A growth model was developed to optimize the management of multi-trophic aquaculture systems by analyzing the influence of light and biomass stocking density (SD) in the productivity of Ulva ohnoi fed with the effluents from Solea senegalensis culture tanks. Growth rates and productivity were determined in three flat bottom algae tanks with different incident photon irradiances (E0) (163, 280, and 886 μmol photons m−2 s−1), photoperiod 12:12 h, and with stocking densities ranging from 82 to 340 gdw m−2. The distribution of photon irradiance in the algae tanks was estimated as a function of the E0 and SD. The results obtained showed that the algae exposed to the highest E0 (886 μmol photons m−2 s−1) and SD below 170 gdw m−2 showed a strong decrease in their growth rate, together with morphological changes. The model proposed to estimate the specific growth rate (μNET), on the basis of E0 and SD, assumed that photosynthetic activity is dependent on the local photon flux density and, therefore, spatially distributed in the tank. Non-linear regression used to estimate the growth kinetic parameters showed a standard deviation of the distance between measured and fitted μNET data values equal to 0.011 day−1. In terms of biomass productivity per unit area (BPA), the model shows, for each E0 level, a trend to increase with SD, achieving a maximum BPA, where SD can be considered optimal, and decreasing for higher SD values. The optimal SD and the maximum BPA achievable can be also determined as a function of E0.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Angell AR, Mata L, de Nys R, Paul NA (2014) Variation in amino acid content and its relationship to nitrogen content and growth rate in Ulva ohnoi (Chlorophyta). J Phycol 50:216–226
APHA (1992) Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, 18th edn. American Public Health Association (APHA), American Water Works Association (AWWA) and Water Pollution Control Federation (WPCF), Washington DC
Aveytua-Alcázar L, Camacho-Ibar VF, Souza AJ, Allen JI, Torres R (2008) Modelling Zostera marina and Ulva spp. in a coastal lagoon. Ecol Model 218:354–366
Béchet Q, Shilton A, Guieysse B (2013) Modeling the effects of light and temperature on algae growth: state of the art and critical assessment for productivity prediction during outdoor cultivation. Biotechnol Adv 31:1648–1663
Bendoricchio G, Coffaro G, Demarchi C (1994) A trophic model for Ulva rigida in the lagoon of Venice. Ecol Model 75:485–496
Bidwell RGS, McLachlan J, Lloyd NDH (1985) Tank cultivation of Irish moss, Chondrus crispus Stackh. Bot Mar 28:87–97
Bolton JJ, Robertson-Andersson DV, Shuuluka D, Kandjengo L (2009) Growing Ulva (Chlorophyta) in integrated systems as a commercial crop for abalone feed in South Africa: a Swot analysis. J Appl Phycol 21:575–583
Coffaro G, Sfriso A (1997) Simulation model of Ulva rigida growth in shallow water of the lagoon of Venice. Ecol Model 102:55–66
Cohen RA, Fong P (2004) Physiological responses of a bloom-forming green macroalga to short-term change in salinity, nutrients, and light help explain its ecological success. Estuaries 27:209–216
Coutinho R, Zingmark R (1993) Interactions of light and nitrogen on photosynthesis and growth of the marine macroalga Ulva curvata (Kützing) De Toni. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 167:11–19
De Guimaraens MA, De MoraesPaiva A, Coutinho R (2005) Modeling Ulva spp. dynamics in a tropical upwelling region. Ecol Model 188:448–460
Duarte P, Ferreira JG (1993) A methodology for parameter estimation in seaweed productivity modelling. Hydrobiologia 260:183–189
Duarte S, Reig L, Oca J (2009) Measurement of sole activity by digital image analysis. Aquac Eng 41:22–27
Duke CS, Litaker W, Ramus J (1989) Effect of temperature on nitrogen-limited growth rate and chemical composition of Ulva curvata (Ulvales: Chlorophyta). Mar Biol 100:143–150
Evers EG (1991) A model for light-limited continuous cultures: growth, shading, and maintenance. Biotechnol Bioeng 38:245–259
Falkowski PG, LaRoche J (1991) Acclimation to spectral irradiance in algae. J Phycol 27:8–14
Figueroa FL, Israel A, Neori A, Martínez B, Malta E, Ang P, Inken S, Marquardt R, Korbee N (2009) Effects of nutrient supply on photosynthesis and pigmentation in Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta): responses to short-term stress. Aquat Biol 7:173–183
