Reassessing the Emergence of Village Life in the Near East

Abstract

This article reassesses the timing, context, and impetus for the onset of sedentary, complex hunter-gatherers, food production, and village life in the Near East during the Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene. Drawing on recent paleoclimatic and archaeological results, I argue that sedentism and then village life were rapid rather than gradual events that occurred during optimal climatic conditions and took place in resource-rich settings. These two social milestones included fundamental changes in economic strategies, social interaction, and ideology. Only by understanding the interplay between preexisting social institutions and human agency within communities prior to and during these periods of major social change will we be able to understand how and why food production began.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. Adams, R. McC. (2000). Accelerated technological change in archaeology and ancient history. In Feinman, G. M., and Manzanilla, L. (eds.), Cultural Evolution: Contemporary Viewpoints, Kluwer Academic/Plenum, New York, pp. 95–118.

    Google Scholar 

  2. Alley, R. B. (2000). Ice-core evidence of abrupt climate changes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 97: 1331–1334.

    Google Scholar 

  3. Alley, R. B., Marotzke, J., Nordhaus, W. D., Overpectk, J. T., Peteet, D. M., Pielke, R. A., Jr., Peirrehumbert, R. T., Rhines, P. B., Stocker, T. F., Talley, L. D., and Wallace, J. M. (2003). Abrupt climate change. Science 299: 2005–2010.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  4. Alvard, M. S., and Kuznar, L. (2001). Deferred harvests: The transition from hunting to animal husbandry. American Anthropologist 103: 295–311.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Arensburg, B., and Hershkovitz, I. (1989). Artificial skull “treatment” in the PPNB period: Nahal Hemar. In Hershkovitz, I. (ed.), People and Culture in Change: Proceedings of the Second Symposium of Upper Paleolithic, Mesolithic, and Neolithic Populations of Europe and the Mediterranean Basin, BAR International Series 508, Archaeopress, Oxford, pp. 115–132.

  6. Arnold, J. E. (1996). Understanding the evolution of intermediate societies. In Arnold, J. E. (ed.), The Evolution of Intermediate Societies, International Monographs in Prehistory 9, Ann Arbor, MI, p. 1–12.

  7. Aurenche, O., Galet, P., Régagnon-Caroline, E., and Évin, J. (2001). Proto-Neolithic and Neolithic cultures in the Middle East—the birth of agriculture, livestock raising, and ceramics: A calibrated 14C chronology 12,500-5500 cal BC. Radiocarbon 43: 1191–1202.

    Google Scholar 

  8. Barnard, A., and Woodburn, J. (1988). Property, power, and ideology in hunter-gathering societies: An introduction. In Ingold, T., Riches, D., and Woodburn, J. (eds.), Hunters and Gatherers 2: Property, Power, and Ideology, Berg, Oxford, pp. 4–31.

    Google Scholar 

  9. Bar-Matthews, M., Ayalon, A., and Kaufman, A. (1997). Late Quaternary paleoclimate in the eastern Mediterranean region from stable isotope analysis of speleothems at Soreq Cave, Israel. Quaternary Research 47: 155–168.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Bar-Matthews, M., Ayalon, A., Kaufman, A., and Wasserburg, G. J. (1999). The eastern Mediterranean paleoclimate as a reflection of regional events: Soreq cave, Israel. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 166: 85–95.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Baruch, U. (1994). The Late Quaternary pollen record of the Near East. In Bar-Yosef, O., and Kra, R. (eds.), Late Quaternary Chronology and Paleoclimates of the Eastern Mediterranean, Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, pp. 103–120.

    Google Scholar 

  12. Baruch, U., and Bottema, S. (1991). Palynological evidence for climatic changes in the Levant ca. 17,000-9,000 B.P. In Bar-Yosef, O., and Valla, F. (eds.), The Natufian Culture in the Levant, International Monographs in Prehistory, Ann Arbor, MI, pp. 11–20.

  13. Baruch, U., and Bottema, S. (1999). A new pollen diagram from Lake Hula: Vegetational climatic, and anthropogenic implications. In Kawanabe, H., Coulter, G. W., and Roosevelt, A. C. (eds.), Ancient Lakes: Their Cultural and Biological Diversity, Kenobe Productions, Belgium, pp. 75–86.

    Google Scholar 

  14. Bar-Yosef, O. (1981). The Epipaleolithic complexes in the southern Levant. In Cauvin, J., and Sanlaville, P. (eds.), Préhistoire du Levant, Colloques Internationaux du CNRS, vol. 598, Centre National de Recherche Scientifique, Paris, pp. 389–408.

  15. Bar-Yosef, O. (1991). The early Neolithic of the Levant: Recent advances. The Review of Archaeology 12(2): 1–18.

    Google Scholar 

  16. Bar-Yosef, O. (1996). The impact of Late Pleistocene—Early Holocene climatic changes on humans in Southwest Asia. In Straus, L. G., Eriksen, B. V., Erlandson, J. M., and Yesner, D. R. (eds.), Humans at the End of the Ice Age: The Archaeology of the Pleistocene-Holocene Transition, Plenum Press, New York, pp. 61–78.

    Google Scholar 

  17. Bar-Yosef, O. (1997). Symbolic expressions in later prehistory of the Levant: Why are they so few? In Conkey, M. W., Soffer, O., Stratmann, D., and Jablonski, N. G. (eds.), Beyond Art: Pleistocene Image and Symbol, Memoirs of the California Academy of Science, San Francisco, pp. 161–187.

    Google Scholar 

  18. Bar-Yosef, O. (1998a). Introduction: Some comments on the history of research. The Review of Archaeology 19(2): 1–4.

    Google Scholar 

  19. Bar-Yosef, O. (1998b). Agricultural origins: Caught between hypotheses and a lack of hard evidence. The Review of Archaeology 19(2): 58–64.

    Google Scholar 

  20. Bar-Yosef, O. (1998c). The Natufian culture in the Levant—threshold to the origins of agriculture. Evolutionary Anthropology 6: 159–177.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Bar-Yosef, O. (1998d). On the nature of transitions: The Middle to Upper Paleolithic and the Neolithic revolution. Cambridge Archaeological Journal 8: 141–163.

    Google Scholar 

  22. Bar-Yosef, O. (2000a). The context of animal domestication in Southwestern Asia. In Mashkour, M., Choyke, A. M., Buitenhuis, H., and Poplin, F. (eds.), Archaeozoology of the Near East IVA: Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on the Archaeozoology of Southwestern Asian and Adjacent Areas, ARC Publication 32, Groningen, pp. 185–195.

  23. Bar-Yosef, O. (2000b). The impact of radiocarbon dating on Old World archaeology: Past achievements and future expectations. Radiocarbon 42: 1–17.

    Google Scholar 

  24. Bar-Yosef, O. (2001a). From sedentary foragers to village hierarchies: The emergence of social institutions. In Runciman, W. G. (ed.), The Origin of Human Social Institutions, Proceedings of the British Academy 110, Oxford University Press, Oxford, p. 138.

  25. Bar-Yosef, O. (2001b). PPNB interaction sphere. Cambridge Archaeology Journal 11: 114–120.

    Google Scholar 

  26. Bar-Yosef, O., and Alon, D. (1988). Excavations in the Nahal Hemar cave. Antiqot 18: 1–30.

    Google Scholar 

  27. Bar-Yosef, O., and Belfer–Cohen, A. (1989). The origins of sedentism and farming communities. Journal of World Prehistory 3: 447–498.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Bar-Yosef, O., and Belfer-Cohen, A. (1999). Encoding information: Unique Natufian objects from Hayonim Cave, western Galilee, Israel. Antiquity 73: 402–410.

