 1988)
Central highlands Some hilltop location and possible fortification at Wari satellites in Ayacucho (Pérez 1999); nondefensive Cuzco area settlement except for Pikillacta (Bauer 2004)
South highlands Mostly nondefensive, with a few fortified sites in Arequipa (Cardona 2002; Doutriaux 2004; Jennings 2002; Stanish et al. 1997; Wernke 2003)
Far south highlands Mostly nondefensive (Higueras 1996; Lecoq and Céspedes 1997)
Late Intermediate period
North coast Mostly nondefensive, with some defenses in middle valleys (Proulx 1973; Willey 1953; Wilson 1988). Denser fortifications in the Culebras and Casma Valleys (Brown Vega 2010; Przadka and Giersz 2003; Wilson 1995)
Central coast Relatively nondefensive settlement in lower valleys under powerful regional polities (Canziani 1992, 2009; Feltham 1984). In Chillón, most sites have defensive locations and walls (Silva 1996)
South coast Late LIP Nasca area settlements use defensive hilltops and occasionally fortifications (e.g., Conlee 2006; Reindel 2009)
Far south coast Highly defensive walled sites in middle and upper Moquegua especially after AD 1200 (Moseley 1989; Owen 1995; Stanish 1992)
North highlands Hilltop settlement common in Cajamarca (Julien 1988; Toohey 2009), Chachapoyas (Schjellerup 1992, 1997), and Huamachuco (Pineda 1989; Topic 2009), sometimes with fortifications. Defensive wall systems and strategic forts in the upper Jequetepeque, Chicama, and Moche watersheds (e.g., Krzanowski 1977; Topic and Topic 1979a, b, 1987). Fortified hilltop sites in the Callejón de Huaylas and the upper Marañon (Herrera 2003; Mantha 2009; Ponte 2000)
Central highlands In the Upper Mantaro, early LIP ridgetop settlements shift to nucleated, fortified hilltop centers after AD 1300 (Earle et al. 1980; Hastorf et al. 1989). Nearly all settlement on ridgetops and fortified in Tarma near Junín, in Asto territory to the south, and in the upper Chillón drainage (Farfán 1995; Lavallee and Julien 1973; Parsons et al. 2000, p. 160). In southern Ayacucho and Andahuaylas, nucleated ridgetop sites, sometimes fortified (Kellett 2010; Meddens 1984, 1999; Pérez 1999; Schreiber 1993, p. 82; Valdez and Vivanco 1994; Valdez et al. 1990). Less defensive closer to Cuzco, with small, unfortified ridgetop sites (Covey 2003; Dean 2005; Heffernan 1996; Kosiba 2010; Lee 2000; Sillar and Dean 2002), and nondefensive settlements in the Cuzco, Paruro, and Lucre Valleys (Bauer 1992, 2004)
South highlands In the Titicaca Basin, nucleated walled hilltop centers with smaller unfortified sites nearby (Arkush 2011; Frye and de la Vega 2005; Hyslop 1976; Neira 1967; Stanish 2003; Stanish et al. 1997). Dense, fortified, hilltop refuges in the upper Colca Valley (Wernke 2006). In the southeastern Titicaca Basin and the Bolivian altiplano, nondefensive dispersed settlement with few small refuge hillforts (Albarracin-Jordan 1990; Bandy 2001; Janusek and Kolata 2003; McAndrews 2005; Pärssinen 2005)
Far south highlands Near Potosí and on the eastern slopes, defensive hilltop settlements, sometimes walled (Alconini 2004; Higueras 1996; Lecoq and Céspedes 1997). In far southern Bolivia, north Chile, and northwest Argentina, small, low-lying settlements with a few larger, fortified villages (Chacama 2005; DeMarrais 2001; Llagostera and Costa 1999; Nielsen 2001a, 2002; Nuñez and Dillehay 1978, pp. 111–112; Ruiz and Albeck 1997; Santoro et al. 2004; Schiappacasse et al. 1989)
Late Horizon
North coast Continuation of nondefensive patterns established by the late LIP in Virú, Santa, Nepeña, and Casma (Proulx 1973; Willey 1953; Wilson 1988, 1995)
Central coast Shift to nondefensive settlements in the Chillón and upper Lurin Valleys (Feltham 1984; Silva 1996)
Far south coast Hillforts in Moquegua abandoned for nondefensive valley-floor sites (Stanish 1992)
North highlands Inka centers founded in nondefensive locations on the Inka road, e.g., Cajamarca, Huamachuco, Huanuco Pampa. Local settlement patterns unclear but may continue from LIP; abandonment of some defensive sites in Chachapoyas (Schjellerup 1997, p. 241) and of the Yanaorco hillfort in Cajamarca (Toohey 2009)
Central highlands Shift to unfortified sites and less defensive locations in the Junín region, Upper Mantaro Valley, Ayacucho, and Andahuaylas (Bauer et al. 2010; D’Altroy 1992, pp. 189–193; Parsons et al. 2000; Schreiber 1993; Valdez and Vivanco 1994). Cuzco settlement patterns change little from LIP
South highlands Arequipa patterns change little aside from new Inka centers (Doutriaux 2004; Jennings 2002; Sciscento 1990; Wernke 2006). In Titicaca Basin, major resettlement from hillforts to nondefensive sites (Stanish et al. 1997)
Far south highlands In Potosi, shift to less defensive locations (Lecoq and Céspedes 1997). In northern Chile and northwest Argentina, most fortified settlements abandoned for lower villages; some Inka fortresses (intrusive or reused native forts; D’Altroy et al. 2007)

