In Japan, fresh cultivated green alga, Caulerpa lentillifera (Caulerpaceae, Bryopsidales), are packed into polystyrene containers without seawater. They can stay fresh for 1 week inside the container under room temperature, suggesting a high tolerance to desiccation. This tolerance was evaluated in the present study by employing methods based on pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) fluorometry. The chronological change of the photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (PSII) of C. lentillifera in response to desiccation under conditions experienced during the commercial shipping was examined. Desiccation experiments were carried out for 2, 4, 8, and 12 days at 20 °C. Maximum quantum yields (Fv/Fm) were measured at the initial state, after each desiccation period, and after 10-min and 3, 6, and 24-h re-immersion in seawater. Fv/Fm of samples after a 2-day desiccation remained relatively high (0.78 ± 0.04 standard deviation (SD)), while those after 4- and 8-day desiccation periods decreased and yet were considered active with values greater than 0.40 following rehydration. Samples under the 12-day desiccation had the greatest decline in Fv/Fm, (0.10 ± 0.10), along with 72% critical water loss. Failure of the seaweed to recover from desiccation stress further indicates deactivation of the photosystem, which is perhaps associated with multiple cellular alterations that result at the end in a dysfunctional alga. The packaging system that makes use of polystyrene containers for thermal insulation and an absorbent sheet for moisture control may have provided an optimal environment for the seaweed to extend its “freshness” up to 1 week by maintaining photochemical efficiency.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Bell EC (1993) Photosynthetic response to temperature and desiccation of the intertidal alga Mastocarpus papillatus. Mar Biol 117:337–346
Contreras-Porcia L, Thomas D, Flores V, Correa JA (2011) Tolerance to oxidative stress induced by desiccation in Porphyra columbina (Bangiales, Rhodophyta). J Exp Bot 62:1815–1829
Flores-Molina MR, Thomas D, Lovazzano C, Núñez A, Zapata J, Kumar M, Correa JA, Contreras-Porcia L (2014) Desiccation stress in intertidal seaweeds: effects on morphology, antioxidant responses and photosynthetic performance. Aquat Bot 113:90–99
Gao S, Shen S, Wang G, Niu J, Lin A, Pan G (2011) PSI-driven cyclic electron flow allows intertidal macro-algae Ulva sp. (Chlorophyta) to survive in desiccated conditions. Plant Cell Physiol 52:885–893
Gao S, Wang G (2012) The enhancement of cyclic electron flow around photosystem I improves the recovery of severely desiccated Porphyra yezoensis (Bangiales, Rhodophyta). J Exp Bot 63:4349–4358
Gao S, Niu J, Chen W, Wang G, Xie X, Pan G, Gu W, Zhu D (2013) The physiological links of the increased photosystem II activity in moderately desiccated Porphyra haitanensis (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) to the cyclic electron flow during desiccation and re-hydration. Photosynth Res 116:45–54
Guo H, Yao J, Sun Z (2015a) Effects of salinity and nutrients on the growth and chlorophyll fluorescence of Caulerpa lentillifera. Chin J Oceanol Limnol 33:410–418
Guo H, Yao J, Sun Z (2015b) Effect of temperature, irradiance on the growth of the green alga Caulerpa lentillifera (Bryopsidophyceae, Chlorophyta). J Appl Phycol 27:879–885
Gylle AM, Nygard CA, Ekelund NGA (2009) Desiccation and salinity effects on marine and brackish Fucus vesiculosus L. (Phaeophyceae). Phycologia 48:156–164
Holzinger A, Karsten U (2013) Desiccation stress and tolerance in green algae: consequences for ultrastructure, physiological, and molecular mechanisms. Front Plant Sci 4:327
Hurd CL, Harrison PJ, Bischof K, Lobban CS (2014) Seaweed ecology and physiology, 2nd edn. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
Kim KY, Garbary DJ (2007) Photosynthesis in Codium fragile (Chlorophyta) from a Nova Scotia estuary: responses to desiccation and hyposalinity. Mar Biol 151:99–107