    Google Scholar 

  29. Bar-Yosef, O., and Belfer-Cohen, A. (2002). Facing environmental crisis. Societal and cultural changes at the transition from the Younger Dryas to the Holocene in the Levant. In Cappers, R. T. J., and Bottema, S. (eds.), The Dawn of Farming in the Near East, Studies in Early Near Eastern Production, Subsistence, and Environment 6, 1999, Ex Oriente, Berlin, pp. 55–66.

  30. Bar-Yosef, O., and Gopher, A. (eds.) (1997). An Early Neolithic Village in the Jordan Valley, Part I: The Archaeology of Netiv Hagdud, American School of Prehistoric Research Bulletin 43, Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA.

    Google Scholar 

  31. Bar-Yosef, O., and Kra, R. (eds.) (1994). Late Quaternary Chronology and Paleoclimates of the Eastern Mediterranean, Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA.

    Google Scholar 

  32. Bar-Yosef, O., and Meadow, R. H. (1995). The origins of agriculture in the Near East. In Price, T. D., and Gebauer, A. B. (eds.), Last Hunters, First Farmers: New Perspectives on the Prehistoric Transition to Agriculture, School of American Research Press, Santa Fe, NM, pp. 39–94.

    Google Scholar 

  33. Bar-Yosef, O., and Valla, F. (eds.) (1991). The Natufian Culture in the Levant, International Monographs in Prehistory, Ann Arbor, MI.

    Google Scholar 

  34. Belfer-Cohen, A. (1991). The Natufian in the Levant. Annual Review of Anthropology 20: 167–186.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  35. Belfer-Cohen, A. (1995). Rethinking social stratification in the Natufian culture: The evidence from burials. In Campbell, S., and Green, A. (eds.), The Archaeology of Death in the Ancient Near East, Oxbow Monograph 51, Oxford, pp. 9–16.

  36. Belfer-Cohen, A., and Bar-Yosef, O. (2000). Early sedentism in the Near East: A bumpy ride to village life. In Kuijt, I. (ed.), Life in Neolithic Farming Communities: Social Organization, Identity, and Differentiation, Kluwer Academic/Plenum Press, New York, pp. 19–38.

    Google Scholar 

  37. Belfer-Cohen, A., and Arensberg, B. (1997). The human remains from Netiv Hagdud. In Bar-Yosef, O., and Gopher, A. (eds.), An Early Neolithic Village in the Jordan Valley, Part I: The Archaeology of Netiv Hagdud, American School of Prehistoric Research Bulletin 43, Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, pp. 201–208.

    Google Scholar 

  38. Bender, B. (1978). Gatherer-hunter to farmer: A social perspective. World Archaeology 10: 204–237.

    Google Scholar 

  39. Biçakçi, E. (1998). An essay on the chronology of the Pre-pottery Neolithic settlement of the East-Taurus Region (Turkey). In Arsebük, G., Mellink, M. J., and Schirmer, W. (eds.), Light on Top of the Black Hill: Studies Presented to Halet Çambel, Ege Yayinlari, Istanbul, pp. 137–150.

  40. Bienert, H. D. (1995). The human image in the Natufian and aceramic Neolithic period of the Middle East. In Waldren, W. H., Essen-Yat, J. A., and Kennard, R. C. (eds.), Ritual, Rites, and Religion in Prehistory, BAR International Series 611, Archaeopress, Oxford, pp. 75–103.

    Google Scholar 

  41. Binford, L. (1980). Willow smoke and dog’s tails: Hunter-gatherer settlement and archaeological site formation. American Antiquity45: 4–20.

    Google Scholar 

  42. Bloch, M. (1971). Placing the Dead: Tombs, Ancestral Villages and Kinship Organization in Madagascar, Seminar Press, New York.

    Google Scholar 

  43. Blumler, M. A. (1996). Ecology, evolutionary theory, and agricultural origins. In Harris, D. R. (ed.), The Origins and Spread of Agriculture and Pastoralism in Eurasia, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, pp. 25–50.

    Google Scholar 

  44. Blumler, M. A. (2002). Changing paradigms, wild cereal ecology, and agricultural origins. In Cappers, R. T. J., and Bottema, S. (eds.), The Dawn of Farming in the Near East, Studies in Early Near Eastern Production, Subsistence, and Environment 6, Ex Oriente, Berlin, pp. 95–112.

  45. Bonogofsky, M. (2001). Cranial modeling and Neolithic bone modification at ‘Ain Ghazal: New interpretations. Paléorient27(2): 141–146.

    Google Scholar 

  46. Bottema, S. (2002). The use of palynology in tracing early agriculture. In Cappers, R. T. J., and Bottema, S. (eds.), The Dawn of Farming in the Near East, Studies in Early Near Eastern Production, Subsistence, and Environment 6, Ex Oriente, Berlin, pp. 27–38.

  47. Boyd, B. (2001). The Natufian burials from el-Wad, Mount Carmel: Beyond issues of social differentiation. Mitekufat Haeven 31: 185–200.

    Google Scholar 

  48. Boyd, B. (2002). Ways of eating/ways of being in the later Epipaleolithic (Natufian) Levant. In Mailakis, Y., Pluciennik, M., and Tarlow, S. (eds.), Thinking Through the Body: Archaeologies of Corporeality, Kulwer Acdemic/Plenum Publishers, New York, pp. 137–152.

    Google Scholar 

  49. Broughton, J. M. (1997). Widening diet breadth, declining foraging efficiency, and prehistoric harvest pressure: Ichthyofaunal evidence from the Emeryville Shellmound, California. Antiquity 71: 845–862.

    Google Scholar 

  50. Burleigh, R. (1981). Appendix C: Radiocarbon dates. In Kenyon, K. M. (ed.), The Architecture and Stratigraphy of the Tell: Excavation at Jericho, Vol III, British School of Archaeology in Jerusalem, London, pp. 501–504.

    Google Scholar 

  51. Burleigh, R. (1983). Appendix D: Additional radiocarbon dates for Jericho. In Kenyon, K. M., and Holland, T. A. (eds.), Excavation at Jericho, Vol V: The Pottery Phase of the Tell and Other Finds, British School of Archaeology in Jerusalem, London, pp. 760–765.

    Google Scholar 

  52. Butler, A. (1998). Grain legumes: Evidence of these important ancient food resources from early pre-agrarian and agrarian sites in Southwest Asia. In Damania, A. B., Valkoun, J., Wilcox, G. and Quallset, C. O. (eds.), The Origins of Agriculture and Crop Domestication, International Center for Agricultural Research in Dry Areas, Aleppo, Syria, pp. 102–117.

  53. Byrd, B. F. (1989a). The Natufian: Settlement variability and economic adaptations in the Levant at the end of the Pleistocene. Journal of World Prehistory 3: 159–197.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  54. Byrd, B. F. (1989b). The Natufian Encampment at Beidha: Late Pleistocene Adaptation in the Southern Levant, Jutland Archaeological Society Publications 23(1), Aarhus, Denmark.

  55. Byrd, B. F. (1992). The dispersal of food production across the Levant. In Gebauer, A. B., and Price, T. D. (eds.), The Transition to Agriculture, Prehistory Press, Madison WI, pp. 49–61.

    Google Scholar 

  56. Byrd, B. F. (1994a). Late Quaternary hunter-gatherer complexes in the Levant between 20,000 and 10,000 BP. In Bar-Yosef, O., and Kra, R. (eds.), Chronology and Paleoclimates of the Eastern Mediterranean, Radiocarbon, Tucson, AZ, pp. 205–226.

    Google Scholar 

  57. Byrd, B. F. (1994b). Public and private, domestic and corporate: The emergence of the southwest Asian village. American Antiquity 59: 639–666.

    Google Scholar 

  58. Byrd, B. F. (1998). Spanning the gap from the Upper Paleolithic to the Natufian: The Early and Middle Epipaleolithic. In Henry, D. O. (ed.), The Prehistoric Archaeology of Jordan, BAR International Series 705, Archaeopress, Oxford, pp. 64–82.