Appendix C

Codes for settlement patterns by region and period

  Archaic Form F Form EIP MH LIP LH
Highlands D F S D F S D F S D F S D F S D F S D F S
Cajamarca        2 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0
Chachapoyas                 2 2 0    
Huamachuco - Alto Chicama     1 1 0 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 0 0 0
Ancash - Huanuco     1 0 0 1 1   2 2 1     2 1 0 0? 0? 0
Junin - Upper Mantaro           1 0 1     2 2 0 1 0 0
Ayacucho - Andahuaylas     0 0 0     1 0 0 1 0 0 2 1 0 1 0 0
Cuzco area 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0
Arequipa 0 0 0        1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1
Titicaca basin - N Bolivia 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 1 0 0 0
S Bolivian highlands 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0
NW Argentina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 1
Chilean sierra 0 0 0 0 0 0     0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1
Coast                      
Lambayeque                 0 0 1    
Jequetepeque 0 0 0 0 0 1? 0 0? 1? 1 1 0 2 2 0 2 1 0    
Moche - Chicama 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 1 1 2 2 1 0 1 1 1    
Virü - Chao 0 0 0 0 1? 0 1 0 2 0 0 2 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1
Santa 0 1 1 0 0 0 2 1 2 1 1 0 0 0 1? 1 1 0 1 1 0
Nepena 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 2 1 1 0 2 1 1? 1 1 0 1 1 0
Casma - Culebras 0 0 0 1? 1 0 1 0 2 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 2 0? 0? 0?
Norte Chico 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 2        0 0 2    
Chillon to Chincha     1 0 0 2 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 0
Ica, Nasca, Acari 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 2 1 0    
Moquegua 0 0 0        0 0 0 0 0 2 2 1 0 0 0 0
N Chilean coast 0 0 0        0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0    
  1. D = settlement locations are defensive; F = settlements are fortified; S = strategic fortifications; 0 = absent, 1 = present, 2 = common

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Arkush, E., Tung, T.A. Patterns of War in the Andes from the Archaic to the Late Horizon: Insights from Settlement Patterns and Cranial Trauma. J Archaeol Res 21, 307–369 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10814-013-9065-1

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Keywords

  • Andes
  • Warfare
  • Settlement patterns
  • Skeletal trauma