Phlorotannins from Padina tetrastromatica: structural characterisation and functional studies


In this study, LC–MS/MS-based structural characterisation of phlorotannins from Padina tetrastromatica, a marine brown macroalga collected from South-West coastal region of Kerala, and its bioactivities are presented. The tandem mass spectrometric data revealed a series of phlorotannins with degree of polymerisation ranging from 2 to 18. The characteristic neutral loss of tandem mass spectra further confirmed that these molecules belong to fucophlorethol class of phlorotannins. DPPH assay of the HPLC-purified, phlorotannin-enriched fraction possesses significant free radical-scavenging activity. Cell viability assay indicated that phlorotannin concentration ranging from 1.5 to 50.0 μg mL−1 is non-toxic to THP-1 cell lines. Anti-inflammatory assay performed through gelatin zymography confirmed that phlorotannins ameliorated high-glucose-induced pro-MMP-9 expression in a dose-dependent manner whereas the level of pro-MMP-2 remains unaltered. The antimicrobial assays carried out using both the crude and HPLC-purified phlorotannin fraction showed its anti-MRSA potential.

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The authors would like to acknowledge Dr. Nataraja Panicker for helping with the identification of the algal sample; Dr. Anil Kumar V, Professor, Microbiology, School of Medicine, Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences, for providing the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain; Dr. Ashoke Banerji and Dr. Pandu Rangan, School of Biotechnology, for the solvent extraction process; and Amrita Agilent Analytical Research Centre and Mr. Nithin Sajeev for helping with the mass spectrometry data collection.


The financial support provided to MV and DN in the form of fellowship by Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham is duly acknowledged. All the authors are grateful to Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham for providing financial assistance in executing this project.

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Correspondence to Sudarslal Sadasivan Nair.

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Nair, D., Vanuopadath, M., Balasubramanian, A. et al. Phlorotannins from Padina tetrastromatica: structural characterisation and functional studies. J Appl Phycol 31, 3131–3141 (2019).

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  • Padina tetrastromatica
  • Phaeophyceae
  • Phlorotannin
  • Mass spectrometry
  • DPPH assay
  • Anti-inflammatory