  59. Byrd, B. F. (1999). Nascent social complexity in the Near East: Alternative perspectives on Neolithic political organization. Paper presented in the symposium “Diversity in Political Hierarchies and Power Relations: Complexity in the Old World,” at the 64th Annual Meeting of the Society for American Archaeology, Chicago.

  60. Byrd, B. F. (2000). Households in transition: Neolithic social organization within Southwest Asia. In Kuijt, I. (ed.), Life in Neolithic Farming Communities: Social Organization, Identity, and Differentiation, Kluwer Academic/Plenum Press, New York, pp. 63–98.

    Google Scholar 

  61. Byrd, B. F. (2005). Early Village Life at Beidha, Jordan: Neolithic Spatial Organization and Vernacular Architecture, British Academy Monographs in Archaeology 14, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

    Google Scholar 

  62. Byrd, B. F. (n. d.). Upper and Epi-Paleolithic chipped stone assemblages: Modeling settlement and subsistence trajectories. In Garrard, A. N. (ed.), Beyond the Fertile Crescent: Epi-Paleolithic and Neolithic Communities of the Jordanian Steppe, Volume 1, General Background and the Epipaleolithic, British Academy Monographs in Archaeology, Oxford University Press, Oxford, in press.

  63. Byrd, B. F., and Monahan, C. (1995). Death, mortuary ritual, and natufian social structure. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 14: 251–287.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  64. Byrne, R. (1987). Climatic change and the origins of agriculture. In Manzanilla, L. (ed.), Studies in the Neolithic and Urban Revolutions: The V. Gordon Childe Colloquium, BAR International Series 349, Archaeopress, Oxford, pp. 21–34.

  65. Campana, D. V. (1991). Bone implemens from Hayonim Cave: Some relevant issues. In Bar-Yosef, O., and Valla, F. (eds.), The Natufian Culture in the Levant, International Monographs in Prehistory, Ann Arbor, MI, pp. 459–466.

  66. Cappers, R. T. J., and Bottema, S. (eds.) (2002). The Dawn of Farming in the Near East, Studies in Early Near Eastern Production, Subsistence, and Environment 6, Ex Oriente, Berlin.

  67. Cappers, R. T. J., Bottema, S., and Woldring, H. (1998). Problems in correlating pollen diagrams of the Near East: A preliminary report. In Damania, A. B., Valkoun, J., Wilcox, G., and Quallset, C. O. (eds.), The Origins of Agriculture and Crop Domestication, International Center for Agricultural Research in Dry Areas, Aleppo, Syria, pp. 160–169.

  68. Cappers, R. T. J., Bottema, S., Woldring, H., van der Plicht, H., and Steurman, H. J. (2002). Modeling the emergence of farming: Implications of the vegetation development in the Near East during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition. In Cappers, R. T. J., and Bottema, S. (eds.), The Dawn of Farming in the Near East, Studies in Early Near Eastern Production, Subsistence, and Environment 6, Ex Oriente, Berlin, pp. 3–14.

  69. Cauvin, J. (1978). Les premiers villages de Syrie-Palestine du IX-au VII millénaire avant J-C, Collection de la Maison de l’Orient Ancien 4, Série Archéologique 3, Maison de l’Orient, Lyon.

  70. Cauvin, J. (1987). Chronologies relative et absolue dans le Néolithique du Levant nord et d’Anatolie entre 10,000 et 8,000 B.P. In Aurenche, O., Evin, J., and Hours F. (eds.), Chronogies du Proche Orient, Relative Chronogies and Absolute Chronology 16,000–4,000 B.P., BAR International Series 379, Archaeopress, Oxford, pp. 325–342.

  71. Cauvin, J. (1994). Naissance des divinités, naissance de l’agriculture, Centre National de Recherche Scientifique, Paris.

    Google Scholar 

  72. Cauvin, J. (1997). Naissance des divinités, naissance de l’agriculture, 2nd ed., Centre National de Recherche Scientifique, Paris.

    Google Scholar 

  73. Cauvin, J. (1998). La néolithisation de l’Anatolie. In Arsebük, G., Mellink, M. J., and Schirmer, W. (eds.), Light on Top of the Black Hill: Studies Presented to Halet Çambel, Ege Yayinlari, Istanbul, pp. 205–214.

  74. Cauvin, J. (2000). The Birth of Gods and the Origins of Agriculture, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

    Google Scholar 

  75. Cauvin, J. (2001). Ideology before economy. Cambridge Archaeology Journal 11: 106–107.

    Google Scholar 

  76. Cauvin, J., Cauvin, M.-C., Helmer, D., and Wilcox, G. (1997). L’homme et son environment au Levant Nord entre 30 000 et 7500 BP. Paléorient 23(2): 51–69.

    Google Scholar 

  77. Cauvin, M.-C. (1987). Chronologies relative et chronologies absolue dans l’epipaléolithique du Levant nord. In Aurenche, O., Evin, J., and Hours, F. (eds.), Chronogies du Proche Orient, Relative Chronogies and Absolute Chronology 16,000-4,000 B.P., BAR International Series 379, Archaeopress, Oxford, pp. 247–266.

  78. Çelik, B. (2000). A new early-Neolithic settlement: Karahan Tepe. Neo-Lithics 2000(2–3): 6–8.

    Google Scholar 

  79. Charles, C. (1998). Paleoclimatology: The end of an era. Nature394: 422–423.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  80. Colledge, S. (1998). Identifying pre-domestication cultivation using multivariate analysis. In Damania, A. B., Valkoun, J., Wilcox, G. and Quallset, C. O. (eds.), The Origins of Agriculture and Crop Domestication, International Center for Agricultural Research in Dry Areas, Aleppo, Syria, pp. 121–131.

    Google Scholar 

  81. Colledge, S. (2002). Identifying pre-domestication cultivation in the archaeobotanical record using multivariate analysis: Presenting the case for quantification. In Cappers, R. T. J., and Bottema, S. (eds.), The Dawn of Farming in the Near East, Studies in Early Near Eastern Production, Subsistence, and Environment 6, Ex Oriente, Berlin, pp. 141–152.

  82. Cowan, C. W., and Watson, P. J. (eds.) (1992). The Origins of Agriculture, an International Perspective, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC.

    Google Scholar 

  83. Cuffey, K. M., and Clow, G. D. (1997). Temperature, accumulation, and ice sheet elevation in central Greenland through the last deglacial transition. Journal of Geophysical Research 102: 26383–26396.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  84. Damania, A. B., Valkoun, J., Wilcox, G., and Quallset, C. O. (eds.) (1998). The Origins of Agriculture and Crop Domestication, International Center for Agricultural Research in Dry Areas, Aleppo, Syria.

    Google Scholar 

  85. Delibrias, G., Guillier, M.-T., and Labeyrie, J. (1982). Gif natural radiocarbon measurements IX. Radiocarbon 12: 161–180.

    Google Scholar 

  86. Diamond, J. (1999). Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies, W.W. Norton, New York.

    Google Scholar 

  87. Edwards, P. C. (1991). Wadi Hammeh 27: An early Natufian site at Pella, Jordan. In Bar-Yosef, O., and Valla, F. (eds.), The Natufian Culture in the Levant, International Monographs in Prehistory, Ann Arbor, MI, pp. 123–148.

  88. Edwards, P. C., Meadows, J., Sayej, G., and Metzger, M. C. (2002). Zahrat Adh-Dhra’: A new Pre-Pottery A site on the Dead Sea Plain in Jordan. Bulletin of the American School of Oriental Research 327: 1–14.

    Google Scholar 

  89. Ervynck, A., Dobney, K., Hongo, H., and Meadow, R. (2001). Born free? New evidence for the status of Sus scrofa at Neolithic Çayönü Tepesi (southeastern Anatolia, Turkey). Paléorient 27(2): 47–73.