Kurashima A, Serisawa Y, Kanbayashi T, Toma T, Yokohama Y (2003) Characteristics in photosynthesis of Caulerpa lentillifera J. Agardh and C. racemosa (Forsskål) J. Agardh var. laete-virens (Montagne) Weber-van Bosse with reference to temperature and light intensity. Jpn J Phycol 51:167–172 (in Japanese with English abstract)
Migita S (1966) Freeze-preservation of Porphyra thalli in viable state-II. Effect of cooling velocity and water content of thalli on the frost-resistance. Bull Fac Fish Nagasaki Univ 21:131–138 (in Japanese)
Ohno M, Largo DB (1998) The seaweed resources of Japan. In: Critchley AT, Ohno M (eds) Seaweed resources of the world. Japan International Cooperation Agency, Yokosuka, pp 1–14
Pearson G, Kautsky L, Serrão E (2000) Recent evolution in Baltic Fucus vesiculosus: reduced tolerance to emersion stresses compared to intertidal (North Sea) populations. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 202:67–79
Pereira L (2016) Edible seaweeds of the world. CRC Press, Boca Raton 463 pp
Schaffelke B, Deane D (2005) Desiccation tolerance of the introduced marine green alga Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides—clues for likely transport vectors? Biol Invasions 7:557–565
Schreiber U, Bilger W (1993) Progress in chlorophyll fluorescence research: major developments during the past years in retrospect. Progr Bot 54:151–173
Seremet (C)L, Botez E, Nistor OV, Andronoiu DG, Mocanu GD (2016) Effect of different drying methods on moisture ratio and rehydration of pumpkin slices. Food Chem 195:104–109
Shiroma H (2012) Caulerpa lentillifera. In: Watanabe MM et al (eds) Handbook of algae. Their diversity and utilization. NTS, Tokyo, pp 568–571 (in Japanese)
Silva PC, Basson PW, Moe RL (1996) Catalogue of the benthic marine algae of the Indian Ocean. University of California Publications in Botany 79. University of California Press, Ewing
Takahashi S, Murata N (2008) How do environmental stresses accelerate photoinhibition? Trends Plant Sci 13:178–182
Terada R, Uchimura M, Tanaka T (2012) Morphology and distribution of Caulerpa lentillifera J. Agardh (Chlorophyceae) in Japanese waters, including the first record from southern Kyushu and northern Ryukyu Islands. J Jpn Bot 7:260–267 (in Japanese with English abstract)
Titlyanov EA, Titlyanova TV (2012) Marine plants of the Asian Pacific region countries, their use and cultivation. Dalnauka and A.V. Zhirmunsky Institute of Marine Biology, Far East Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Vladivostok, 376 pp.
Toma T (1991) Caulerpa lentillifera. In: Miura A (ed) Cultivation of edible algae. Koseisha-Koseikaku, Tokyo, pp 69–80 (in Japanese)
Toma T (2012) Seaweed and seagrass in Okinawa. Mugen, Naha
Watanabe Y, Yamada H, Mine Y, Kawamura Y, Nishihara GN, Terada R (2017) Chronological change and the potential of recovery on the photosynthetic efficiency of Pyropia yezoensis f. narawaensis (Bangiales) during the sporelings frozen storage treatment in the Japanese Nori cultivation. Phycol Res 65:265–271
Wang W, Wang F, Zhu J, Sun X, Yao C, Xu P (2011) Freezing tolerance of Porphyra yezoensis (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) gametophyte assessed by chlorophyll fluorescence. J Appl Phycol 23:1017–1022
Yoshida T (1998) Marine algae of Japan. Uchida Rokakuho Publishing Co., Ltd., Tokyo
We thank Mr. Naoyuki Iriki (Iriki Fisheries, Amami City, Kagoshima) for his kind arrangements and preparation of samples for the present study. All authors have provided consent.
This research was supported in part by the Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (#26241027 and #16H02939) from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) and the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sport and Technology (MEXT).
About this article
Cite this article
Terada, R., Nakazaki, Y., Borlongan, I.A. et al. Desiccation effect on the PSII photochemical efficiency of cultivated Japanese Caulerpa lentillifera under the shipping package environment. J Appl Phycol 30, 2533–2538 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10811-018-1442-1
- Desiccation tolerance
- Photochemical efficiency
- Pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) fluorometry