Organelle genomes of Sargassum confusum (Fucales, Phaeophyceae): mtDNA vs cpDNA
The drifting biomass of golden tide in the Yellow Sea of China mainly consisted of Sargassum horneri with a small fraction composed of Sargassum confusum thalli. In this study, the circular-mapping organelle genomes (mtDNA and cpDNA) of S. confusum were sequenced and coupled with comparative genomic and phylogenomic analyses within the Sargassum genus. This revealed 34,721-bp mitochondrial and 124,375-bp chloroplast genomes of S. confusum harboring 65 and 173 genes, respectively, figures which are highly comparable to those reported in other Sargassum species. The mtDNA of S. confusum displayed lower values in A+T and intergenic spacer contents than cpDNA. Mitochondrial phylogenomics revealed a close relationship between Sargassum muticum and S. confusum. The Sargassum mtDNAs had an approximately three-fold greater mutation rate than cpDNAs indicating a higher evolution rate in mtDNAs than cpDNAs for Sargassum species. Therefore, mtDNA is a more effective molecular marker and could aid in tracking the source of the golden tides.
KeywordsOrganelle genomes Golden tide Phaeophyceae Evolution Sargassum Phylogenomics
The authors wish to thank Wei Luan and Zhe Jin for their assistance in algal collection and data analysis.
- Bi YH, Zhou ZG (2016) Complete mitochondrial genome of the brown alga Sargassum vachellianum (Sargassaceae, Phaeophyceae). Mitochondrial DNA A 27:2796–2797Google Scholar
- Boo GH, Lindstrom SC, Klochkova NG, Yotsukura N, Yang EC, Kim HG, Waaland JR, Cho GY, Miller KA, Boo SM (2011) Taxonomy and biogeography of the genus Agarum (Laminariales, Phaeophyceae) based on nuclear, mitochondrial, and plastid gene sequences. Taxon 60:831–840Google Scholar
- China Xinhua News (2017) http://www.js.xinhuanet.com/2017-01/11/c_1120284277.htm
- Duncan RS (2013) Southern wonder: Alabama’s surprising biodiversity. The University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa, p 459Google Scholar
- Hall TA (1999) BioEdit: a user-friendly biological sequence alignment editor and analysis program for Windows 95/98/NT. Nucl Acid Symp Ser 41:95–98Google Scholar
- Laffoley D’A, Roe HSJ, Angel MV, Ardron J, Bates NR, Boyd LLL, Brooke S, Buck KN, Carlson CA, Causey B, Conte MH, Christiansen S, Cleary J, Donnelly J, Earle SA, Edwards R, Gjerde KM, Giovannoni SJ, Gulick S, Gollock M, Hallett J, Halpin P, Hanel R, Hemphill A, Johnson RJ, Knap AH, Lomas MW, McKenna SA, Miller MJ, Miller PI, Ming FW, Moffitt R, Nelson NB, Parson L, Peters AJ, Pitt J, Rouja P, Roberts J, Roberts J, Seigel DA, Siuda ANS, Steinberg DK, Stevenson A, Sumaila VR, Swartz W, Thorrold S, Trott TM, Vats V (2011) The protection and management of the Sargasso Sea: the golden floating rainforest of the Atlantic Ocean: summary science and supporting evidence case. Sargasso Sea Alliance, St. George’sGoogle Scholar
- Le Corguillé G, Pearson G, Valente M, Viegas C, Gschloessl B, Corre E, Bailly X, Peters AF, Jubin C, Vaccherie B, Cock JM, Leblanc C (2009) Plastid genomes of two brown algae, Ectocarpus siliculosus and Fucus vesiculosus: further insights on the evolution of red-algal derived plastids. BMC Evol Biol 9:253CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Liu F, Pang SJ (2016c) Mitochondrial genome of Sargassum thunbergii: conservation and variability of mitogenomes within the subgenus Bactrophycus. Mitochondrial DNA A 27:3186–3188Google Scholar
- Liu F, Liu XF, Wang Y, Jin Z, Moejes FW, Sun S (2018) Insights on the Sargassum horneri golden tides in the Yellow Sea inferred from morphological and molecular data. Limnol Oceanogr. https://doi.org/10.1002/lno.10806
- Milledge JJ, Harvey PJ (2017) Golden tides: problem or golden opportunity? The valorization of Sargassum from beach inundations. J Mar Sci Eng 4:2–19Google Scholar
- Tseng CK (2009) Seaweeds in Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea of China. Science Press, Beijing, pp 363–372 (in Chinese)Google Scholar