    Google Scholar 

  90. Esin, U. (1999). Introduction-the Neolithic in Turkey: A general review. In Özdoğan, M., and Basgelen, N. (eds.), Neolithic in Turkey: Cradle of Civilization. New Discoveries, 2 vol., Arkeoloji ve Sanat Yayinlari, Istanbul, Turkey, pp. 12–24.

  91. Fellner, R. O. (1995). Culture Change and the Epipaleolithic of Palestine, BAR International Series 599, Archaeopress, Oxford.

  92. Ford, R. I. (1985). The processes of plant food production in prehistoric North America. In Ford, R. I. (ed.), Prehistoric Food Production in North America, Anthropological Papers, No. 75, Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, pp. 1–18.

  93. Galili, E., Rosen, B., Gopher, A., and Kolska-Horwitz, L. (2002). The emergence and dispersion of the eastern Mediterranean fishing village: Evidence from submerged Neolithic settlement off the Carmel coast, Israel. Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology 15: 167–198.

    Google Scholar 

  94. Garfinkle, Y., and Nadel, D. (1989). The Sultanian flint assemblage from Gesher and its implications for recognizing early Neolithic entities in the Levant. Paléorient 15(2): 139–151.

    Google Scholar 

  95. Garrard, A. (1999). Charting the emergence of cereal and pulse domestication in South-West Asia. Environmental Archaeology 4: 67–86.

    Google Scholar 

  96. Garrard, A. N., and Byrd, B. F. (1992). New dimensions to the Epipaleolithic of the Wadi Jilat in Central Jordan. Paleoriént 18(1): 47–62.

    Google Scholar 

  97. Goldberg, P. (1986). Late Quaternary geological history of the southern Levant: A geoarchaeological approach. Geoarchaeology2: 225–244.

    Google Scholar 

  98. Goring-Morris, A. N. (1987). At the Edge: Terminal Pleistocene Hunter-Gatherers in the Negev and Sinai, BAR International Series 361, Archaeopress, Oxford.

  99. Goring-Morris, A. N. (1991). The Harifian of the Southern Levant. In Bar-Yosef, O., and Valla, F. R. (eds.), The Natufian Culture in the Levant, International Monographs in Prehistory, Ann Arbor, MI, pp. 173–216.

  100. Goring-Morris, A. N. (1995). Complex hunter/gathers at the end of the Paleolithic (20,000–10,000 BP). In Levy, T. E. (ed.), The Archaeology of Society in the Holy Land, Leicester University Press, London, pp. 141–168.

    Google Scholar 

  101. Goring-Morris, A. N. (2000). The quick and the dead: The social context of aceramic Neolithic mortuary practices as seen from Kfar HaHoresh. In Kuijt, I. (ed.), Life in Neolithic Farming Communities: Social Organization, Identity, and Differentiation, Kluwer Academic/Plenum Press, pp. 103–136.

  102. Goring-Morris, A. N., and Belfer-Cohen, A. (1997). The articulation of cultural processes and Late Quaternary environmental changes in Cisjordan. Paléorient 23(2): 71–93.

    Google Scholar 

  103. Goring-Morris, A. N., Goren, Y., Horwitz, L. K., Hershkovitz, I., Lieberman, R., Sarel, J., and Bar-Yosef, D. (1994–1995). The 1992 season of excavations at the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B settlement of Kfar HaHoresh. Mitekufat Haeven 26: 74–121.

    Google Scholar 

  104. Grossman, L., and Belfer-Cohen, A. (2002). Zooming onto the ‘Younger Dryas’ (2002). In Cappers, R. T. J., and Bottema, S. (eds.), The Dawn of Farming in the Near East, Studies in Early Near Eastern Production, Subsistence, and Environment 6, Ex Oriente, Berlin, pp. 49–54.

  105. Guilaine, J. (2000). Premiers Paysans du Monde: Naissances des Agricultures, Editions Errance, Paris.

    Google Scholar 

  106. Harlan, J. (1995). The Living Fields: Our Agricultural Heritage, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

    Google Scholar 

  107. Harris, D. R. (1989). An evolutionary continuum of people-plant interaction. In Harris, D. R., and Hillman, G. C. (eds.), Foraging and Farming: The Evolution of Plant Exploitation, Unwin and Hyman, London, pp. 11–26.

    Google Scholar 

  108. Harris, D. R. (1990). Settling Down and Breaking Ground: Rethinking the Neolithic Revolution, Twaalfde Kroon-Voordracht, Stichting Nederlands Museum voor Anthropologie en Praehistorie, Amsterdam.

  109. Harris, D. R. (ed.) (1996). The Origins and Spread of Agriculture and Pastoralism in Eurasia, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC.

    Google Scholar 

  110. Harris, D. R. (1998a). The origins of agriculture in Southwest Asia. The Review of Archaeology 12(2): 5–11.

    Google Scholar 

  111. Harris, D. R. (1998b). The spread of Neolithic agriculture from the Levant to western Central Asia. In Damania, A. B., Valkoun, J., Wilcox, G., and Quallset, C. O. (eds.), The Origins of Agriculture and Crop Domestication, International Center for Agricultural Research in Dry Areas, Aleppo, Syria, pp. 65–82.

    Google Scholar 

  112. Harris, D. R. (2002). Development of the agro-pastoral economy in the Fertile Crescent during the Pre-Pottery Neolithic period. In Cappers, R. T. J., and Bottema, S. (eds.), The Dawn of Farming in the Near East, Studies in Early Near Eastern Production, Subsistence, and Environment 6, Ex Oriente, Berlin pp. 67–84.

  113. Harris, D. R., and Hillman, G. C. (eds.) (1989). Foraging and Farming: The Evolution of Plant Exploitation, Unwin and Hyman, London.

    Google Scholar 

  114. Hauptmann, H. (1988). Nevali Çori: Architektur. Anatolica 15: 99–110.

    Google Scholar 

  115. Hauptmann, H. (1999). The Urfa region. In Özdoğan, M., and Basgelen, N. (eds.), Neolithic in Turkey: Cradle of Civilization. New Discoveries, 2 vol., Arkeoloji ve Sanat Yayinlari, Istanbul, Turkey, pp. 65–87.

    Google Scholar 

  116. Hayden, B. (1981). Research and development in the Stone age: Technological transitions among hunter-gatherers. Current Anthropology 22: 519–531.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  117. Hayden, B. (1990). Nimrods, piscators, pluckers, and planters: The emergence of food production. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 9: 31–69.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  118. Hayden, B. (1995a). An overview of domestication. In Price, T. D., and Gebauer, A. B. (eds.), Last Hunters-First Farmer: New Perspectives on the Prehistoric Transition to Agriculture, School of American Research Press, Santa Fe, NM, pp. 273–300.

    Google Scholar 

  119. Hayden, B. (1995b). Pathways to power: Principles for creating socioeconomic inequalities. In Price, T. D., and Feinman, G. M. (eds.), Foundations of Social Inequality, Plenum Press, New York, pp. 15–78.

    Google Scholar 

  120. Hayden, B. (1996). Thresholds of power in emergent complex societies. In Arnold, J. E. (ed.), The Evolution of Intermediate Societies, International Monographs in Prehistory 9, Ann Arbor, MI, pp. 50–58.

  121. Hayden, B. (2001). Richman, poorman, beggarman, chief: The dynamics of social inequality. In Feinman, G. M., and Price, T. D. (eds.), Archaeology at the Millennium: A Source Book, Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York, pp. 231–272.

    Google Scholar 

  122. Henry, D. O. (1989). From Foraging to Agriculture: The Levant at the End of the Ice Age, University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia.

    Google Scholar 

  123. Henry, D. O. (1991). Foraging, sedentism, and adaptive vigor in the Natufian: Rethinking the linkages. In Clark, G. A. (ed.), Perspectives on the Past: Theoretical Biases in Mediterranean Hunter-Gatherer Research, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, pp. 353–370.