Grasshoff K, Ehrhardt M, Kremling K (eds) (1999) Methods of seawater analysis, Third edn. Verlag Chemie, Weinheim
Hadley S, Wild-Allen K, Johnson C, Macleod C (2015) Modeling macroalgae growth and nutrient dynamics for integrated multi-trophic aquaculture. J Appl Phycol 27:901–916
Hayden HS, Blomster J, Maggs CA, Silva PC, Stanhope MJ, Waaland JR (2003) Linnaeus was right all along: Ulva and Enteromorpha are not distinct genera. Eur J Phycol 38:277–294
Jiménez del Río M, Ramazanov Z, García-Reina G (1996) Ulva rigida (Ulvales, Chlorophyta) tank culture as biofilters for dissolved inorganic nitrogen from fishpond effluents. Hydrobiologia 326:61–66
Lahaye M, Robic A (2007) Structure and function properties of Ulvan, a polysaccharide from green seaweeds. Biomacromolecules 8:1765–1774
Lawton RJ, Mata L, de Nys R, Paul NA (2013) Algal bioremediation of waste waters from land-based aquaculture using Ulva: selecting target species and strains. PLoS One 8:e77344
Lobban CS, Harrison PJ (1994) Seaweed ecology and physiology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
Manhart J (1994) Phylogenetic analysis of green plant rbcL sequences. Mol Phylogenet Evol 3:114–127
Martins I, Marques JC (2002) A model for the growth of opportunistic macroalgae (Enteromorpha sp.) in tidal estuaries. Estuar Coast Shelf S 55:247–257
Mata L, Schuenhoff A, Santos R (2010) A direct comparison of the performance of the seaweed biofilters, Asparagopsis armata and Ulva rigida. J Appl Phycol 22:639–644
Mata L, Magnusson M, Paul NA, de Nys R (2016) The intensive land-based production of the green seaweeds Derbesia tenuissima and Ulva ohnoi: biomass and bioproducts. J Appl Phycol 28:365–375
Menéndez M, Martı́nez M, Comı́n FA (2001) A comparative study of the effect of pH and inorganic carbon resources on the photosynthesis of three floating macroalgae species of a Mediterranean coastal lagoon. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 256:123–136
Molina Grima E, Fernández Sevilla JM, Sánchez Pérez JA, Garcia Camacho F (1996) A study on simultaneous photolimitation and photoinhibition in dense microalgal cultures taking into account incident and averaged irradiances. J Biotechnol 45:59–69
Morais S, Aragão C, Cabrita E, Conceição LEC, Constenla M, Costas B, Dias J, Duncan N, Engrola S, Estevez A, Gisbert E, Mañanós E, Valente LMP, Yúfera M, Dinis MT (2016) New developments and biological insights into the farming of Solea senegalensis reinforcing its aquaculture potential. Rev Aquacult 8:227–263
Neori A, Cohen I, Gordin H (1991) Ulva lactuca biofilter for marine fishpond effluents: II. Growth rate, yield and C:N ratio. Bot Mar 34:389–398
Ren JS, Barr NG, Scheuer K, Schiel DR, Zeldis J (2014) A dynamic growth model of macroalgae: application in an estuary recovering from treated wastewater and earthquake-driven eutrophication. Estuar Coast Shelf S 148:59–69
Rorrer GL, Cheney DP (2004) Bioprocess engineering of cell and tissue cultures for marine seaweeds. Aquac Eng 32:11–41
Salas-Leiton E, Anguis V, Manchado M, Cañavate JP (2008) Growth, feeding and oxygen consumption of Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) juveniles stocked at different densities. Aquaculture 285:84–89
Solidoro C, Pecenik G, Pastres R, Franco D, Dejak C (1997) Modelling macroalgae (Ulva rigida) in the Venice lagoon: model structure identification and first parameters estimation. Ecol Model 94:191–206
Yokoyama H, Ishihi Y (2010) Bioindicator and biofilter function of Ulva spp. (Chlorophyta) for dissolved inorganic nitrogen discharged from a coastal fish farm - potential role in integrated multi-trophic aquaculture. Aquaculture 310:74–83
Yun YS, Park JM (2003) Kinetic modeling of the light-dependent photosynthetic activity of the green microalga Chlorella vulgaris. Biotechnol Bioeng 83:303–311
Zou D (2014) The effects of severe carbon limitation on the green seaweed, Ulva conglobata (Chlorophyta). J Appl Phycol 26:2417–2424
This work was funded by the Spanish Ministerio de Economia y Competitividad (AGL2013-41868-R).
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Oca, J., Cremades, J., Jiménez, P. et al. Culture of the seaweed Ulva ohnoi integrated in a Solea senegalensis recirculating system: influence of light and biomass stocking density on macroalgae productivity. J Appl Phycol 31, 2461–2467 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10811-019-01767-z
- Ulva ohnoi
- Growth model
- Biomass stocking density