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Chronic effects of three different stressors, irradiance, temperature, and desiccation, on the PSII photochemical efficiency in the heteromorphic life-history stages of cultivated Pyropia yezoensis f. narawaensis (Bangiales) from Japan

Abstract

The chronic effects of three different stressors, irradiance, temperature, and desiccation, on Photosystem II (PSII) photochemical efficiency were investigated in two heteromorphic life-history stages of a cultivated red alga, Pyropia yezoensis f. narawaensis (Bangiales) from Japan. The maximum quantum yields of PSII (Fv/Fm) over the range of temperature between 4 and 36 °C for 96-h exposure showed different responses in the two life-history stages. In the macroscopic gametophyte, the highest value (0.47) occurred at 12.0 °C; however, Fv/Fm quickly decreased at higher temperatures. In contrast, Fv/Fm in the microscopic sporophyte were less sensitive to temperature, suggesting adaptation to the broad range of temperature with a high value (0.40) that occurred at 21.1 °C. Continuous 6-h exposures to the 50, 100, and 1000 μmol photons m−2 s−1 revealed greater decline in their effective quantum yields of PSII (ΔF/Fm) in the sporophyte. As known in the photoprotective response and its PSII repair system in the photosynthesis, the recovery of quantum yield in two life-history stages after subsequent acclimation (darkness and dim-light treatments) was more accelerated in dim-light than those of darkness. The response to continuous desiccation (240-min aerial exposure) in two life-history stages was also different, and the ΔF/Fm in the gametophyte returned to initial values after re-immersion in seawater. In contrast, those in the sporophyte dropped to zero after a 5-min aerial exposure and did not return to initial values, suggesting that farming protocols for the conchospore seeding in Nori-net cultivation need to pay careful attention to desiccation to ensure successful production.

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Acknowledgments

We thank Jumpei Kozono, Ryo Kameyama, Tomohide Ito, Iris Ann Borlongan (present: College of Fisheries and Ocean Sciences, University of the Philippines Visayas) and Hikaru Endo of the Laboratory of Marine Botany, Kagoshima University, for their kind support to the experiment in the present study. All authors have provided consent. RT and GNN also thank two reviewers for their constructive comments in the review process of Journal of Applied Phycology.

Funding

This research was supported in part by the Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (#16H02939) from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS).

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Correspondence to Ryuta Terada.

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Terada, R., Yuge, T., Watanabe, Y. et al. Chronic effects of three different stressors, irradiance, temperature, and desiccation, on the PSII photochemical efficiency in the heteromorphic life-history stages of cultivated Pyropia yezoensis f. narawaensis (Bangiales) from Japan. J Appl Phycol 32, 3273–3284 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10811-020-02152-x

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Keywords

  • Algae
  • Desiccation tolerance
  • Nori
  • PSII photochemical efficiency
  • Photoinhibition
  • Pulse amplitude-modulation (PAM)-chlorophyll fluorometry
  • Porphyra
  • Pyropia