    Google Scholar 

  124. Henry, D. O. (1995). Prehistoric Cultural Ecology and Evolution: Insights from Southern Jordan, Plenum Press, New York.

    Google Scholar 

  125. Henry, D. O. (1997). Prehistoric human ecology in the southern Levant east of the rift from 20,000–6,000 BP. Paléorient 23(2): 107–119.

    Google Scholar 

  126. Henry, D. O. (1999). Book review of “Early Natufian el-Wad Revisited” by Weinstein-Evron, M. Mitekufat Haeven 29: 135–139.

    Google Scholar 

  127. Henry, D. O. (2002). Models of agricultural origins and proxy measures of prehistoric demographics. In Cappers, R. T. J., and Bottema, S. (eds.), The Dawn of Farming in the Near East, Studies in Early Near Eastern Production, Subsistence, and Environment 6, Ex Oriente, Berlin, pp. 15–26.

  128. Hillman, G. (1996). Late Pleistocene changes in wild plant-foods available to hunter-gatherers of the northern Fertile Crescent: Possible preludes to cereal cultivation. In Harris, D. R. (ed.), The Origins and Spread of Agriculture and Pastoralism in Eurasia, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, pp. 159–203.

  129. Hillman, G. C. (2000). The plant food economy of Abu Hureyra 1 and 2. Abu Hureyra 1: The Epipaleolithic. In Moore, A. M. T., Hillman, G. C., and Legge, A. J. (eds.), Village on the Euphrates: From Foraging to Farming at Abu Hureyra, Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 327–398.

    Google Scholar 

  130. Hillman, G. C., Hedges, R., Moore, A., Colledge, S., and Pettitt, P. (2001). New evidence for Late Glacial cereal cultivation at Abu Hureyra on the Euphrates. Holocene 11: 383–393.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  131. Hodder, I. (1990). The Domestication of Europe: Structure and Contingency in Neolithic Societies, Basil Blackwell, Oxford.

    Google Scholar 

  132. Hodder, I. (2001). Symbolism and the origins of agriculture in the Near East. Cambridge Archaeology Journal 11: 107–112.

    Google Scholar 

  133. Hodder, I., and Cessford, C. (2004). Daily practice and social memory at Çatalhöyük. American Antiquity 69: 17–40.

    Google Scholar 

  134. Hole, F. (1998). The spread of agriculture to the eastsern arc of the Fertile Crescent: Food for the herders. In Damania, A. B., Valkoun, J., Wilcox, G., and Quallset, C. O. (eds.), The Origins of Agriculture and Crop Domestication, International Center for Agricultural Research in Dry Areas, Aleppo, Syria, pp. 83–92.

  135. Hole, F. (2000). Is size imporant? Function and hierarchy in Neolithic settlement. In Kuijt, I. (ed.), Life in Neolithic Farming Communities: Social Organization, Identity, and Differentiation, Kluwer Academic/Plenum Press, New York, pp. 191–209.

    Google Scholar 

  136. Horwitz, L. K., Tchernov, E., Ducos, P., Becker, C., von den Driesch, A., Martin, L., and Gararrd, A. (1999). Animal domestication in the southern Levant. Paléorient 25(2): 63–80.

    Google Scholar 

  137. Housley, R. A. (1994). Eastern Mediterranean chronologies: The Oxford AMS contribution. In Bar-Yosef, O., and Kra, R. (eds.), Late Quaternary Chronology and Paleoclimates of the Eastern Mediterranean, Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, pp. 55–73.

    Google Scholar 

  138. Ingold, T., Riches, D., and Woodburn, J. (1988). Hunters and Gathers 2: Property, Power, and Ideology, Berg, Oxford.

    Google Scholar 

  139. Ingold, T. (1983). The significance of storage in hunting societies. Man: 553–571.

  140. Jones, M. K., and Brown, T. A. (2000). Agricultural origins: The evidence of modern and ancient DNA. The Holocene 10: 769–776.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  141. Kaufman, D. (1992). Hunter-gatherers of the Levantine Epipaleolithic: The socioecological origins of sedentism. Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology 5: 165–201.

    Google Scholar 

  142. Kenyon, K. M. (ed.) (1981). The Architecture and Stratigraphy of the Tell: Excavation at Jericho, Vol III, British School of Archaeology in Jerusalem, London.

    Google Scholar 

  143. Kislev, M. E. (1992). Agriculture in the Near East in the VIIth millennium BC. In Anderson, P. C. (ed.), Préhistoire d’agriculture: Nouvelles approches expérimentales et ethnographiques, CRA Monographies 6, Valbonne, pp. 87–93.

  144. Kislev, M. E., Nadel, D., and Carmi, I. (1992). Epipaleolithic (19000 BP) cereal and fruit diet at Ohalo II, Sea of Galilee, Israel. Review of Paleobotany and Palynology 73: 161–166.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  145. Kozlowski, S. K. (ed.) (1990). Nemrik 9: A Pre-Pottery Neolithic Site in Iraq: General Report, Seasons 1985–1986, Wydawnictwa Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego, Warszawa.

    Google Scholar 

  146. Kozlowski, S. K. (1999). The Eastern Wing of the Fertile Crescent: Late Prehistory of Greater Mesopotamian Lithic Industries, BAR International Series 760, Archaeopress, Oxford.

  147. Kozlowski, S. K. (1994). Radiocarbon dates from aceramic Iraq. In Bar-Yosef, O., and Kra, R. (eds.), Late Quaternary Chronology and Paleoclimates of the Eastern Mediterranean, Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, pp. 255–264.

    Google Scholar 

  148. Kromer, B., and Schmidt, K. (1998). Two radiocarbon dates from Göbekli Tepe, southeastern, Turkey. Neo-Lithics 1998(3): 8–9.

    Google Scholar 

  149. Kuijt, I. (1996). Negotiating equality through ritual: A consideration of Late Natufian and Prepottery Neolithic A period mortuary practices. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 15: 313–336.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  150. Kuijt, I. (ed.) (2000a). Life in Neolithic Farming Communities: Social Organization, Identity, and Differentiation, Kluwer Academic/Plenum Press, New York.

    Google Scholar 

  151. Kuijt, I. (2000b). Keeping the peace: Ritual, skull caching, and community integration in the Levantine Neolithic. In Kuijt, I. (ed.), Life in Neolithic Farming Communities: Social Organization, Identity, and Differentiation, Kluwer Academic/Plenum Press, New York, pp. 137–162.

    Google Scholar 

  152. Kuijt, I. (2001a). Lithic inter-assemblage variability and cultural historical sequences: A consideration of the Pre-Pottery Neolithic A occupation of Dhra’, Jordan. Paléorient 27(1): 107–125.

    Google Scholar 

  153. Kuijt, I. (2001b). Place, death, and the transmission of social memory in early agricultural communities of the Near Eastern Pre-Pottery Neolithic. In Chesson, M. S. (ed.), Social Memory, Identiy, and Death: Anthropological Perspectives on Mortuary Rituals, Archeological Papers, No. 10, American Anthropological Association, Arlington, VA, pp. 80–99.

  154. Kuijt, I., and Bar-Yosef, O. (1994). Radiocarbon chronology for the Levantine Neolithic: Observations and data. In Bar-Yosef, O., and Kra, R. (eds.), Late Quaternary Chronology and Paleoclimates of the Eastern Mediterranean, Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, pp. 227–245.

    Google Scholar 

  155. Kuijt, I., and Goring-Morris, N. (2002). Foraging, farming and social complexity in the Pre-Pottery Neolithic of the southern Levant: A review and synthesis. Journal of World Prehistory 16: 361–420.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  156. Kunzar, L. A. (2003). Sacred sites and profane conflicts: The use of burial facilities and other sacred locations as territorial markers—ethnographic evidence. In Jeske, R. J., and Charles, D. K. (eds.), Theory, Method, and Practice in Modern Archaeology, Praeger, London, pp. 270–286.

