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Effects of different stressors on the PSII photochemical efficiency and application to sporeling transportation in cultured young sporophytes of Undaria pinnatifida

Abstract

We determined the chronic effects of dehydration on the photochemical efficiency of a cultivated brown alga, Undaria pinnatifida (Alariaceae, Laminariales), in young sporophytes as cultivated sporelings. The effective quantum yields of photosystem II (ΔF/Fm) at 50% humidity decreased markedly after 20 min of emersion and dropped almost zero after 60 min of emersion; the values did not restore even after subsequent 1-day immersion. The decreasing values coincided with a decrease in absolute water content of less than 40%. However, under 99% humidity up to 5-day emersion, the ΔF/Fm well remained and the last state exhibited a similar level to the initial value after a 48-h emersion at 20 °C and after 72 h of emersion at 10 °C, suggesting that the thalli were not truly dehydrated under saturated humidity and that photosynthetic activity was maintained for several days even without immersion in seawater. In addition, the subsequent growth of young sporophytes exposed to transportation storage stress featuring (1) immersed in seawater with aeration (ST1), (2) those without aeration (ST2), and (3) wrapped in paper towels moistened with seawater (ST3) revealed that the sporophytes exposed at lower temperature exhibited a higher subsequent growth than those at a higher temperature. The subsequent growth of ST3 was lower than ST1; however, the values of ST3 were higher than those of ST2 more than 12 °C, associating with poor seawater quality without aeration. These results indicated that the maintenance of moisture in the alga at low temperatures might be essential for the transportation of the sporelings.

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Data availability

The datasets generated in the present study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.

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Acknowledgements

We thank Osamu Hatakeyama and Hiroshi Akama for performing the experiments and providing information regarding the transfer method of Undaria sporelings. We also thank Drs. Teruko Konishi and Michihiro Ito of University of the Ryukyus for their suggestions and comments, which improved our manuscript. We thank Hikari Nagoe for supporting the data analysis. All authors have provided consent. YS, GNN, and RT also thank two anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments during the review process.

Funding

This research was funded in part by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (category B, #20H03076) from the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, and the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (to YS, DS, GNN, and RT).

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10811_2021_2616_MOESM1_ESM.pptx

Supplemental Figure 1. Total weight variations (Upper) in sporelings cultured on ropes with young sporophytes of Undaria pinnatifida pre-incubated at 18 °C, 100 µmol photons m−2 s−1 (12/12 h light/dark cycle) in 1.25% PESI medium with aeration after exposure to three storage conditions: immersed in sterilized seawater with aeration (ST1), immersed in sterilized seawater without aeration (ST2), and wrapped in paper towels moistened with sterilized seawater (ST3); samples were maintained under dark conditions for 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h, and at four temperature levels (4, 12, 18, and 24 °C). All weight data were transformed using the natural logarithm (Bottom), and the slopes for each individual at every experimental condition were calculated as their daily growth rates and their values were used to generate Fig. 4.

Supplemental Figure 2. Variations in photochemical efficiency (ΔF/Fm') in sporelings cultured on ropes with young sporophytes of Undaria pinnatifida for cultivation in Miyagi, Japan. Sporophytes were pre-incubated at 18 °C, 100 µmol photons m−2 s−1 (12/12 h light/dark cycle) in 1.25% PESI medium with aeration after exposure to three storage conditions: immersed in seawater with aeration (left), immersed in seawater without aeration (middle), and wrapped in paper towels moistened with sterilized seawater (right) and maintained under dark conditions for 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h. The symbols indicate the average of actual values measured (n = 3), and bars represent standard deviation.

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Sato, Y., Saito, D., Nishihara, G.N. et al. Effects of different stressors on the PSII photochemical efficiency and application to sporeling transportation in cultured young sporophytes of Undaria pinnatifida. J Appl Phycol 34, 551–563 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10811-021-02616-8

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Keywords

  • Desiccation
  • Irradiance
  • Photochemical efficiency
  • Pulse amplitude modulation (PAM)-chlorophyll fluorometry
  • Sporeling
  • Temperature
  • Wakame