    Google Scholar 

  157. Ladizinsky, G. (1989). Origin and domestication of the Southwest Asian grain legumes. In Harris, D. R., and Hillman, G. C. (eds.), Foraging and Farming: The Evolution of Plant Exploitation, Unwin Hyman, London, pp. 374–389.

    Google Scholar 

  158. Larick, R. (1987). The circulation of spears among Loikop cattle pastoralists of Samburu district, Kenya. Research in Economic Anthropology 9: 143–166.

    Google Scholar 

  159. Leach, H. M. (1997). The terminology of agricultural origins and food production systems: A horticultural perspective. Antiquity 71: 135–148.

    Google Scholar 

  160. Lieberman, D. E. (1993). The rise and fall of seasonal mobility among hunter-gatherers: The case of the southern Levant. Current Anthropology 34: 599–632.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  161. Lieberman, D. E. (1998). Natufian “sedentism” and the importance of biological data for estimating reduced mobility. In Rocek, T. R. and Bar-Yosef, O. (eds.), Seasonality and Sedentism: Archaeological Perspectives from Old and New World Sites, Peabody Museum Bulletin 6, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, pp. 75–92.

  162. Lieberman, D. E., and Bar-Yosef, O. (1994). On sedentism and cereal gathering in the Natufian. Current Anthropology 35: 431–434.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  163. Lourandos, H. (1997). Continent of Hunter-gatherers: New Perspectives in Australian Prehistory, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

    Google Scholar 

  164. Marshack, A. (1997). Paleolithic image making and symboling in Europe and the Near East. In Conkey, M. W., Soffer, O., Stratmann, D., and Jablonski, N. G. (eds.), Beyond Art: Pleistocene Image and Symbol, Memoirs of the California Academy of Science, San Francisco, pp. 53–91.

  165. Matson, R. G. (1985). The relationship between sedentism and status inequalities among hunters and gatherers. In Thompson, M., Garcia, M. T., and Kense, F. J. (eds.), Status, Structure and Stratification: Current Archaeological Reconstructions, University of Calgary Archaeological Association, Calgary, pp. 245–252.

    Google Scholar 

  166. McCorriston, J., and Hole, F. (1991). The ecology of seasonal stress and the origins of agriculture in the Near East. American Anthropologist 93: 46–69.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  167. Mithen, S., Finlayson, B., Pirie, A., Carruthers, D., and Kennedy, A. (2000). New evidence for ecomomic and technological diversity in the Pre-Pottery Neolithic A: Wadi Faynan 16. Current Anthropology 41: 655–663.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  168. Moore, A. M. T. (1985). The development of Neolithic societies in the Near East. Advances in World Archaeology 4: 1–69.

    Google Scholar 

  169. Moore, A. M. T. (1998). The interaction between people and environment at the early village of Abu Hureyra on the Euphrates. In Fortin, M., and Auranche, O. (eds.), Espace naturel, espace habité en Syrie du Nord (10e-2e millénaires av. J-C.), Maison de l’Orient Méditerranéen 28 and Bulletin 33, Canadian Society for Mesopotamian Studies, Quebec, pp. 131–138.

    Google Scholar 

  170. Moore, A. M. T., and Hillman, G. C. (1992). The Pleistocene to Holocene transition and human economy in Southwest Asia: The impact of the Younger Dryas. American Antiquity 57: 482–494.

    Google Scholar 

  171. Moore, A. M. T., Hillman, G. C., and Legge, A. J. (2000). Village on the Euphrates: From Foraging to Farming at Abu Hureyra, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

    Google Scholar 

  172. Muheisen, M. (1988). The Epipaleolithic phases of Kharaneh IV. In Garrard, A. N., and Gebel, H. G. (eds.), The Prehistory of Jordan, BAR International Series 396, Archaeopress, Oxford, pp. 353–367.

  173. Nesbitt, M. (2002). When and where did domesticated cereals first occur in Southwest Asia. In Cappers, R. T. J., and Bottema, S. (eds.), The Dawn of Farming in the Near East, Studies in Early Near Eastern Production, Subsistence, and Environment 6, Ex Oriente, Berlin, pp. 113–132.

  174. Noy, T. (1989). Gigal I. A Pre-Pottery Neolithic site, Israel. The 1985–1987 seasons. Paléorient 15(1): 15–22.

    Google Scholar 

  175. Özdoğan, A. (1999). Çayönü. In Özdoğan, M., and Basgelen, N. (eds.), Neolithic in Turkey: Cradle of Civilization. New Discoveries, 2 vol., Arkeoloji ve Sanat Yayinlari, Istanbul, Turkey.

    Google Scholar 

  176. Özdoğan, M. (1997). Anatolia from the last glacial maximum to the Holocene climatic optimum: Cultural formations and the impact of environmental setting. Paléorient 23(2): 25–38.

    Google Scholar 

  177. Özdoğan, M. (1999). Concluding remarks. In Özdoğan, M., and Basgelen, N. (eds.), Neolithic in Turkey: Cradle of Civilization. New Discoveries, 2 vol., Arkeoloji ve Sanat Yayinlari, Istanbul, Turkey, pp. 225–236.

    Google Scholar 

  178. Özdoğan, M., and Basgelen, N. (eds.) (1999). Neolithic in Turkey: Cradle of Civilization. New Discoveries, 2 vol., Arkeoloji ve Sanat Yayinlari, Istanbul, Turkey.

    Google Scholar 

  179. Özdoğan, M., and Özdoğan, N.A. (1998). Buildings of cult and the cult of buildings. In Arsebük, G., Mellink, M. J., and Schirmer, W. (eds.), Light on Top of the Black Hill: Studies Presented to Halet Çambel, Ege Yayinlari, Istanbul, pp. 581–601.

  180. Özkan, H., Grandolini, A., Schäfer-Pregl, R., and Salamini, F. (2002). AFLP analysis of a collection of tretraploid wheats indicates the origin of emmer and hard wheat domestication in southern Turkey. Molecular Biology and Evolution 19: 1797–1801.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  181. Peteet, D. (2000). Sensitivity and rapidity of vegetational response to abrupt climate change. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 97: 1359–1361.

  182. Peters, J., Helmer, D., von den Dreisch, A., and Saña Segui, M. (1999). Early animal husbandry in the northern Levant. Paléorient 25(2): 27–47.

    Google Scholar 

  183. Price, T. D., and Gebauer, A. B. (eds.) (1995a). Last Hunters, First Farmers: New Perspectives on the Prehistoric Transition to Agriculture, School of American Research Press, Santa Fe, NM.

    Google Scholar 

  184. Price, T. D., and Gebauer, A. B. (1995b). New perspectives on the transition to agriculture. In Price, T. D., and Gebauer, A. B. (eds.), Last Hunters, First Farmers: New Perspectives on the Prehistoric Transition to Agriculture, School of American Research Press, Santa Fe, NM, pp. 3–20.

    Google Scholar 

  185. Redding, R. W. (1988). A general explanation of subsistence change: From hunting and gathering to food production. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 7: 59–97.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  186. Richerson, P. J., Boyd, R., and Bettinger, R. L. (2001). Was agriculture impossible during the Pleistocene but mandatory during the Holocene? A climatic change hypothesis. American Antiquity 66: 387–412.

    Google Scholar 

  187. Rindos, D. W. (1984). The Origins of Agriculture: An Evolutionary Perspective, Academic Press, New York.

    Google Scholar 

  188. Rollefson, G. O. (1986). Neolithic ‘Ain Ghazal (Jordan): Ritual and ceremony, II. Paléorient 12(1): 45–52.

    Google Scholar 

  189. Rollefson, G. O. (1989). The late aceramic Neolithic of the Levant: A synthesis. Paléorient 15(1): 168–173.

    Google Scholar 

  190. Rollefson, G. O. (2000). Ritual and social structure at Neolithic ‘Ain Ghazal. In Kuijt, I. (ed.), Life in Neolithic Farming Communities: Social Organization, Identity, and Differentiation, Kluwer Academic/Plenum Press, New York, pp. 163–190.

    Google Scholar 

  191. Rollefson, G. O. (2001). 2001: An archaeological odyssey. Cambridge Archaeology Journal 11: 112–114.

    Google Scholar 

  192. Rosenberg, M. (1990). The mother of invention: Evolutionary theory, territoriality, and the origins of agriculture. American Anthropologist 92: 399–415.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  193. Rosenberg, M. (1994). Hallan Çemi Tepesi: Some further observations concerning stratigraphy and material culture. Anatolica XX: 121–140.

    Google Scholar 

  194. Rosenberg, M. (1998). Cheating at musical chairs: Territoriality and sedentism in an evolutionary context. Current Anthropology 39: 653–682.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  195. Rosenberg, M. (1999). Hallan Çemi. In Özdoğan, M., and Basgelen, N. (eds.), Neolithic in Turkey: Cradle of Civilization. New Discoveries, 2 vol., Arkeoloji ve Sanat Yayinlari, Istanbul, Turkey, pp. 25–34.

    Google Scholar 

  196. Rosenberg, M., Nesbitt, R., Redding, R. W., and Peasnall, B. L. (1998). Hallan Çemi, pig husbandry, and post-Pleistocene adaptations along the Taurus-Zagros arc (Turkey). Paléorient 24(1): 25–41.

    Google Scholar 

  197. Rosenberg, M., and Redding, R. W. (2000). Hallan Çemi and early village organization in eastern Anatolia. In Kuijt, I. (ed.), Life in Neolithic Farming Communities: Social Organization, Identity, and Differentiation, Kluwer Academic/Plenum Press, New York, pp. 39–62.

    Google Scholar 

  198. Rossignol-Strick, M. (1995). Sea-land correlation of pollen records in the eastern Mediterranean for the glacial-interglacial transition: Biostratigraphy versus radiometric time-scale. Quaternary Science Reviews 14: 893–915.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  199. Runnels, C., and van Andel, T. H. (1988). Trade and the origins of agriculture in the eastern Mediterranean. Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology 1: 83–109.

    Google Scholar 

  200. Sage, R. F. (1995). Was low atmospheric CO2 during the Pleistocene a limiting factor for the origin of agriculture? Global Change Biology 1: 93–106.

    Google Scholar 

  201. Salamini, F., Ozkan, H., Brandolini, A., Schafer-Pregl, R., and Martin, W. (2002). Genetics and geography of wild cereal domestication in the Near East. Nature Reviews Genetics 3: 429–441.

    Google Scholar 

  202. Sanlaville, P. (1996). Changements climtiques dans la région Levantine à la fin du Pléistocène supérieur et au début de l’Holocène. Leurs relations avec l’évolution des sociétés humaines. Paléorient 22(1): 7–30.

    Google Scholar 

  203. Sanlaville, P. (ed.) (1997). Paléoenvironnement et sociétés humaines au Moyen-Orient de 20000 BP à 6000 BP. Paléorient 23(2), Centre National de Recherche Scientifique, Paris.

  204. Schmidt, K. (1998). Beyond daily bread: Evidence of early Neolithic ritual from Göbekli Tepe Neo-Lithics 1998(2): 1–5.

    Google Scholar 

  205. Schmidt, K. (2000). Göbekli Tepe, southeastern Turkey: A preliminary report on the 1995–1999 excavations. Paléorient26(1): 45–54.

    Google Scholar 

  206. Schmidt, K. (2002a). Göbekli Tepe: Southeastern Turkey, the seventh campaign, 2001. Neo-Lithics 2002(1): 23–25.

    Google Scholar 

  207. Schmidt, K. (2002b). The 2002 excavations at Göbekli Tepe (southeastern Turkey): Impressions from an enigmatic site. Neo-Lithics 2002(2): 8–13.

    Google Scholar 

  208. Severinghaus, J. P., Sower, T., Brook, E. J., Alley, R. B., and Bender, M. L. (1998). Timing of abrupt climate change at the end of the Younger Dryas interval from thermally fractionated gases in polar ice. Nature 391: 141–146.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  209. Severinghaus, J. P., and Brook, E. J. (1999). Abrupt climate change at the end of the last glacial period inferred from trapped air in polar ice. Science 286: 930–934.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  210. Sherratt, A. (1997). Climatic cycles and behavioral revolutions: The emergence of modern humans and the beginning of farming. Antiquity 71: 271–287.

    Google Scholar 

  211. Smith, B. (1998). The Emergence of Agriculture, Scientific American Library, New York.

    Google Scholar 

  212. Smith, B. (2001a). The transition to food production. In Feinman, G. M., and Price, T. D. (eds.), Archaeology at the Millennium: A Source Book, Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York, pp. 199–230.

    Google Scholar 

  213. Smith, B. (2001b). Low-level food production. Journal of Archaeological Research 9: 1–43.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  214. Stordeur, D. (2000). New discoveries in architecture and symbolism at Jerf el Ahmar (Syria), 1997–1999. Neo-Lithics 2000(1): 1–4.

    Google Scholar 

  215. Stordeur, D., Brenet, M., Der Aprahamian, G., and Roux, J.-C. (2000). Les Batiments communautaires de Jerf el Ahmar et Mureybet horizon PPNA (Syrie). Paléorient 26(1): 29–44.

    Google Scholar 

  216. Stuiver, M., Reimer, P. J., Bard, E., Beck, J. W., Burr, G. S., Hughen, K. A., Kromer, B., McCormac, G., van der Plict, J., and Spurk, M. (1998). INTCAL 98 radiocarbon age calibration, 24,000–0 cal. B.P. Radiocarbon 40: 104–184.

    Google Scholar 

  217. Taylor, K. C., Mayewski, P. A., Alley, R. B., Brook, E. J., Gow, A. J., Grootes, P. M., Meese, D. A., Saltzman, E. S., Severinghaus, J. P., Twickler, M. S., White, J. W. C., Whitlow, S., and Zielinski, G. A. (1997). The Holocene-Younger Dryas transition recorded at Summit, Greenland. Science 278: 825–827.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  218. Tchernov, E. (1991). Biological evidence for human sedentism in Southwest Asia during the Natufian. In Bar-Yosef, O., and Valla, F. (eds.), The Natufian Culture in the Levant, International Monographs in Prehistory, Ann Arbor, MI, pp. 315–340.

  219. Tchernov, E. (1994). An Early Neolithic Village in the Jordan Valley, Part II: The Fauna of Netiv Hagdud, American School of Prehistoric Research Bulletin 44, Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA.

  220. Tchernov, E. (1997). Are Late Pleistocene environmental factors, faunal changes and cultural transformations causally connected? The case of the southern Levant. Paléorient 23(2): 209–228.

    Google Scholar 

  221. Tchernov, E., and Valla, F. R. (1997). Two new dogs, and other Natufian dogs, from the southern Levant. Journal of Archaeological Science 24: 65–95.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  222. Terrell, J. E., Hart, J. P., Barut, S., Cellinese, N., Curet, A., Denham, T., Kusimba, C. M., Latinis, K., Oka, R., Palka, J., Pohl, M. E. D., Pope, K. O., Williams, P. R., Haines, H., and Staller, J. E. (2003). Domesticated landscapes: The subsistence ecology of plant and animal domestication. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 10: 323–368.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  223. Tuzin, D. (2001). Social Complexity in the Making: A Case Study Among the Arapesh of New Guinea, Routledge, New York.

    Google Scholar 

  224. Valla, F. R. (1995). The first settled societies: Natufian (12,500–10,200 BP). In Levy, T. E. (ed.), The Archaeology of Society in the Holy Land, Leicester University Press, London, pp. 170–187.

    Google Scholar 

  225. Valla, F. R. (1996). L’animal ‘bon a penser’: La domestication et la place de l’homme dans la nature. In Otte, M. (ed.), Nature et culture, Etudes et Recherches Archéologiques, No. 68, Université de Liège, Liege, Belgium, pp. 651–667.

  226. Valla, F. R. (1998). Natufian seasonality: A guess. In Rocek, T. R., and Bar-Yosef, O. (eds.), Seasonality and Sedentism: Archaeological Perspectives from Old and New World sites, Peabody Museum Bulletin 6, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, pp. 93–108.

    Google Scholar 

  227. Valla, F. R. (2000). La sédentarisation au proche orient: La culture Natoufienne. In Guilaine, J. (ed.), Premiers paysans du monde: naissances des agricultures, Editions Errance, Paris, pp. 13–30.

    Google Scholar 

  228. van der Plicht, J., and Bruins, H. J. (2001). Radiocarbon dating in Near-Eastern contexts: Confusion and quality control. Radiocarbon 43: 1155–1166.

    Google Scholar 

  229. van Ziest, W., and Bottema, S. (1991). Late Quaternary Vegetation of the Near East, Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag, Wiesbaden.

    Google Scholar 

  230. van Alden, T. H., and Lianos, N. (1983). Prehistoric and historic shoreline of the southern Argolid Peninsula: A subbottom profiler study. International Journal of Nautical Archeology and Underwater Exploration 12: 314–324.

    Google Scholar 

  231. Verhoeven, M. (2002a). Ritual and ideaology in the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B of the Levant and southeast Anatolia. Cambridge Archaeology Journal 12: 233–258.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  232. Verhoeven, M. (2002b). Transformations of society: The changing role of ritual and symbolism in the PPNB and the PN in the Levant, Syria, and southeast Anatolia. Paléorient 28(1): 5–14.

    Google Scholar 

  233. Waterbolk, H. T. (1987). Working with radiocarbon dates in southwestern Asia. In Aurenche, O., Evin, J., and Hours, F. (eds.), Chronogies du Proche Orient, Relative Chronogies and Absolute Chronology 16,000–4,000 B.P., BAR International Series 379, Archaeopress, Oxford, pp. 39–60.

  234. Waterbolk, H. T. (1994). Radiocarbon dating Levantine prehistory. In Bar-Yosef, O., and Kra, R. (eds.), Late Quaternary Chronology and Paleoclimates of the Eastern Mediterranean, Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, pp. 351–371.

    Google Scholar 

  235. Watkins, T. D. (2001). Response to comments on “Ideology before economy” by J. Cauvin. Cambridge Archaeology Journal 11: 117–120.

    Google Scholar 

  236. Watkins, T., Baird, D., and Betts, A. (1989). Qermez Dere and the early aceramic Neolithic of N. Iraq. Paléorient 15(1): 19–24.

    Google Scholar 

  237. Watson, P. J. (1995). Explaining the transition to agriculture. In Price, T. D., and Gebauer, A. B. (eds.), Last Hunters, First Farmers: New Perspectives on the Prehistoric Transition to Agriculture, School of American Research Press, Santa Fe, NM, pp. 21–38.

    Google Scholar 

  238. Weinstein, J. M. (1984). Radiocarbon dating in the southern Levant. Radiocarbon 26: 297–366.

    Google Scholar 

  239. Weinstein–Evron, M. (1998). Early Natufian el-Wad Revisited, Etudes et Recherches Archéologiques No. 77, Université Liège, Liège, Belgium.

  240. Weinstein–Evron, M., Kaufman, D., and Bird-David, N. (2001). Rolling stones: Basalt implements as evidence for trade/exchange in the Levantine Epipaleolithic. Journal of the Israel Prehistoric Society 31: 25–42.

    Google Scholar 

  241. Weinstein-Evron, M., Lang, B., and Ilani, S. (1999). Natufian trade/exchange in basalt: Evidence from northern Israel. Archaeometry 41: 267–273.

    Google Scholar 

  242. Wiessner, P. (2002). The vines of complexity. Current Anthropology 43: 233–269.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  243. Wilcox, T. (1996). Evidence for plant exploitation and vegetation history from three Early Neolithic pre-pottery sites on the Euphrates (Syria). Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 5: 143–152.

    Google Scholar 

  244. Wilcox, G. (1998). Archaeobotanical evidence for the beginnings of agriculture in Southwest Asia. In Damania, A. B., Valkoun, J., Wilcox, G., and Quallset, C. O. (eds.), The Origins of Agriculture and Crop Domestication, International Center for Agricultural Research in Dry Areas, Aleppo, Syria, pp. 25–38.

    Google Scholar 

  245. Wilcox, G. (1999). Agrarian change and the beginnings of cultivation in the Near East: Evidence from wild progenitors, experimental cultivation and archaeobotanical data. In Gosden, C., and Hather, J. (eds.), Prehistory of Food, Routledge, London, pp. 479–500.

    Google Scholar 

  246. Wilcox, G. (2002). Geographical variation in major cereal components and evidence for independent domestication events in western Asia. In Cappers, R. T. J., and Bottema, S. (eds.), The Dawn of Farming in the Near East, Studies in Early Near Eastern Production, Subsistence, and Environment 6, Ex Oriente, Berlin, pp. 133–140.

  247. Woodburn, J. (1980). Hunters and gatherers today and reconstruction of the past. In Gellner, A. (ed.), Soviet and Western Anthropology, Duckworth, London, pp. 95–117.

    Google Scholar 

  248. Woodburn, J. (1982). Egalitarian societies. Man 17: 431–451.

    Google Scholar 

  249. Wright, H. E., Jr. (1993). Environmental determinism in Near Eastern prehistory. Current Anthropology 34: 458–469.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  250. Wright, G. A. (1978). Social differentiation in the early Natufian. In Redman, C. L., Berman, M. J., Curtin, E. V., Langhorne, W. T., Versaggi, N. H., Jr., and Wasner, J. C. (eds.), Social Archaeology, Beyond Subsistence and Dating, Academic Press, New York, pp. 201–223.

    Google Scholar 

  251. Wright, K. I. (1991). The origins and development of ground stone assemblages in late Pleistocene Southwest Asia. Paléorient 17(1): 19–45.

    Google Scholar 

  252. Wright, K. I. (2001). Interpreting the Neolithic of western Asia. Antiquity 75: 619–621.

    Google Scholar 

  253. Yasuda, Y., Kitagawab, H., and Nakagawa T. (1999). The earliest record of major anthropogenic deforestation in the Ghab Valley, northwest Syria: A palynological study. Quaternary International 73/74: 127–136.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  254. Zeder, M. A. (1999). Animal domestication in the Zagros: A review of past and current research. Paléorient 25(2): 11–25.

    Google Scholar 

  255. Zohary, D. (1996). The mode of domestication of the founder crops of Southwest Asian agriculture. In Harris, D. R. (ed.), The Origins and Spread of Agriculture and Pastoralism in Eurasia, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, pp. 142–158.

    Google Scholar 

  256. Zohary, D., and Hopf, M. (2000). Domestication of Plants in the Old World: The Orgin and Spread of Cultivated Plants in West Asia, Europe, and the Nile Valley, 3rd ed., Oxford University Press, Oxford.

    Google Scholar 

  257. Zohary, D., Tchernov, E., and Horowitz, L. K. (1998). The role of unconscious selection in the domestication of sheep and goats. Journal of Zoology 245: 129–135.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  258. Zohary, M. (1973). Geobotanical Foundations of the Middle East, I & II, Fisher Verlag, Stuttgart.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Brian F. Byrd.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Byrd, B.F. Reassessing the Emergence of Village Life in the Near East. J Archaeol Res 13, 231–290 (2005). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10814-005-3107-2

Download citation

Keywords

  • agriculture
  • Natufian
  • Neolithic
  • Near East